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  1. True, I apologize. Petrinja is in the Banija region, however, he was born there or at least the original record says that. I would say his birthplace it´s not so much of importance as he could be born wherever as his father as kuk officer could be stationed basically anywhere. General himself during his long active career was serving at many places as in Bosnia and Herzegovina during Uprising then in Esztergom (Hungary), Prague and ended up in Vienna. After the fall of Austria-Hungary he obviously signed in to Austrian citizenship.
  2. Well, it´s very much true what was stated by Sajkaca about Serbian noble family of Vojnovich/Woinowitch however, it doesn’t seem likely that Emil Woinowitsch von Belobreska has anything to do with this noble house. House of Woinowitch could be tracked back to late 16 century and was active in 18th and 19th century with members of the family living up to mid-20th century. There is no record of any kuk general named Emil Woinowich or Vojnovich in the Vojnovich pedigree, which is well documented. Nobility titles of the Voinovich family had been recognised in Republic of Venice and by Russian Imperial Court, but it´s doubtful whether Austrian Empire or Austria-Hungary ever recognised the noble status of this family. Emil Woinowich was born in Dalmatia in the town of Petrinja and his father was military engineer. Family originated from small town of Belobreska, nowadays in Rumania on border with Serbia. His family was of common origin. He was raised to the Hungarian nobility just in 1905 as Feldmarschalleutnant with the predicate “belobreskai” (de/von Belobreska) and consequently promoted to the rank of baron in 1916 when he was already full general. There is no evidence of “re-nobilitation” - quite widespread and many time foul practise when wealthy bourgeois families had been trying to prove that they are originating from old, usually lesser nobility but the evidence was “lost in time". General Emil Woinowich didn’t need it because he earned his noble title for long-lasting and very successful military service. However, he obviously used the resemblance of his name with above mentioned Serbian noble house and asked for coat of arms very similar to the one used by original Vojnovich family. The shield is basically the same but the crest is different. It was obviously enough to be accepted by Austrian authorities as Austrian Empire or Austria-Hungary probably ever recognised the noble status of this family in its own territory. I have also found another new nobilitation for certain György (Georg) Woinowich who has got a Hungarian noble title with predicate „vracsevgáji“ (von/de Vracsevgáj) in 1893. His coat of arms was also „heavily inspired“ by Serbian noble house of Vojnovich. He was captain in 39th infantry regiment in Vienna and he hadn’t any connection either to Serbian noble house of Vojnovich or Emil Woinowich von Belobreska. Pls see link on nobilitation info (in Czech) and coat of arms of both officers: woinovich von belobreska ; woinovich de vracsevgaj It should be also said that the name “Vojnovic” and its variants is not unique one and there are many families in Balkan region or even in Russian speaking countries going under this name. It’s similar like in Hungary or Slovakia where you can easily find hundreds of people with names like Pálffy, Andrássy or Koháry but they have anything to do with old Hungarian aristocracy. Anyway congrats to Enzo to beautiful general´s Woinowich von Belobreska group presided by unique (yes, Enzo, in original it´s above “very rare” level ) “Literis et Artibus” medal. Tifes/Tomas
  3. tifes

    Hungarian Order of Saint Stephen

    I think that Christian meant that small decoration which is on ribbon and it`s placed on the large-size pictures from "Oesterreichs Orden und Ehrenzeichen" book. I agree with him. It´s just later copy. Regards, Tifes
  4. tifes

    Austrian military merit cross

    Dear colleges, reason behind introduction of small decorations was really practical one. On the field uniform it was just much more comfortable to have all awards on one medals bar and not to wear one or more breast stars or neck decorations which would complicate everyday life of high-ranked generals in the field. First small decorations were introduced already in 1908 but only for highest grades of all principal orders except MMTO - StSO, LO, EKO and FJO. During the course of the WWI lower grades of these orders had been introduced too, some already in October 1917, some only in t1918. And here it comes...small decorations for MVK II. Class and I. Class (all variants) were introduced only on 24. April 1918. That was at very late stage and vast majority of all small decorations for MVK II. Class, not even talking about MVK I. Class are just post-1918 production. MVK I. Class with KD (with or without swords) was awarded just 78 times (both Emperors - FJI and Karl I included) and approximately half of this number went to foreign dignitaries as courtesy decoration (German, Bulgarian and Ottoman highest ranked officers, princes, pashas). Concerning A-H army we are talking about field marshals and colonel generals only. Full general was to little to get this award as only Grand Cross of MMTO was superior decoration, ranking just one grade above MVK I. Class. It goes without saying that even this small decoration of MVK I. Class in original would be extremely rare and I have never had a chance to see original wartime piece in my life. However I can´t judge from one picture and some close-up image would tell us more. BTW all small decorations of MVK I and II Class sold at late Prof. Fattovich auction in June 2015 were post-1918 productions. Regards, Tom
  5. tifes

    Need help identifying medal.

    Hi Glenn, I would say that this particular medal should be the Medal for saving of the Papal State by Austrian troops 1849 ( Medaille für die Rettung des Kirchenstaates durch österreichische Truppen 1849). If the regiment is correct (Erzherzog Karl Uhlanen Regiment No.3) then the major on the canvas might be probably Ferdinand Graf von (Count of) Vetter von der Lilie, later Feldmarschalleutnant (2 stars general but in k.u.k. Army just one rank below full General). Regards, Tom
  6. Hi Tony, what´s the question? Sorry , I didn't get it. It´s Military Merit Cross III. Class with War Decoration and Swords, so-called 3th issue (circa 1866-1918). This one originates from WWI. It´s extremely hard to recognize hallmarks or maker´s mark from these pics (for me it´s impossible) but obviously it´s silver ("head of Diana" ??? on the suspension, left side) and on the right side I would say it´s also manufacturer´s mark but I can´t see it. However, it doesn't matter...just MVK 3. Klasse mit KD und Schwertern...very nice and good preserved one but also very common decoration indeed. Regards, Tomas (tifes)
  7. tifes

    Leopold orden badge for officers

    Every Order of Imperial Austria/Austria-Hungary (with the exception of FJO) had a Order Chapter (Ordenskapitel), which served as a chancellery of the Order. They had been responsible for correspondence with awardees, distribution of the orders and their reception (after dead of the awardee) to the Order´s treasury as well as for an organization of everyday life of the Order. In the 1st half of 19 cent. knights/commanders/grand crosses´ holders of the Order had been also summoned by Order Chapter for church ceremonies on the day of the particular Saint of the Order. They also wore special robes (classes had been distinguished - knight/most simple, holders of the grand crosses/most complicated). In course of time and with growing numbers of knights of all classes these ceremonies ceased to exist or better said they were not organized anymore. Every Order Chapter had their own officials - Chancellor, Chaplain Grand Vicar, Chaplain Vicar, Treasurer, Herold and Registrar. Those had been official (not officers) of the Order Chapter and these distinguished people had been entitled to wear special badge of "their Order" indicating their office by ceremonial occasions. This should be 2. Model - period 1862-1918 (1. Model 1808 -1862 had a shape of medal - not preserved in any known and genuine piece , at least what I know) and of course is very scarce and valuable item for collectors. However...an originality of this very badge could be also challenged... Regards, tifes
  8. Well James, I doubt that anybody can say exactly who is "the manufacturer" but it´s modern low quality copy, basically (sorry for this)...worthless. Tomas
  9. tifes

    Austrian obtain Chinese Empire order

    +1 to Christian1962 - moreover there ares "swords" on Leopold Order - knight cross with war decoration and Iron Crown Order III. Class with war decoration. "Swords" had been instituted just in December 1916 so photo was taken afterwards. Pretty much 1917-1918. Second picture - photo originates also from WWI period (1914-1918) as Officer´s Cross of Red Cross was instituted only in 1914 . There is also Iron Crown Order III. Class with war decoration, which looks definitely like WWI period´s one. Regards, Tomas
  10. Hi, It should be "Jubiläums - Hofmedaille" - Jubilee Imperial Court Medal. It existed in version for military and civil service. This should be military one and it had three grades - bronze, silver and gold. However I am sorry to say that this medal looks very much like cast therefore it´s just copy. Regards, tifes
  11. tifes

    Unknown case/etui

    I dare to oppose it. Texture of the case is different and the color is also not corresponding to the box for "Kriegskreuz für Zivilverdienste I Klasse". Please also mind the white textile connection between upper (lid) part and lower (lining) part of the box. It should be wider, more to the edges of the box. Look at that 2nd class box. Inner part also indicates that there was something with ellipsoid shape. It might originate from later period. I would say that it looks like German-style box from 30s or WWII period however it´s just my opinion.
  12. tifes

    Franz Joseph Order Grand Cross ?

    Hi Lars, as I know there are 3 different FJO mini-chains and hence knight, commander/commander with star and grand cross. There isn't (at least I am not ware of it) any difference between commander and commander with star mini-chains, just there is a mini of breast star like you have displayed on the image to indicate commander with star. Regards, Tomas P.S. sorry for hijacking the question for E.L., I hope that I was correct
  13. tifes

    Franz Joseph Order Grand Cross ?

    Dear Christian, I think, and pls correct me if I am wrong, that hallmarking law introducing three hallmarks for gold (head of Apollo, head of Chamois, head of Fox) came into force as of 1. January 1867. There was a slight change in the appearance of these hallmarks (and also other ones for silver and imported goods) to the 1. April 1872. Therefore I was asking whether head of Chamois hallmark is having also letter "A" present inside the hallmark sign (after 1872) or it´s just without it, only with simple number "3" inside (1867-1872). Badge with this older hallmark would be, with quite high degree of probability (but not 100% certain, of course) the product of Gebrueder Resch company. Later struck with after-1872 hallmark would be very probably Vincenz Mayer´s und Soehne struck. Maybe I wasn't accurate enough. I am sorry for this. Regards, Tomas
  14. tifes

    Franz Joseph Order Grand Cross ?

    Hi, About 90% of all FJO decorations originates from these two producers when majority (period of 1872-1918) comes from VM. Concerning badges of grand cross/commander cross I have also seen Rothe but this is much rarer and it looks different. Of course, there are also some other manufacturers but mostly by other grades like knight crosses (very early version – Kittner, then Boehm, Bachruch) and officer’s crosses (also Rothe, Bachruch, Fischmeister). I have no idea what that number might be. It´s not very likely that it´s some official “serial number”. Maybe some manufacturer´s mark for its own and for me unknown purpose or collector’s mark? FJO was lowest of all Imperial orders and it was never connected to ennoblement therefore it was seen, even by better situated bourgeois social class as something not so very prestige, especially the lowest, knight class. Emperor himself never wore it and there wasn’t any collane/ grand chain like by other orders (all others had grand chain though). Regards,
  15. tifes

    Franz Joseph Order Grand Cross ?

    Hi Alpha Draconis, It´s simple. There are 5 classes of FJO – knight, officer (since 1901), commander, commander with star and grand cross. Badge for grand cross and commander/ commander with star is the same and has the size of 70mm/38mm. The difference is how it was worn. In case of grand cross it was on sash and commanders were worn on neck ribbon. Grand cross is also having breast star which is larger than breast star of commander with star. “Simple” commander had only that badge worn round the neck. It´s gold and then it should be 18k and if it´s “head of Chamois” hallmark then number 3 should be present there. Head of Chamois shouldn’t have any other number. However I am not able to distinguish what I see on the pictures. I am sorry. There had been two major manufacturers. Gebrueder Resch, active in years 1864-1876 (“GR” as maker´s mark) which is early struck or then Vinzenz Mayer´s Soehne - 1872 till the very end – 1918 (usually “VM” as maker´s mark) …all-time classics for FJO. There were also some other producers but these are rarer (it´s not Rothe for sure). Try to find something on the suspension ring but according my humble opinion it´s VM production. If there is nothing then look once again at the hallmark. According the hallmark it might be distinguished whether the badge is made before 1872 or after this date (hint: before 1872 - “3”+ head of chamois; after 1872 - “3” + head of chamois + “A”). One more thing and hence ellipse suspension loop is missing and it was replaced by another smaller suspension ring, which might indicate that the badge was sewn into sash so it was probably grand cross indeed. Regards, TS