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Rusty Greaves

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Everything posted by Rusty Greaves

  1. Michael, Even having only dipped my toes in some of the astonishing variation apparent in the Orden del Libertador, I do appreciate the complexities of trying to sort out the design and manufacturing differences evident in this award. Thanks for your information about which manufacturers used the version of Bolivar's bust featuring his arm and hand tucked into his jacket. That is fascinating information about the reasons for some apparent differences in how the arm appears being the hand-fitting of the bust into he enameled frame. I'm sure the other followers of this thread also appreciate your opinion that other elements that can be hard to see in some photos are critical to identifying different manufacturers such as the stars on the epaulettes, their angle, details on the jacket embroidery, or the number of buttons on Bolivar's jacket. We await your help with so many other topics about these medals! Rusty
  2. Rusty Greaves

    Miniatures of the Middle East & Arab World

    I am curious whether a couple images in this thread show miniatures of the Republic of Egypt version of the Order of the Nile medal. In 922F's post of 10 December, 2017, is the medal 6th from the left (or right) a mini post-1953 Order of the Nile? Similarly, is the medal shown in the second photo, 3rd from the left of Owain's post of 12 December, 2017 also a Republic Order of the Nile mini? Below is an image identified on the La Galerie Numismatique auction site as a miniature of the Republic of Egypt Order of the Nile. The imagery of the central design and the surrounding star of this piece seems quite a bit more detailed compared with the two medals in my question about 922f's and Owain's photos. It seems unlikely that the medal shown below is mistakenly identified as a miniature (dimensions = 25 x 20 mm), given the less detailed design compared with the full-sized medal shown in the second photo (and link to better World Awards images under that photo). If the above examples are the Order of the Nile, then why are they more abbreviated versions-just different manufacturers? Miniature Order of the Nile from La Galerie Numismatique, silver partly gilt, and enamel 25 x 20 mm. It is described as a "Knights Cross Miniature (5th Class)". However, several sources (including Megan Robertson's Medals of the World website; as well as a post by Owain in his 17 September 2012 response to a thread titled "Egypt-New Collector-Order of the Nile", started by Moheb on 10 September 2012 here in the Middle East & Arab States section, that has some very useful information about variation in Egyptian manufacturers of the full-sized Kingdom of Egypt Order of the Nile and some design differences) indicate that the Republic of Egypt post-1953 version of this Order is probably only awarded as a Collar or Grand Cordon class. (https://www.coins-la-galerie-numismatique.com/online-shop/orders-medals/order-nile). The imagery is derived from ancient Egyptian depictions of the political/mythological unification of Upper & Lower Egypt (see third image below). Image from Medals of the World (medals.org) of the obverse of the Republic of Egypt full-sized Order of the Nile, Grand Cordon star made by Tewfick Bichay showing greater detail of the central image of the unification of Egypt than on the miniature from La Galerie Numismatique shown above (http://www.medals.org.uk/egypt/egypt-republic/egypt-republic002.htm). Better details of the design of this full-sized medal can be seen by clicking on two thumbnail images on World Awards (https://wawards.org/en/egypt/republic-of-egypt/order-of-the-nile.html). They show the intertwined lotus on the right and the papyrus on the left (see discussion of imagery under the next drawing below). The enamel frame surrounding the central design has 15 stylized lotus blossoms. The imagery on the Republic's version of the Order of the Nile is derived from some of the many variant ancient Egyptian depictions symbolizing the ~5000 year-old unification of Egypt. This drawing of a relief panel on the stone throne of Pharaoh Senwosret I shows the gods Seth & Horus uniting the two (formerly divided) kingdoms of Upper & Lower Egypt. This throne dates to the 12th Dynasty (~1956-1911 BC), long after this has become an established icon in ancient Egyptian political decoration. In this version of the unification, Seth (on left) binds a lotus (the image of Upper Egypt-the southern portion by our geography) and Horus (on right) ties papyrus (symbolic of Lower Egypt, the northern part of the country) to the central sema symbol. The central dividing image is a symbol for the lungs (each of the brother gods have their feet on one lobe) attached to the trachea, which is the hieroglyphic symbol sema representing "union". In most written versions of this glyph it looks more "jar-like" through shortening of the trachea, as in the form adopted for the Republic of Egypt central icon on the Order of the Nile shown above. The suspension device connected to the link ring in the photo of the miniature Order of the Nile medal (fist photo above) further reiterates this unity theme in the symbolism of a lotus flower on the right and a papyrus bloom on the left. Other images depicting the union of Upper and Lower Egypt also employ a sedge for Upper Egypt or a bee to symbolize Lower Egypt. The well-known Narmer Palette (>5000 years old) is usually thought to depict this conquest of the "Two Lands" that became the unified Egypt with militaristic imagery of King Narmer (wearing the white Crown of Upper Egypt) smiting a prisoner with a cudgel on the recto side and wearing the Red Crown of Upper Egypt on the verso side. The hieroglyphs in the cartouche at the top of the trachea portion of the sema symbol are the throne name of Pharaoh Senwosret I: Kheperkara (http://www.joanlansberry.com/setfind/uniting.html). Image from Wikipedia of the post-1953 Republic of Egypt badge suspended on the Collar of the Order of the Nile showing a modern image adaptation of the ancient Egyptian theme of the unification of (Upper & Lower) Egypt. It retains the binding of lotus and papyrus, but has changed the sema image and inserted stylized ancient Egyptian water symbols under the figures' feet, presumably in reference to the Nile. The two male figures with pendulous breasts ("moobs"), fat rolls, and large bellies derive from common versions of this image depicting the god Hapi, frequently associated with this political art image during the 19th Dynasty (~1291-1189 BC). Hapi is a deity associated with the annual flooding of the Nile. His breasts and belly are considered to represent the fertility of the river and its renewal of the floodplain with the annual inundation that brought organic material to enrich the soils of the valley terraces. The gold design in the enamel probably depicts repeated sets of the three Great Pyramids of Giza (9 km west of the Nile), possibly reiterated to resemble ancient Egyptian imagery of water in reference the River Nile. The surrounding margin designs are stylized lotus blossoms interspersed with rubies. The suspension device depicts three lotus blossoms. Solid gold, rubies, turquoise, and enamel (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Order_of_the_Nile). Would someone volunteer a translation of the inscription on the superior enameled portion of the badge?
  3. Rusty Greaves

    Walking Sticks - and as Weapons

    I have a couple of corrections to my previous post about the Hambukushu moramo cudgel. First, obviously the length is 59.5 cm, not mm. Second, a colleague of mine with almost 40 years of experience working on human rights issues in Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, and other locations provided some interesting information about the wood it is made from. First, he corrected the Latin binomial of this tree that I got from a published resource, it is Baikiaea plurijuga. The wood is not listed as threatened by CITES, however indigenous groups in Botswana are prohibited from harvesting and using any of this wood. Some conservation groups do feel that logging has significantly reduced the incidence of mature trees through over-harvesting so that it is "near-threatened". The Botswana government does allow some private companies to continue to cut these trees. Indigenous people with a tool such as the moramo cudgel can be arrested for both having a piece of this wood they are not allowed to possess because it is threatened and a valuable timber product the government controls, and because the implement is considered an indication of poaching activity (the government's restrictions on indigenous subsistence hunting is controversial among those groups, at the same time the government permits and encourages outside safari hunters). A similar position is taken regarding ostrich eggshell products. Traditionally, "Bushman" and other local groups used ostrich eggshells as water canteens and made beads from the broken shells. That is now illegal and indigenous people are arrested if found in possession of such beads. The correct scientific name for the wood that the Hambukushu mamba stick & walking stick combo tool I illustrated on 2 February is probably made from is Bukea africana. Additional common names include indigenous terms: kudumela, monato, maul, mufhulu, mosheshe, nkalati, ohehe, and burkea; the Afrikaans term is: Wildesering; and English common names are: red syringa, Rhodesian ash, and wild syringa.
  4. Estimado emlynccs, It is a pleasure to see your post about the Orden del Liberator here in this discussion. I have really enjoyed the information on your Condeccoraciones de Venezuela web page in trying to contribute to this thread and another on the Cruz del Ejercito Venezolano. Many thanks for your work to provide valuable information about such an array of the Venezuelan awards! Since you have opened with information about some of the variation in the portraits of Simon Bolivar, I am curious what insight you have about variants that include Bolivar's arm with his hand tucked into his jacket? Examples of this form of the bust seem to be less common, but versions with the arm appear somewhat frequently on full-sized medals shown on auction sites, what is your opinion? There also appear to be different variants showing the arm in slightly diverse positions relative to the frame around the bust. The only images I have encountered of miniatures with this form of Bolivar's bust showing his arm are shown in the initial post in this thread by Lars (25 December 2017) in the left and middle examples with Bolivar facing left and in obverse image of my post of 11 January. I am including three images of full-sized awards below with slightly different versions of the arm on the Bust of Bolivar from the website for Medal-Medaille. I also found two examples on alamy.com showing what are identified as an Officer's and Knight's medals with slightly different forms of Bolivar's arm placement relative to the frame around the bust, but those images may be copyrighted (http://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-order-of-the-liberators-bust-or-of-simon-bolivar-created-in-1874-an-51659304.html). In the alamy images, the arm of the bust on the Officer's medal is similar to that illustrated below for the Commander's neck badge, although there may be other slight difference in the details of the Liberator's portrait. The Knight's medal example from alamy more closely resembles the image below of the Officer's medal, although the cuff is more fully exposed within the frame on the alamy image. I am very interested in your opinions about the reasons for these variations. Your knowledge of differences in designs by the various manufacturers of these awards is very interesting. Saludos, Rusty Obverse image of the bust of Bolivar from Medal-Medaille identified as the Commander Class neck badge of this award (3rd Class) of a full-sized medal showing a variant form with Bolivar's arm visible in the portrait of the Liberator (http://www.medal-medaille.com/sold/product_info.php?cPath=498_100&products_id=1132). Obverse image of the bust of Bolivar from Medal-Medaille identified as the Officer Class of this award (4th Class) on a full-sized medal showing a slightly different form with Bolivar's arm from the Commanders badge shown above (http://www.medal-medaille.com/sold/product_info.php?cPath=498_100&products_id=1135). Obverse image of the bust of Bolivar from Medal-Medaille identified as the Knight Class full-sized medal of this award (5th Class) showing a variant form with apparently less of Bolivar's arm visible (unless this is because of the angle of the photo) than in the other two examples above (http://www.medal-medaille.com/sold/product_info.php?cPath=498_100&products_id=3322).
  5. Rusty Greaves

    Walking Sticks - and as Weapons

    Here is my illustration of the Hambukushu cudgel (moramo) used to dispatch large game that a colleague gave me. This is not a walking stick, but I promised to illustrate this tool here. This is primarily employed for delivering the coup de grâce to smaller game such as duiker, springbok, impala, or reedbuck, as well as larger ungulates such as kudu, gemsbok, eland hartebeest, zebra, and even buffalo. It also may be used for the final kill of carnivores and scavengers that are killed to protect their cattle herds. This implement also may be used to dispatch cattle (although most pastoralists rarely kill animals in their herds, relying on milk & blood as the primary products from their cattle resource wealth). The Hambukushu infrequently hunt hippopotamus using a larger harpoon implement similar to the one I illustrated in the 4th photo in my post on 10 January under the "South American bows and arrows" thread in this section. They also infrequently hunt elephants (primarily because of the long standing ivory trade that goes back ~ 1000 years in parts of the Congo Basin where colleagues of mine have been able to research documents), but use very different technology (many pits & deadfalls to avoid direct confrontation with such dangers quarry) and strategies than for other large game. This moramo was made a Hambukushu man named Tiro in 1992, living in the Okavango River Delta region of Botswana. It is a relatively new example, but has been used. The wood is identified as "mahogany", which is probably Baikigea plunjuga. This wood goes by various common names such as Rhodesian teak, Rhodesian mahogany, and Zambezi redwood. The mamba stick I illustrated on February 2 is probably made from a softer but supple wood that is variously called moshosho (mosheshe), or ohehe that is probably Burkia africana, commonly used to make a range of tool & weapon handles as well as arrow mainshafts. Moramo, a Hambukushu animal cudgel from the Okavango River Delta region of Botswana. This example is 59.5 mm long. Close-up of the distal end ("head) of the moramo cudgel showing good detail on the manufacturing marks.
  6. Rusty Greaves

    Miniatures of the Middle East & Arab World

    Owain, thanks for posting the additional information about the Order of Muhammed Ali and the photos of the obverse & reverse of the silver medal. I came across those same images on Colnect website (https://colnect.com/en/medals/medal/6631-Order_of_Muhammad_Ali_Silver_Medal-General_Issues-Egypt). Is that example a miniature of the silver medal? In your post of 24 January, 2016 on the Kingdom of Egypt (1922-1953) thread by Egyptian Zogist (30 October, 2015) you illustrated the reverse of a silver medal and the obverse of a gold medal - shown below: Image in post of 24 January, 2016 by Owain on the "Kingdom of Egypt (1922-1953)" GMIC thread by Egyptian Zogist (started 30 October, 2015) illustrating the reverse of a silver medal (L) and the obverse of a gold medal (L). (http://gmic.co.uk/topic/66997-kingdom-of-egypt-1922-1953/) Below are illustrations of another miniature of the Order of the Nile from the a current auction on the UK eBay website (also paired with an OBE) that shows different configurations from a couple of the other examples illustrated here. This Order of the Nile miniature has a similar inscription & calligraphy to that in the 6th photo of my post of 12 January. It shows several differences in the configuration of the background star embellishment, border of the central medallion, the crown, and especially the suspension. This example closely resembles the medal from Owain's posted Kingdom of Egypt miniature group of 11 December, 2017 (upper row far right). The reverse of Owain's medal is shown in his post of 12 December, 2017 (also upper row far right, showing a different central boss or attachment on that reverse face). No descriptive information is provided on the eBay listing. Obverse of a miniature of the Order of the Nile obverse (https://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/MINIATURE-MEDALS-MEMBER-OF-THE-BRITISH-EMPIRE-EGYPT-ORDER-OF-THE-NILE-/202224760042) Reverse of the same miniature medal pair from eBay UK (https://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/MINIATURE-MEDALS-MEMBER-OF-THE-BRITISH-EMPIRE-EGYPT-ORDER-OF-THE-NILE-/202224760042)
  7. And here are two other guides to ribbon bars fro the Orden del Libertador. Both do show the color scheme order of red on the right, blue in the middle & yellow on the left as seen on the bars worn by the military personnel shown in my previous post. However, the devices on the ribbons and rosettes are not shown in a way consistent with the other 2 guides that Uwe & I have been consulting. Ribbon bars for the Venezuelan Orden del Libertador from the website ColeccionesMilitares.com by Antonio Prieto Barrio. (http://www.coleccionesmilitares.com/cintas/america/venezuela2.gif) Ribbon bars for the Orden del Libertador from a listing by Eric Bush link on ODM (http://www.medals.org.uk/venezuela/venezuela-links.htm) (http://www.frontiernet.net/~ericbush/FOREIGN/SA/Venezuela.html ) ©Eric Bush
  8. Rusty Greaves

    Miniatures of the Middle East & Arab World

    Here are a couple additional images of miniatures for the Order of the Nile that are slightly different from the example illustrated above on 24 January. Image from eMedals of the obverse of a pair of miniature, including the Order of the Nile, next to a British OBE award. The Order of the Nile mini measures 21 x 31 mm and is silver gilt. Although not identified to class, the rosette indicates it is the Officer, 4th Class miniature. No manufacturer is identified for this piece. (eMedals: https://www.emedals.com/europe/great-britain/orders-decorations/order-of-the-british-empire/a-british-egyptian-miniature-pair-gb2692) Image of the reverse of the same pair of miniatures, Order of the Nile on the left. (eMedals: https://www.emedals.com/europe/great-britain/orders-decorations/order-of-the-british-empire/a-british-egyptian-miniature-pair-gb2692) Oblique image from eMedals of the obverse of the same pair of miniatures, showing additional details of the Order of the Nile miniature. (eMedals: https://www.emedals.com/europe/great-britain/orders-decorations/order-of-the-british-empire/a-british-egyptian-miniature-pair-gb2692) Image from Medal-Medaille of a set of the Order of the Nile, Officer, 4th Class full-size and miniature. Silver with white & blue enamel. Both the full-size and miniature are signed by the manufacturer "LATTES". The case label reads: "J.LATTES, FOURNISSEUR DE S.M. Le ROI D’EGYPTE & DE L’ÉTAT, LE CAIRE’" according to the description for this auction listing. Measurements are not given for either medal. The Medal-Medaille description includes the following translation of the inscription on the central boss of the full-sized award as: "What benefits Egypt owes to the Nile, her source of prosperity and happiness". This example possibly dates to the 1930s or early 1940s. The Medal-Medaille description states that: "Early examples of the order are made by 'A.Lattes'; and late royal examples by 'Maison Lattes, J. Weinber & Co.' with an Arabic inscription to the interior of the case. The presence of the words ‘& DE L’ÉTAT’ suggest this example is towards the end of the ‘J. Lattes’ period." (http://www.medal-medaille.com/sold/product_info.php?cPath=498_39&products_id=35) Image of the same Officer Class Order of the NIle within the presentation case. (http://www.medal-medaille.com/sold/product_info.php?cPath=498_39&products_id=35) Obverse (left) view of the miniature Order of the Nile and reverse views (right) of both the full-size and miniature of this set. Note that the inscription in the central boss of the miniature is different from that shown on the example above and from that illustrated on 24 January from Medal-Medaille. The frame surrounding the central medallion also has a different configuration of the "ball" border motif from that the others as well. The other two miniatures are measured at 21.44 mm in diameter (Medal-Medaille example shown on 24 January) and 21 x 31 mm for the eMedals mini shown above here. Given that the 4th class award should be ~52-53 mm in diameter and measure ~74.5 mm vertically including the crown suspension, this miniature appears to be approximately the same diameter as the other two minis. The difference in the inscription is therefore unlikely to be due simply any difference in the size of the area of the central boss. However, it clearly is a different calligraphy than used on the other two minis (it is closer on this piece to that of the full-size examples) and has no inscription around the margin of this central medallion boss. (http://www.medal-medaille.com/sold/product_info.php?cPath=498_39&products_id=35)
  9. Rusty Greaves

    Miniatures of the Middle East & Arab World

    Owain, You illustrated and discussed the gold (obverse) & silver (reverse) versions of the Order of Muhammad Ali medals on 24 January, 2016 in the thread "Kingdom of Egypt (1922-1953)" started by Egyptian Zogist on 30 October, 2015 in this section Middle East & Arab States. Are these considered the miniatures of the Order of Muhammad Ali awards? Do these 2 medals represent the 2 lowest classes of the award? I have seen these medals identified as "miniatures", but I am uncertain whether that is correct or if there may be other miniatures that use the more elaborate medal designs of the Grand Cordon or Commander classes for this Order? Most of the images of these medals that I can find on the internet are relatively low resolution, the following two are better quality, showing only the obverse. Rusty Image from eBay of a Player's Cigarettes' card image of the obverse of the gold version of the medal for the Order of Muhammed Ali, showing good detail of this medal. From a series of 90 cards depicting military medals and orders from the world. This set of cards was printed in 1927, issued by John Player & Sons Branch of the Imperial Tobacco co. of Great Britain and Ireland, Ltd. (https://www.ebay.ie/itm/82-The-Medal-of-the-Order-of-Mohammed-Ali-Egyp-War-Decorations-Medals-Card-/401310801054?hash=item5d6ffcdc9e) Photographic image from the World Awards.com website showing fair detail of the obverse of a silver versions of the Order of Muhammed Ali medal. (from: https://wawards.org/en/egypt/kingdom-of-egypt/order-of-muhammad-ali.html)
  10. Rusty Greaves

    Venezuela - Cross of the Army

    Following the 3rd & 4th images in my post of 29 January, 2018, here are a few illustrations of another non-regulation variant form of the Cruz del Ejecito that probably represents early trial designs that were never authorized as official awards. This example comes from the Medal-Medaille website and has green enamel on the obverse arms of the cross (Condecoraciones de Venezuela calls this a Maltese cross; Medal-Medaille calls this a cross pattée; the Borna Barac guide calls a cross with 3 "facets" cross patonce), and a non-standard green & white ribbon. The reverse also has the same unusual inscription that appears on at least one other of the trial examples illustrated on 29 January. The Condecoraciones de Venezuela website mentions these variants; see the last paragraph of my translation above from 29, November, 2017. The Medal-Medaille website identifies this as a 3rd class of this award, but in all likelihood it is simply a design variant made either prior to June, 1952 when the decree for this award was issued or just after that date, depending on when its design was standardized for issue as the highest honor of the Venezuelan army. Variant form of the Cruz del Ejercito that shows green enamel instead of red and a non-standard color scheme for the ribbon. This design form was never approved for issue as an award. (http://www.medal-medaille.com/sold/product_info.php?products_id=301) Close-up obverse view of the variant form of the Cruz del Ejercito shown above with the green enamel. (http://www.medal-medaille.com/sold/product_info.php?products_id=301) Reverse view of the same variant Cruz del Ejercito. (http://www.medal-medaille.com/sold/product_info.php?products_id=301) Close-up reverse view of the same variant form of the Cruz del Ejercito shown above showing the unusual inscription "FUERZAS TERRSTRES DE VENEZUELA" (as seen only on the variant form noted above on 29 January) that contrasts with the reverse inscriptions of the official versions of this medal that include the two variant forms: "CRUZ DEL EJERCITO. VENZOLANO." and "FUERZAS TERRESTRES VENEZOLANAS" as shown above in this thread. (http://www.medal-medaille.com/sold/product_info.php?products_id=301) Close-up reverse view of the same variant form of the same Cruz del Ejercito medal showing the manufacturer's mark on the lower arm for N.S. MEYER INC. NEW YORK. (http://www.medal-medaille.com/sold/product_info.php?products_id=301)
  11. Here is a higher resolution image of a couple of these bars shown above for Padrino Lopez, here worn by Carlos Augusto Leal Telleria, Mayor General, Comandante General de la Milicia Bolivariana http://www.milicia.mil.ve/milicia/images/linea_de_mando/2017/mgleal17.png
  12. Uwe, Thank you for addressing my question, illustrating your point, and helping to educate me on more standard practices regarding ribbons & bars. I also am happy to see your high resolution illustration of the 3rd class mini. Given the existence of so much variation prior to the 1922 decree, as well as the 2006 & 2010 changes, the historic examples will certainly show a lot of non-standard differences. The only other Venezuelan medal I have investigated, the Cruz del Ejercito discussed in another thread here in the "Rest of the World: Militia & History" forum section, has some institutionalized variance in how it is worn from international practice. As I translated from the Condecoraciones de Venezuela website description for that awards: (the Cruz del Ejercito or Cruz de Fuerzas Terrestres Venezolanas) - 1st Class: insignia worn on a neck collar, 2nd Class: insignia worn on the chest, and 3rd Class: insignia worn pinned to a ribbon. It is evident that the appearance of these four [sic-3?-RG) break with the classical scheme of presentation of insignia, not only internationally but also from the [Venezuelan-RG] Order of the Liberator [Simón Bolívar-RG] and the Order of Francisco Miranda, that consist [The Orden del Libertador and the Orden Francisco de Miranda-RG] of the 1st Class worn on a sash, 2nd Class worn on a neck collar, and 3rd Class insignia worn on the chest, which results in a divergence [from conventions-RG], especially for the 2nd Class, so that [the Cruz del Ejercito-RG] instead of having a badge or cross complementing the insignia, has [only-RG] the same insignia, resulting in a missing element that would give a harmonious presentation of the medal. As a further complication (I know, none of us want this), I have been looking at images of military recipients of the Orden del Libetador to try and see if the bar with rosette & band split between silver & gold appears for a 2nd class award. I can't find a good images of such, but a couple individuals who I know received this order do have multiple photos on the internet, a couple better resolution ones, and they do not appear to be backwards. However, in looking at what should be the bar for a 5th class award on images of Carmen Teresa Melendez Rivas (she is identified as having the Caballero class award, rather than any of the post-2010 differently named classes that are limited to just 3 classes) and Vladimir Padrino Lopez (who is usually listed as having received the 2nd class award of the Orden del Libertador) I'm finding some ambiguity. If the attached first image of Melendez Rivas shows the bar for her award (top row center?), the color scheme is backwards from both sets of references we have identified: red on the right, blue in the middle and yellow on the left. Some of the ribbons of the medals you & I have illustrated show this color order. On images of Padrino Lopez, the bar also seems to show a reversal of colors, and the emblem on the bar appears to be that for the 3rd class of this award. Do you think the bar on the far left in the second photo should be that for the Orden del Libertador? I am even more confused by the bars in the third photo showing Padrino Lopez's bars. The uppermost central bar, the second row center bar, and possibly the second row far left bar (is this the bar for his Orden del Libertador award?) all appear to have the color reversal. Are there Bolivarian versions of these color schemes that are different from the guides we have found? I apologize for muddying the war again Uwe, hopefully this is just my ignorance Rusty Is the bar worn in the middle of the upper row the 5th class (Caballero) Orden del Libertador awarded to Carmen Teresa Melendez Rivas? (http://www.minci.gob.ve/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/26.jpg) The bar on the far left worn by Vladimir Padrino Lopez (General en Jefe, Ministro del Poder Popular para la Defensa) appears to be the 3rd class of the Orden del Libertador, he is usually listed as having been awarded the 2nd Class of this order. (http://www.elpolitico.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/vladimir-padrino-lopez-ministro-para-la-defensa-con-la-mano-levantada.jpg) Is the bar on second row far left, partially under the Vladimir Padrino Lopez's lapel that for the Orden del Libertador? What is the top center bar and the second row center bar for? I cannot find a Venezuelan guide to bars that identifies this color scheme with the red on the right, blue in the middle, and yellow on the left. (http://www.minci.gob.ve/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/26.jpg)
  13. Uwe, many thanks for your clarification. I was trying to extend the information from the bars & ribbons section of Condecoraciones de Venezuela as that is the only literature I have about what the ribbon band distinctions might be, obviously overly enthusiastically! (http://condecoracionesdevenezuela.com/identificador-de-cintas/#). Do you have any written references on that you could share or is it from your knowledge & collections?
  14. Rusty Greaves

    Venezuela - Cross of the Army

    Images of the designs for the bars of each different class of the Cruz del Ejercito award can be seen on the Condecoraciones de Venezuela website's section on Ribbons & Bars ("Cintas") as the first 3 illustrations under "Componente Ejercito". http://condecoracionesdevenezuela.com/identificador-de-cintas/ Award ceremony presenting the 1st Class Cruz del Ejercito (the "Cruz de Las Fuerzas Terrestres Venezolanas") to Carmen Teresa Meléndez Rivas on January 10, 2014. Meléndez Rivas is a Navy Vice Admiral (first woman to hold this rank) and this award was given during her tenure as Minister of Defense. The presenting officer is Major General Alexis Ascensión López Ramirez, who resigned as head of Venezuela's National Defense Council on June 13, 2017 because of his disagreement with the creation of the controversial "Constituent Assembly" by Venezuela's president, Nicolás Maduro. (photo credit: Jesús Roa - http://www.noticias24.com/venezuela/noticia/216860/ejercito-bolivariano-otorgo-la-cruz-de-las-fuerzas-terrestres-a-la-ministra-carmen-melendez/) Major General Alexis Ascensión López Ramirez showing the ribbon bar for the 1st Class Cruz del Ejercito: third row down, center. In addition to renouncing his position as head of Venezuela's National Defense Council over the creation of the ANC ("Constituent Assembly"), López Ramirez also expressed support in June 2017 for the ex-Fiscal General de la República, Luisa Ortega Díaz, who fled the country and denounced corruption of the Maduro regime. Both of these acts by López Ramirez (as well as those of Ortega Díaz) are the most visible defections by high level members of the Venezuelan government against policies of the Venezuelan president and his party supporters. (Globovisión-http://elvenezolanonews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/mayor-general-cambio-descripción-twitter.png)
  15. In wading though more of the information on Condecoraciones de Venezuela, I have only been able to confirm some of the recognized chaos in designs affecting both the full-sized and miniature medals for the Orden del Liberator, as is also quite apparent among the examples and information in this thread. That website identifies the different names of this award as: Medalla de Distinctión ("Medal of Distinction", from it's origin in 1854-1880); Condecoración del Busto del Liberator ("Award/Order of the Bust of the Liberator",1880-1922); Orden del Liberator ("Order of the Liberator", 1922-2010); Orden de las y los Libetadores ("Order of the [female] and [male] Liberators", 2010-present). Condecoraciones de Venezuela indicates that the full-sized awards of the Orden del Liberator show significant variation in size according to class (1st, 2nd, & 3rd = 50 x 54 mm; 4th & 5th = 35 x 28 mm) prior to 1922. This website also indicates that while all medals were supposed to be made of gold or silver gilt, prior to 2006 few examples fully complied with these requirements. I have encountered one additional manufacturer of the full-sized award. Fayolle Pouteau of Paris is identified as the manufacturer of a Grand Officer (2nd Class) set awarded to an Italian diplomat in 1932 that is illustrated from the same set of auction images as those below from Sixbid/La Galerie Numismatique in April 2017 (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=3427&category=71803&lot=2844586). A set of images on eMedals for a current auction illustrates the manufacturer's mark of Foyolle Pouteau on the obverse of an example identified as a 3rd Class Commander's star, c1900 (https://www.emedals.com/venezuela-an-order-of-the-liberator-3rd-class-commander-star-by-fayolle-pouteur-c-1900). As contributors have noted in this thread, miniature versions of the Orden del Liberator have great diversity in their forms. For the miniatures, Condecoraciones de Venezuela notes that their use almost certainly goes back to ~1880, although the website cannot identify any specific period or date when the use of the miniature was established by any official protocol. The miniature is not officially recognized (and officially standardized) until 2006. Private manufacturers apparently made a wide variety of miniature forms until ~50 years ago when Myer and Russell Uniform produced standardized forms, although there were no formal regulations of the form through the extant decrees or regulations at that time. I am including additional examples of three miniatures. The first two images appear to show an older medal (see note under the second images suggesting they are the same medal). Condecoraciones de Venezuela's section on ribbons & bars (http://condecoracionesdevenezuela.com/identificador-de-cintas/#) illustrates the different class designations for the 1st-5th Classes (described below under the first illustration), possibly from the 2006 regulations. The rosette has been part of the full-sized award since 1880, but that website indicates they were not (at least partly) standardized until 1922. Reverse (L) and obverse (R) of an Orden del Libertador miniature from Sixbid.com (La Galerie Numismatique). Identified as a "1st Class Grand Cross miniature". Condecoraciones de Venezuela shows the ribbon for the 1st Class as having a horizontal gold band in addition to the rosette, the 2nd Class as having a silver band & rosette, the 3rd class with a miniature of the star with the Venezuelan coat of arms as shown in Uwe's example in the post of 21 January, 2017, the 4th class with only a rosette, and the 5th Class as solely the tricolored ribbon with no other device (from the post 2006 regulations?). The rosette shown in Uwe's 21 January, 2017 post looks just like that shown in the Condecoraciones de Venezuela website section on ribbons for the 2nd class award. The above illustrated example is 18 x 15 mm in diameter and silver gilt with enamel, the ribbon is stated to be original. From an Auction on 19-20 April, 2017, session 3, Lot 3060 (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=3427&category=71803&lot=2844585) Obverse (L) and reverse (R) of an Orden del Libertador miniature from Sixbid.com (La Galerie Numismatique). Identified as a "3rd Class Commander's Cross miniature". However, as noted above, the gold band with the rosette suggests it may be a 1st Class miniature. The description states this medal measures 17 x 14 mm in diameter and made of "gilt bronze and painted". This listed medal is from the same auction as the previous example, Auction 19-20 April, 2017, session 3, Lot 3065. This lower resolution photograph appears to show the same medal as in the previous image (all casting flaws and wear appear identical between these 2 images, the fraying on the bottom of the rosette is identical), but the ribbon is folded differently. (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=3427&category=71803&lot=2844590) Obverse of a full-sized and miniature medals of the Orden del Liberator from a current eBay auction. It is identified as a "Grand Cross set", but is more likely a 2nd or 3rd Class award because it represents a neck collar. No additional information is provided. The ribbon on the miniature is obviously a replacement incorrectly yellow rather than the correct yellow, blue & red ribbon. (https://www.ebay.ca/itm/VENEZUELA-ORDER-OF-THE-LIBERATOR-SIMON-BOLIVAR-GRAND-CROSS-MEDAL-SET-Vinatge/132145758712?hash=item1ec48041f8:g:rkgAAOSwGIRXbrsv) Reverse of the same full-sized and miniature medals of the Orden del Liberator from eBay identified as a "Grand Cross set". (https://www.ebay.ca/itm/VENEZUELA-ORDER-OF-THE-LIBERATOR-SIMON-BOLIVAR-GRAND-CROSS-MEDAL-SET-Vinatge/132145758712?hash=item1ec48041f8:g:rkgAAOSwGIRXbrsv) Close-up image of the obverse of the same miniature Orden del Liberator miniature from a current eBay auction. (https://www.ebay.ca/itm/VENEZUELA-ORDER-OF-THE-LIBERATOR-SIMON-BOLIVAR-GRAND-CROSS-MEDAL-SET-Vinatge/132145758712?hash=item1ec48041f8:g:rkgAAOSwGIRXbrsv)
  16. Rusty Greaves

    Walking Sticks - and as Weapons

    Although I began part of my archaeological journey interested in stone tools, some of my laboratory work in botanical remains from past sites, library research on technology around the world, and more especially my work with living hunter-gatherers has given me a profound recognition of the importance of human strategy over design. We tend to think of human ingenuity across the globe as a consequence of invention of new tools, and that is certainly part of the story. However, the ability to use a "simple" stick, or to modify one so that it can perform a variety of tasks and not burden a man hunting or a woman collecting plant foods with more junk to carry, illuminates other parts of the human success story. How we plan the variety of ways to extract a living from the diversity of environments in which humans live using knowledge and empirical science, and still take some time for music & dancing even when there is no food, is a wonder. I am currently designing a display of some of the variety of "sticks" in my ethnographic collection that celebrate the elegant strategies witnessed in these humble technologies. Peter, Many thanks for your kind words and encouragement. I have really enjoyed finding GMIC and the interactions that have helped me in my research on Egyptian medals & orders, and the many interesting other topics explored here. Two older Pumé women in the Venezuelan llanos collecting wild tubers during the wet season. Their digging sticks can be used for a variety of tasks, from collecting plant raw materials to clubbing small game they encounter, plus an endless set of uses in camp. Pumé man on a bow & arrow fishing trip in the dry season (bows & arrows in his right hand). On his left shoulder he carries sticks that have great egret wings attached to them that he places around a lagoon as decoys to attract egrets while he fishes at this location. Pumé couple hunting & gathering in the late wet season. He carries his bow, arrows, & a hat that mimics the form of a jabiru stork (the dark cloth below the carved wooden beak represents the dark coloration of the upper body of these tall storks, and he has a white shirt in it that he will put on to look like the white feathers of the lower body) to try and get closer to deer should he encounter any. On this trip, he used his bow as a probe & digging stick to check lizard & armadillo burrows, even though his wife is carrying a digging stick, and as a long club to kill poisonous snakes. His wife has a digging stick with a worn steel tip for excvating deep-growing tubers. On this trip, her stick also was used to kill armadillos they encountered.
  17. Rusty Greaves

    US Spanish Campaign Medal-Army. 1898.

    Great to see this medal! There is a thread about other Spanish American War medals started by Noor on 4 July, 2011 titled: Spanish American War Spanish Campaign Army Service Medal here in the United States of America section. Noor illustrated the reverse of the Spanish American War Army Service medal for the Cuba campaign, the number on its rim, the box and label, ribbon, and lapel pin. I added to that thread photos of my grandfather's army service medals for the Spanish American War and the Philippine Insurrection as well. The numbers on the rim match the red numbering on the boxes of these contract pieces. I do not know when he requested these medals, he stayed in the Philippines after his service until ~1915. He received these service medals after he had returned to the US, taken employment in New York City, and started a family. Given the dates on the boxes he probably got these in late 1937 or early 1938 (?). Although there is a cut-out in the back of the frame I have these in showing the reverse of each medal, I can't get a good focus through the glass. So I'm including here the reverse image of the Spanish War medal that Noor had in his post and an image of the reverse of the Philippine Insurrection medal from eMedals (that I never added to that earlier thread). It is easy to find better quality images of the obverse of these medals on the internet than these I have provided (I did not document them before they were framed). US Army service medals with original ribbons and ribbon bars for the Spanish-American War (top & left in 3rd photo) and the Philippine Insurrection (2nd from top & right in 3rd photo). Awarded to my grandfather, William K. Blessing serving in one of the Arkansas units. The rim of the Spanish War service medal reads: 27291. The box for the Spanish War Service medal reads: "27291" (printed in red) "Spanish War Service; Stock No 71-M-942 Spec 5-23-33; Northern Smelting & Refining Co.; Con. No W. 669 Q.M. 6764 10-21-37; Phila. Q. M. Depot." The number on the rim of the Philippine Insurrection medal is 29848. The box for the Philippine Insurrection medal reads: "29848" (printed in red) "Philippine Campaign; Stock No 71-M-934 Spec 5-23-37; Northern Smelting & Refining Co.; Con. No W. 669 Q.M. 6764 2-23-37; Phila. Q. M. Depot." Reverse of the Philippine Insurrection Army Service medal from eMedals (https://www.emedals.com/north-america/united-states/pre-first-world-war-campaign-medals/an-american-army-philippine-insurrection-medal-1899-boxed) On 7/4/2011 at 15:33, Noor said: Reverse of the Spanish War service medal from Noor (7/4/2011) in his thread here on GMIC: Spanish American War Spanish Campaign Army Service Medal, in the United States of America Forum section.
  18. Rusty Greaves

    Walking Sticks - and as Weapons

    Peter, Thanks for your point about snake dangers. Several Pumé folks I've worked with in Venezuela have suffered bites from coral snakes & rattlesnakes as they are always barefoot. There are a few local "cures" I've collected but have not yet found a lab interested in running analyses to see if they have any efficacy (I always had 2-3 courses of antivenin I left at a nearby ranch that had refrigeration from a few hours of generator use each evening-these days there is so little medicine in Venezuela I'm sure I couldn't find any or would it pilfered from my bags by the military). In my archaeological work in the American southwest (Arizona, New Mexico, & Utah) I've certainly been stopped in my tracks at night watching the stars or getting back to my tent trying to locate the direction of a rattlesnake warning. The wood this stick is made from is not as hard as that used to make an animal cudgel (moramo) that the same researcher gave to me (for coup de grace on larger ungulates-I'll try to illustrate that when I can), but this stick is not made from a softwood. I've paid a lot of attention to raw material selection in my work with Venezuelan foragers and with the Maya folks I work with, but my colleague did not make comparable observations about wood choice. This example has been carefully smoothed after debarking and the dark staining below the knob (visible to the left of the end of the measuring tape in the photo) is from heating the wood and straightening it. This piece was selected to have the natural proximal knob for holding. The distal end (for the ground) has been carefully trimmed. This is intended as a piece of personal gear, useful for many years, and is not an expedient implement. That proximal knob has some polish from use. It is a relatively new piece when my friend obtained it, but is a used example. I was told it is thrown at mambas (don't want to get too close!), but these do not break too often (it is still supple and exhibits no cracking, unlike the maramo cudgel I have) and are intended to be retrieved and reused. I'm checking a source on Hambukushu foraging and tool manufacture to see what else I can dig up on this implement.
  19. Rusty Greaves

    Walking Sticks - and as Weapons

    As an anthropologist I agree with Mervyn's introduction to this thread about the importance of sticks in human technology. In my work with traditional peoples, sticks of many "simple" forms are some of the most creative and often-used implements in their total tool repertoire. On 29 February, 2012 Chris mentioned the use of ~1m long sticks by Ethiopian men in this thread, and Mervyn requested a photo of such a walking stick/weapon. I do not have one from Ethiopia, but was given an example from Botswana by anthropology colleagues who worked there. In the spirit of Mervyn's emphasis on some African (and especially South African) useful designs, especially against snakes, I offer an image & description of this modest stick. This is a man's walking stick and expedient protective weapon used by Hambukushu people (sometimes known by the more pejorative terms: "River Bushmen" or "Swamp Bushmen", although they are Bantu-speaking folks and not Xanekwe or Khoi people) living in the Okavango River Delta region of Botswana. It's primary defensive use is against aggressive mambas, and it was better known as a "mamba-stick" than as a walking stick. This example is 96.5 cm long and was made in 1992.
  20. Here is an unusual example of a variant of the reverse design of a sash star of the Gran Cordon Class of the Orden del Libertador that was part of an exhibit: From A Thankful Nation: the Latin American Medals & Orders from the Robert L. Ross Collection at Princeton University (2014, illustrated catalog may still be available: full color catalogue of the exhibition, containing 736 pages with 969 color photographs, is available for $125 from the Friends of Princeton University Library, One Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544. Inquiries about ordering can made to Linda Oliveira at loliveir@princeton.edu or at (609) 258-3155.) This example has the Venezuelan coat of arms executed in enamel on the reverse the sash star rather than cast in relief as seen on the mini examples I illustrated in posts on 11 January & 20 January 2017, and all other examples of the reverse with the coat of arms I have seen. That may suggest this is likely a pre-1922 creation before more codified design standards were established. The red & blue dyes of the sash are faded as well, possible being non-aniline dyes? (http://rbsc.princeton.edu/thankful-nation/case/a)
  21. Lars, Thanks for bringing up this topic! I've enjoyed Uwe's significant knowledge of this Order. I keep looking at the variant forms in illustratios of the full-sized awards, and it is quite staggering. If I can sort out some aspects of design variability better I'll try to illustrate some in a systematic way. The Condecoraciones de Venezuela website has the most detail I've run across about the designs of this order, but even that is still quite confusing to me. It is a long entry, and I have not undertaken the task of trying to translate it yet for non-Spanish speakers interested in this thread. I may yet do that when I can make the time. I made an error in my post of 20 January 2017 where I identified the 3rd, 4th, & 5th images of the miniature as either the 3rd, 4th, or 5th class of the Orden del Libertador, the Medal-Medaille website does identify is as a 5th Class, Knight's (Caballero) mini. Updating the info I got from http://condecoracionesdevenezuela.com/civiles-nacionales-orden-del-libertador/ about the several manufacturers who made the full sized medal are: Distintivos, Venezolanos; Gathmann Hermanos, Caracas; S. Picard & Cie., Caracas; Boullanger, Paris; LeMaitre, Paris; Godet & Sohn, Berlin; Russell Uniform Co., New York; in addition to other possible unspecified French & German makers (I noted that the mini in my 20 Jan 2017 post was made by De Greef of Brussels). Rusty
  22. Rusty Greaves

    Venezuela - Cross of the Army

    Here are a few additional variants for the Cruz del Ejercito. The first image shows a very different configuration of the obverse laurel wreath on the margin of the central medallion than seen in other examples, the reverse of this badge (2nd image) exhibits the probably older form of the inscription FUERZAS TERRESTRES VENEZOLANAS rather than the CRUZ DEL EJERCITO VENEZOLANO that is more common on most photographs of this award. The last images are probably examples of early obverse design variants of the award mentioned in the Condecoraciones de Venezuela website's description of the medal (also see the unusual reverse inscription) and would not considered authorized versions that were likely awarded to members of the Venezuelan military. Image of the obverse of a version of the Cruz del Ejercito, possibly the 2nd Class, that may be an earlier variant versions or a modern manufacture of this award. Note the difference in the forms of the leaves of the laurel wreath on the medallion margin around the central boss compared with all other examples I have seen photos of, especially apparent in contrast with the close-up of the medallion design shown in the 3rd image of my post on 29 November, 2017. (http://wawards.org/oldsite/america/ven/12/medal.html) Image of the obverse of a version of the Cruz del Ejercito, possibly the 2nd Class, that may be an earlier variant versions (or a modern manufacture?) of this award. Note the inscription FUERZAS TERRESTRES VENEZOLANAS and unusual relief sculpting of the laurel wreath border that is also present on the example illustrated in the 5th photo of my post from 29 November, 2017 that shows the reverse with the same inscription. The Condecoraciones de Venezuela website identifies this inscription as authentic reverse motto for this award. (http://wawards.org/oldsite/america/ven/12/medal.html) Variant trial forms of the obverse design for the Cruz del Ejercito showing non-standard enamel colors for the arms of the cross, probably representing early trial forms during the initial design period of this award as mentioned on the Condecoraciones de Venezuela website. (http://condecoracionesdevenezuela.com/militares-cruz-del-ejercito/) Image of the reverse of one of the variant versions of the Cruz del Ejercito shown in the last image that also exhibits an alternate reverse inscription: FUERZAS TERRESTRES DE VENEZUELA rather than FUERZAS TERRESTRES VENEZOLANAS that is an authorized form of the reverse design on some (probably) early versions of this medal. (http://wawards.org/oldsite/america/ven/12/medal.html)
  23. Rusty Greaves

    Venezuela - Cross of the Army

    Illustrated below is an example of an usual configuration for the reverse of the Venezuelan Cruz del Ejercito. This is identified as a 3rd Class medal of this award, which consists of the medal suspended on a ribbon. The laurel wreath on the reverse has green enamel in the same color as on the obverse. No other illustrated examples I've come across show this variation. The condecoracionesdevenezuela.com website translated above on 29 November, 2017 identifies most known variants as "trial" forms, primarily related to the red enamel color of the arms on the obverse of this medal and no mention is made of enamel on the reverse. This example is from a Venezuelan auction site Mercado Libre, the listed price is BS 300,000. Today's black market "value" of the Bolivar is at 255,900 to the US dollar (= an asking price of $1.17) thanks to the hyperinflation that Venezuela is experiencing. Venezuelan Cruz del Ejercito, 3rd Class, obverse (https://articulo.mercadolibre.com.ve/MLV-508520379-condecoracion-cruz-del-ejercito-venezolano-3era-clase-_JM) Venezuelan Cruz del Ejercito, 3rd Class, reverse showing unusual configuration of having green enamel in the laurel wreath. Most examples do not not show enamel on the reverse of this wreath, only on the obverse. (https://articulo.mercadolibre.com.ve/MLV-508520379-condecoracion-cruz-del-ejercito-venezolano-3era-clase-_JM)
  24. Rusty Greaves

    South American bow and arrows

    During my research with the Savanna Pumé of Venezuela, metal used to make the points on arrows was very scarce. For the thin, pointed small-game & fishing arrows I have previously illustrated in the post of 10 January 2017, pieces of bar steel or nails were scavenged from criollo garbage dumps or traded in from River Pumé with greater access to trade items. Larger pieces of steel to make lanceolate arrow points used for large game arrows was even scarcer. The Savanna Pumé used worn-out machete or knife blades, broken or worn-out shovels, or other pieces of scrap steel that they could find. When I started looking at museum collections from 1934 and 1958 I was surprised to find a couple of design features for these lanceolate arrows that at first was puzzling, but I eventually determined was an indication that steel raw material was even scarcer in these earlier time periods. Several examples in collections at the Univ. of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology collected in 1934 and examples in the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), New York) and the Peabody Museum of Archaeology & Ethnology at Harvard University collected in 1958 showed these features. Near the proximal portion of these lanceolate points where they insert into the foreshaft, a small horizontal bar was attached to the distal foreshaft with palm leaf fiber string that would have prevented deeper penetration of the arrow beyond the point. One example in the AMNH had a rounded mass that is made of wound palm leaf fiber string (at least on the most exterior portion, there may be cloth under these windings) at the distal foreshaft/proximal end of the point blade. These points were designed not to penetrate any deeper into prey so that if the hunter had a poor shot and the animal was likely to be able to escape, the arrow had a higher probability of falling out and the valuable metal point would not be lost. This feature was especially important in deer hunting, where the success rate was relatively low because of the open savanna environment and the difficulty in getting close enough for a good shot (traditional folks always try to get well within 30 m of their prey with any projectile technology, arrows, spear throwers & darts, blowguns, throwing sticks, or crossbows, etc.). The use of museum collections in my research allowed me to see these economic constraints outside of my anthropological lifetime and get a deeper temporal view of raw material availability and its influence on technological design for this group of foragers. Example of a River Pumé large game arrow with a thin wooden bar tied to the proximal end of a lanceolate point with moriche palm leaf fiber in lateral view to prevent deep penetration of the point and conserve the metal if a killing shot was not made and the animal had a chance of escaping. The stop at the proximal end would allow the arrow to fall out if the game was able to run off with a potentially non-mortal wound and the hunter could collect the arrow and its valuable metal point. (AMNH #40.1.58) Superior view of the same arrow collected among River Pumé in 1958 by Anthony Leeds showing the small wooden bar tied to the distal portion of the foreshaft to prevent deeper penetration. (AMNH #40.1.58) Close-up superior view of the same arrow collected among River Pumé in 1958 by Anthony Leeds showing a detailed image of the attachment of the small wooden bar tied to the distal portion of the foreshaft to prevent deeper penetration. (AMNH #40.1.58) An example of a lanceolate large game arrow from AMNH (collected among River Pumé in 1958 by Anthony Leeds) with palm leaf fiber string windings (lateral view) to make a large knot that also prevents deeper penetration of the point in case of a poor shot. (AMNH #40.1.54) Superior view of the same River Pumé large game arrow showing the wound string stop in relation to the thickness of the arrow point blade. (AMNH #40.1.54) Two lanceolate large game arrowpoints showing the past use of the bar stop attached with palm leaf fiber string to the distal foreshaft of a River Pumé arrow collected by Vincenzo Petrullo in 1934 (lower arrow; UPENN Museum #34-3-7) and a recent Savanna Pumé lanceolate point collected by me in 1993 that lacks this feature (upper arrow; UPENN Museum #96-1-453). The same two UPENN arrowpoints with a slightly different angle on the older River Pumé point (UPENN Museum #34-3-7) collected by Petrullo showing the horizontal width of the proximal stop.
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