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Brian Wolfe

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About Brian Wolfe

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    Senior Moderator

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  • Gender
  • Location
    Ontario, Canada
  • Interests
    Medals: British and India (post 1947), Special Constabulary and a few others.
    General: Staffordshire and British Police memorabilia
    Plus odds and ends that capture my interest from time to time.

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  1. Hi Mark, I must have been experiencing a senior's moment when I wrote "William" as when I review the photos now it looks clearly like a "G" for George.Looks like I was not the only one to have missed that, except for you,. well done. I have written several articles for publications in Australia and New Zealand and some have been on early British police. Suddenly people started to call me the "British Police Guy" which I am not. Perhaps I should forward this post to those I correspond with as proof that I am not an expert on matters police. British or otherwise. 🙄 I will say this with some degree of confidence regarding the "faking" of such items. Most copies seem to come from India and Pakistan, this is with items other than truncheons but could include them as well. The nature of those who produce copies, replicas or fakes is one of financial gain, call it greed if you will. This is not a racist remark, only a fact of business. They produce a multitude of any one item, be it swords, daggers, medals etc. this is because of profit. There is little to no profit in reproducing a truncheon, they are just not that popular on the collecting market. Since we don't seem to see a lot of these, and if we did they would be in the form of the type of truncheon we normally see and not the shape of the one you have, this is not likely to be a target for the faker. Another factor in determining an authentic specimen of any collectable is in the finish. In the case of swords, the fit of the parts and the quality. Since I have retired I have become a professional wood turner, turning (no pun intended) a long time hobby into a paying proposition. I could copy any truncheon on the lathe, which is not great feat. However when it comes to the paint this is in the realm of an art restorer to copy the age and deterioration over time. Once you know your topic it comes down to a gut feeling about collectables. This is covered in the book, Blink by Malcolm Gladwell. Perhaps this would be a good topic for another blog in the future here on the GMIC, which no one reads. Makes one wonder why I bother...sucker for punishment I suppose.🙁 I hope this truncheon is the start of a fine collection. Regards Brian
  2. Hi Mark, I would say that you have a 100% original piece. The truncheon is in excellent condition yet the paint is showing its age, which is exactly would one would expect. I have a feeling this was used more like a tipstaff in the sense that it showed the officer's authority rather than something that was used to get a criminals "attention". Possibly a rural constable. I would put this one in my collection in the blink of an eye, had I the opportunity. Well done on an excellent William IV specimen. Regards Brian
  3. Brian Wolfe

    Tin can's and boxe's

    More great finds, thanks for sharing them; you have made me rethink and consider this area of collection Regards Brian
  4. Brian Wolfe

    Space : The Final Frontier

    Space: The Final Frontier or the Confessions of a Addict It starts out quite harmlessly, perhaps at the insistence of a friend, peer pressure as it has become to be known. It seemed harmless enough; after all it was just a “one off”, and not something you were intending to become a habit. Not like those others, all consumed by the drive for more. You know them, with their excuses of being able to stop at anytime, no one is getting hurt and staying well within their financial parameters. After a while you started to look for more sources, buying wherever and whenever you could, tying the purchases to every aspect of your life. Vacations, business trips and days off all centering around getting more until you start using money you have yet to earned, getting out the plastic, the card, the old swipe and carry; “they” make it seem so easy. Then comes month’s end and payment must be made, made for product that you have already acquired and it seems pointless to have to pay for something you already have. Pay the minimum and you’re good for another month of obsession. Yes, it starts out as one item, a single item, a curiosity some would call it, then another similar or related object makes itself available and you have two; it’s only two, a pair nothing more. Besides they look good displayed on the mantle or bookshelf, what harm could that do? Then, much without you even realizing why, a third appears and you have three, you now have a collection my friend; a small collection to be sure but a collection all the same. No big deal it’s not that it takes up a lot of space; after all you can keep or display the trio anywhere. This is where a normal, rational human being would hear warning bells, a red flag would be raised or some sort of alarm would sound. You are not quite at the “tipping point” that point where you are still part of the majority of humans, functioning like everyone else. Without warning of any kind a fourth item presents itself and you think, “Who wants to be just like everyone else”? You’ve now crossed that line, the Rubicon of no return; you are a collector my son, one of the lost, the hopeless; the obsessed. At first being obsessed is not a real problem for you or even your spouse, there is lots of room to accommodate your collection or in my case collections. It all fits well in a corner of the basement or your office/den and it keeps you occupied and it is all pretty harmless, or so it seems. As the collection grows ever larger, much like an infestation, hardly noticed for a long time, you find the little area that you have been allowed to use to amass your “stuff” is getting too confined. You and your collections are starting to feel choked, smothered almost trapped, the need for space, more space, is becoming a driving force in your life. Just when you and your collection are starting to suffer claustrophobic anxiety one of the kids is going to University. An empty space is now available and there is no need for an additional guest room and you certainly are not going to entertain the child’s moving back home. What to do. You and your spouse have joked about how to make the room unavailable in case the graduate decides to take up residence with you again until “they find themselves”; a common excuse to free-load off Mom and Dad. The idea of filling the room to the top with concrete has been kicked around in jest, but you, you have a much better idea... Ah, your own room, the collection room, your sanctum sanctorum a place for you and the collection. Not you and “your” collection but you and “the” collection as it has now taken on a life of its own, ever growing, ever consuming resources and that most vital of all necessities, space. Life, my friend is indeed a cycle, an ever revolving wheel of searching, acquiring followed by more searching for material to feed the collection. Just as it seems as if the very walls of the collection room are about to burst the second child announces plans of “leaving the nest”. All praise the collecting Gods, you now have a second room ready to accept the overflow that has accumulated; and so the cycle starts anew. Oh happy days, the elation of space to fill, of territory conquered; no more stacking specimens in corners placing them in boxes for future display. You think you are once again the master of space; oh you poor, poor deluded man. It never fails that history repeats itself and room two, the room you now call the “Sword Room” has started to constrict you. “The Collection Room” is now the “Main Collection Room” as you feel the need for definition and while there is more in the new “Sword Room” than swords and because you have submitted to the reality that these collections have become living entities you know the rooms deserve names of their own. “Surely this cannot go on”, is not a thought that crosses your mind, not openly that is; still there is that nagging feeling that space is once again at a premium. Strange how as each child has announced her decision to move out, to school, to get married or to find their own place they have become your favourite child. As life would have it, the third daughter is moving and at this point no one doubted the destiny of the newly emptied space. A new problem, however, presents itself in the form of a need for a permanent photographic area and a “shipping department’ for two businesses that have taken off and are thriving. So while the third room is there it is not open to the collections in the same context as in the past and while the photo area supports the hobby it is not intended for its residency. What to do? After just over fifty years of collecting, the last twenty with your present wife, you have the whole downstairs (basement level) to yourself; with the exception of a guest room which has been declared “off limits” to the collection and any part thereof by the true ruler of your house. Three rooms dedicated more of less to your collections, a three piece washroom and the family room which the whole family calls “the museum lounge”; which it pretty much is. All of this and yet there is that need, the need to feed the obsession; the need for space.. The only answer seems to be a reduction of all that is excess and not required to keep the collections alive and thriving. A call to two dealer friends and an antiques “picker” is made and suddenly the Collections are leaner and perhaps improved somewhat. Gone are three car loads of mineral and fossil specimens, two dozen surplus Bobby’s helmets, and a collection of cameras, firefighting equipment and military radios. So many collectables gone but in their place is a tidy quantity of cash. This scenario may sound quite desirable however it is much like a drug addict getting clean and as a reward he is handed the keys to a pharmacy. Still there is the matter of all of those items you worked so hard to accumulate being gone, gone forever, as you realize that you won’t live long enough to ever collect them or like objects back again. You look around the empty room, a vacant place such as you have always been striving for and now have gained. In shock at what you have done, you take a deep breath and before you utter a sound you realize the horror that... ...in space no one can hear you scream. Happy obsessing collecting. Regards Brian
  5. Brian Wolfe

    Finnish Winter War collection

    Hi Graham, An excellent collection, thanks for sharing it with the membership. Regards Brian
  6. Brian Wolfe

    Let's Talk British Swords

    British Foot Artillery Private’s Sword c. 1820 The Foot Artillery Private’s Sword c.1820, is sometimes referred to as the “Spanish Sword or Hanger” named for its use during the Peninsular War of 1807-1814. This British sword measures around 29 inches over all, with a 24½ inch blade without a fuller and has a D shaped hand guard. One of the issues I have with this particular sword is the time period designation of circa 1820 when it has been documented to have been in use throughout the Peninsular War of 1807 to 1814. Further, if that is the case then it is not a stretch of the imagination to see this sword in use at the time of the Battle of Waterloo (1815). A better circa date, in my opinion, would be c.1812 especially considering the war of 1812 was raging in Canada between Britain and the United States, therefore a significant date upon which to base a circa date. I believe this circa date was first set by Brian Robson, Swords of the British Army, as he was unable to locate any “Pattern” documents and was going by the mention of this sword in an official report titled, Select Committee on Artillery Equipment in 1855. This report states that the Spanish pattern hanger was worn in 1820 and continued to be worn by all gunners and drivers attached to field guns until 1826. All of this considered it would appear that this sword was in use from 1807 to 1826. It is interest that at this time (Peninsular War) that the horse artillery was issued with the large curved sabre of the Light Cavalry. This would seem a very un-gamely weapon at 33 inches to have been worn around the artillery pieces. Paintings of the battles of that era clearly show the Pattern 1796 Light Cavalry Troopers Sabre in use around the guns. Other paintings, also of that period, show the Foot Artillery sword being worn by gunners (see image below). A lot has been said by so-called experts about the Foot Artillery sword being a poor weapon and of little use for defence by the gun crews if they were over-run by the enemy. One of the reasons that I do not like to write about weapons I don’t have in the collection is that accepting the opinion of others who, in most cases, never handled the swords, let alone in battle, may be perpetuating a falsehood. This is one case where I must agree with those experts. When compared with the Pattern 1796 Cavalry Troopers Sabre, in use by the Horse Artillery of the same time period, the Foot Artillery Sword is far too blade-heavy. Both swords are of about the same weight but the weight distribution for the Foot Artillery sword makes it feel much heavier than that of the 1796 Cavalry Sabre. What does this mean when it comes to the gun crews defending themselves? The weight distribution in the 1796 Cavalry Sabre allows the user to parry an enemy’s sword then recover and deal his own cut or thrust. The Foot Artillery sword being blade-heavy would defend, or parry, as well as the 1796, however recovery of the weapon in order to deliver a counter blow would be very difficult, if not impossible. This scenario is involving being overrun by cavalry as the enemy is moving quickly through the line of guns. In the case of enemy infantry the parry of a bayonet would be followed up with a blow from the musket’s stock or butt plate. Being unable to counter strike with the sword is a definite detriment for the gunner. It seems strange that any sword should be considered as ineffective, however, it should be remembered that ever since the advent of dependable firearms the sword has not been the principle weapon of war. This is a good topic by itself and one that we may look at in detail in a future article. The artilleryman’s principle weapon, in this case, is his cannon and the sword, if he has one, for self defence as a last resort. Regards Brian Below is a picture the Foot Artillery Private’s Sword and one of the 1796 Cavalry Trooper’s Sabre. The artillery men from the painting Royal Artillery Dislodging French Cavalry by Denis Dighton (1792 – 1827) shows the gunner in the centre of the photo wearing the Foot Artillery Private’s Sword in the middle of his back, well out of the way of operating the artillery piece. The French Cavalry are in the background just below the hills.
  7. Brian Wolfe

    Ancient Halberd

    Well done on finding out the information you needed on your own. Regards Brian
  8. Brian Wolfe

    On Writing With Clarity

    That was a good one, Michael. Regards Brian
  9. ...and another thing. Where is my memory today? If you read the first part of this tutorial you will recall that I suggested that before you drill the hole it might be a good idea to insert a thin piece of wood where the menu would normally be before you drill to prevent splitting or cracking of the Plexiglas. I did this to prove it would work and it did. This may be hard for those without a shop full of thin scrap but you can sand the piece (after cutting it as thin as possible) on a belt sander. I had to do this as my planner will not plane that thin. I think I have recalled everything now. Regards Brian
  10. Today I decided to finish this project with the modifying the second menu holder to support the scabbard. The only difference in procedure from the first part of this tutorial is in the size of the hole you will need to drill and therefore the resultant slot. I drilled a ¾ inch hole as that accommodates all of the swords I might want to photograph. With the exception of my oldest (c.1650) Japanese sword scabbards, they could use a hole of 1 inch in diameter. For this post we are dealing with British and probably most European weapons. I have included a photo of the sword in its scabbard to show how this looks if you decide to just use the stand to display a sword in its scabbard. The sword alone is sitting on a 4 inch deep box under the red fabric to elevate it above the scabbard and that seems to be about right for any posting I (or you) might want to make. The sword displayed is one of my prized specimens and is a Pattern 1822 Canadian Artillery Officer’s sword. I didn’t show the engraving on the blade which is very nice because we are only talking about the photographing or displaying of the whole sword; any sword would have done, I just wanted to “play” with this one today. I hope you, or your woodworking friend, will try this project as I think it really works well. Regards Brian Oops, I hate it when I resize a photo twice! I'll try again with the sword above the scabbard, to save your eyes. Regards Brian
  11. Brian Wolfe

    On Writing With Clarity

    Thank you for your kind comments Patrick and welcome back to the forum. Regards Brian
  12. Morally? Not really a question of morals in my opinion, more a question of do you see preserving the whole family history or just that time period he served as important? I have boxes and boxes of material from one family that has photos from the late 1800's until around the 1960's most of which is not military related, some WWI and WWII but not the majority. I felt and still feel that I am obligated by the unwritten rule for historians, amateur or professional, to keep the material together. After all I am now the keeper of this family's history. Back to my original point, a man should not be defined by his military service alone so all of your album, in a way, is the history of that soldier. I've known you for a long time now, Chris, and I see you as more than just your time served and your collecting hobby; I see you as a devoted family man as well. Bottom line is that it is your decision and yours alone, but I thought I would add my humble opinion. Regards Brian
  13. Do it yourself Plexiglas edged weapon display stand. First: Do not try this at home, I am a professional. Seriously, if you are nervous around very sharp blades spinning at extremely high speed with no guards it would be better to ask a woodworking friend to help with this project. I’ve worked around woodworking machines most of my life and something new such as this project always makes me extra cautious. Second: If you are going to do this yourself best to do so when your doctor’s office is open (bad joke but truer than you might think). I do quite a bit of photography of swords for different articles both here on GMIC and for other publications and have wanted a good stand that didn’t appear so obvious, such as ones made of wood, for quite a while now. My so-called photo studio is purely amateur but with a little patience I manage some fairly good images. A friend of mine suggested stands made from Plexiglas but this involved experimenting with bending the material and just a little too much heat and the project is ruined. While at the local stationary store I found pre-made stands that are used for things such as restaurant menus on their tables and thought that perhaps with some modification these might serve my purposes. Obviously they did and therefore I wanted to share this with you. You, or your woodworker friend, will need a table saw with a carbide blade and a drill press with a ¼ inch Forstner bit. I use an industrial carbide rip blade for everything except when I need a narrower cut, almost all woodworkers will be using carbide tipped blades and usually the narrower cross cut blade (which would be better). The Fostner bit is essential as other bits will most likely crack the Plexiglas when drilling the hole. Just Google Forstner bit to see what they look like if you don’t already know. Warning: Do not attempt this project with a circular saw, e.g. “Skill Saw” or a hand drill! The menu holders are 5 inches wide so you will need to cut one down the middle to produce two equal (more or less – not that important) halves. Set the fence on the table saw at 2½ inches (measure from the fence to the middle of the saw blade). First you will need to cut the base of the stand. Do this by keeping the stand’s edge against the saw’s fence and the blade just high enough to cut through the stand’s base. Don’t worry about the rest of the stand, (that should be in a vertical position at this time), this we will cut later. Now run the base through the saw using a piece of wood – NOT YOUR FINGERS- to push the stand base. Use a long enough piece of wood so that you can cut all the way through the stand. Don’t try to stop just at the moment the Plexiglas is cut in two otherwise the piece between the blade and the fence will bind and shatter. Next you will need to cut the main section which is double thickness in order to hold a menu. Use a piece of 2 x 4 under the stand so that the base is supported off the saw table. Make sure you have a long piece of 2 X 4 as you want to keep those fingers where they belong, on your hand not on the floor. This may sound like obvious advice but even though I have a lot of experience in the shop I could, if you were here, show you a couple of blood trails on the floor from minor mishaps. Remember that thing about working in the shop when the doctor’s office is open? I’ve been there so often that they are considering a frequent customer discount! Feed the stand through the saw base first (remember you have already cut the base) this will allow the stand’s base to keep the stand from being pushed back toward you as you cut. Once you have made this last cut well past the Plexiglas stand you are ready to drill the hole. Don’t throw away that 2 X 4 as you are going to need it later. Mark out where you want the hole which will be at the bottom of the slot you will be cutting later using that 2 X 4 again. I measured ¾ inch down from the top as that is sufficient for any sword I might want to display. I got a little cracking around the hole even with using the Forstner bit but it doesn’t show when you are displaying the sword. I think this cracking occurred because there is a space between the two halves of the stand. If I were making a lot of these I would probably plane a piece of wood down that would fit between the two Plexiglas halves so as to support them, thereby eliminating any cracking. Now you have the holes drilled go back to the saw, use a shorter 2 X 4 this time as support and while keeping the 2 X 4 against the saw fence “eyeball” the cut you are making so that the cut ends in such a way to leave a slot the width of the hole. The base should be toward you this time as you are cutting in from the top rather than from the base end. You’ll have to make two cuts to get the slot wide enough. Now you are finished except there will be some rough edges where the cuts were made but this can be easily removed with a pocket knife. I didn’t sand and polished the cut edge as I used them with the factory edge facing the camera, or if you were going to use this to display a weapon the camera would be the viewer’s eyes. I will be making another stand for the scabbards and photograph the two together with the sword elevated above the scabbard. If you intend to display a sword in the scabbard then simply measure the scabbard and make the slots fit that dimension, usually around ¾ of an inch. For heavy items such as a rifle I would use thicker Plexiglas and heat-bend it so that if forms a long “U” shape, sort of like “] “when standing on its end. The advantage of using two stands on the lighter items for photographing is that you can turn each stand slightly so that the camera “sees” only the edge of the stand. A one piece stand will show more of the support “columns” in a photograph. I have not shown a lot of photos so if there are any questions please feel free to PM me or email me at brian.wolfe@bell.net and I will be happy to assist you. Regards Brian
  14. Brian Wolfe

    Let's Talk British Swords

    Final Analysis: In the final analysis how do the Patterns 1908 and 1912 fare? Many aspects of the cavalry had changed from the day of “cut and slash” swords to the final thrust centric 1908 and 1912. The heavy cavalry no longer existed as it was found that the use of cavalry itself became more akin to scouting, skirmishing or harassing the enemy and mounted infantry roles. With the implementation of trench warfare with its barbed wire entanglements, high rate of fire machine guns, improved accuracy of bolt-action rifles, massed artillery and finally areal strafing and bombing the open spaces needed for cavalry manoeuvring disappeared. However, in the early days of the War (1914) while the war still fluid and after the stalemate of the static tactics of the trenches the cavalry and its Patterns 1908 and 1912 proved quite effective. Most notably for Canadians was the Cavalry charge at Moreuil Wood in 1918 (see sketch below). One of the more notable successes of cavalry employment in the Middle East was the charge at El Mughar against the Turkish troops by the 6th Mounted Brigade on 13 November 1917 (see painting at the beginning of this article). Had the battle fields of the First World War remained opened and tactics fluid one has to wonder if the last British Cavalry swords would have fared so well. With the advancement of rapid fire machine guns and accurate long range bolt action rifles along with properly trained troops in repelling cavalry quite possibly cavalry charges would have quickly become things of the past. Certainly even infantry in line and taught to volley fire at several hundred yards then independent fire at 200 to 150 yards would have devastated any attempt to rout an enemy with cavalry. Even discounting the use of field artillery and rapid firing machine guns this would have spelled doom for mounted troops. Britain’s last sword made its appearance at the end of an era; an era of glorious massed cavalry charges and mighty heroes. The long awaited pinnacle of cavalry swords was to die a quiet and unglorified death overshadowed by ignominious machines of mass destruction to fade into the shadows of history. The above photo is a depiction of a drawing depicting the Canadian Cavalry charge at Moreuil Wood 30 March 1918 Bibliography: The Berkshire Yeomanry Journal. “2017 Centenary Issue.” King, Edward A. “The Horse in Warfare” Kinsley, D. A. “Swordsmen of the British Empire.” McGrath, John & Barton, Mark. British Naval Swords & Swordsmanship. Robson, Brian. “Swords of the British Empire, Revised Edition.” Summers, Jack L., Chartand, Rene. “Military Uniforms in Canada 1665-1970.” Withers, Harvey. “British Military Swords 1786 – 1912 The Regulation Patterns.” Author: Brian Wolfe Ontario, Canada September 2018
  15. Brian Wolfe

    Let's Talk British Swords

    When the M.1913 is used to give point there is nothing except the thumb depression to stop the hand from sliding foreword and smashing into the back of the guard bowl. With any sword when giving point the blade seldom penetrates without resistance. First the point must go through clothing such as uniforms and perhaps a thick overcoat; there is then the matter of bone preventing easy penetration. All swords will flex to some degree when giving point. Experiments carried out for the purposes of this article using a dense foam sheet covered by two layers of terrycloth and affixed to a board gave the following results. With both swords of the same degree of sharpness at the point the British Pattern 1908 gave little flex and penetrated the material easily. The American Model 1913 flexed a great deal and had difficulty entering into the material. This high degree of flex in battle could very well result in bent or broken blades and possibly fail to deliver a fatal blow. As to the M.1913 being used as a slashing weapon it is my opinion that it lacks the blade weight of earlier cavalry specimens such as the British 1821 through to the Pattern 1899. The design of the M.1913 puts most of the weight at the grip making the blade feel quite light. This weight distribution is quite advantageous when considering the Pattern 1908 as it is a thrusting weapon and allows for easy movement and direction of the tip. The M.1913 grip is also too rectangular to be comfortable in sustained battle in the slashing mode. This could very well result in fatigue setting in during a prolonged mêlée. The British Pattern 1908 needs not meet any criteria as a slashing weapon as it is a dedicated thrusting weapon. Given the purpose of each specimen it would clearly appear that the Pattern 1908 Cavalry Sword is the superior weapon. Note the lack of forefinger support on the M. 1913 [foreground] below. Two Perspectives: From what has been written about the Pattern 1908 it would appear that there was a love hate relationship in the minds of those who have used the weapon in combat as well as those who came afterwards. Taking a quote from Brian Robson’s book, “Swords of the British Army”, revised edition, pg. 66, as a generalized opinion of the Pattern 1908 we find the following. “The Pattern 1908 sword was the last entirely new design to be adopted by the British Army and it has been regarded since its appearance as a masterpiece of design. It was without doubt the best sword ever produced for the British cavalry and probably for any cavalry but it is not difficult to understand the shock it created in conservative military circles, with its wicked, rapier-type blade and its pistol-shaped, plastic grip”. A differing point of view is given by Lt. Col. “Fritz” Wormald who fought at the Battle of Omdurman 1898. The quote starts with the battle and ends with the use of the Pattern 1912. “Lieutenant Wormald, of the 7th Hussars, engaged an Emir single handed and nearly came to grief. Delivering a terrific blow at the mail-clad warrior, the Lieutenant’s sword, striking against the chain armour, bent double, as though it were lead. But before the Emir could get his own sword home, Wormald hit him across the head with the bent sword and stunned him; and a Lancer, opportunely coming along, finished the chieftain.” According to another account, “Fritz” Wormald pursued the emir on horseback. “As he passed him, he dropped the point of his sword in the Emir’s back, a kidney thrust that ought to have been fatal. But the sword bent up and remained bent. Fritz then turned around and swiped him on the face, knocking him off his pony, and a lancer gave him the final thrust.” The Wilkinson Sword Company honored their guarantee by presenting Wormald with a new sword after he complained of the old one that “It won’t even go through a black man’s back”, but he evidently never used it. Instead (and ironically), according to Capt. & Adjt. C. E. Bryant, when Lt. Col. Wormald led a charge of the 12th Royal Lancers at Moy in 1914, he used a new Wilkinson thrusting sword (1912 Pattern), which buckled like an “S” and was wrenched out of his hand after transfixing a German. I [Bryant] was using the old cutting sword (1895 Pattern), well sharpened, which went in and out of [five] Germans like a pat of butter.” (Maj. Gen. John Vaughan, Cavalry and Sporting Memories, 1954; Ms. Copy. Priv. Coll.) Above quote is from D.A. Kinsley’s book, “Swordsmen of the British Empire, pg. 330 – 331. The above narrative by men, who were there, demonstrates some interesting details. First of all, the failure of two different patterns of swords, the first, possibly the Heavy Cavalry Officer’s Undress sword Pattern 1887, though undoubtedly a bladed cut and thrust weapon and then the Pattern 1912 Officer’s Cavalry sword, a dedicated thrusting weapon as used by Wormald; both made by Wilkinson. It would appear that the problem of bent swords, in this case, may have had more to do with poor technique in giving point from a mounted position than the quality of the swords. The fact that Bryant seems to find no problems with what he describes as the 1895 Pattern when applied to five similar targets, may fortify this assumption on my part. The second point evident from the quote is that while many sources suggest (hint?) that any cavalry units using earlier sword patterns, as in the case of the Guards units, were issued the Pattern 1912 Cavalry sword when on duty overseas. In the case cited it is obvious this was not always the case, or at least not always followed.