Jump to content
Gentleman's Military Interest Club

Rusty Greaves

Silver Membership
  • Content count

  • Joined

  • Last visited

Posts posted by Rusty Greaves

  1. Here is an image of Michael Hansson, a Norwegian judge appointed to the Egyptian Mixed Courts in Mansourah 1906. He became the president of the Court of Appeals in Alexandria in 1927, and held that position until the end of his tenure on the courts in 1931. He later served on several international arbitration commissions and on the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague. Hansson accepted the Nobel Peace Prize in 1938 and delivered the acceptance speech to the Nobel Committee on behalf of the Nansen International Office for Refugees (associated with the history if the UN High Commissioner for Refugees), where he was president from 1936-38. Among his other honors were the Grand Cordon Class of the Order of Ismail and Order of the Nile.  


    This photo of Judge Hansson shows him in 1912 as a judge on the Mixed Courts in Mansourah. He wears the fez, long tunic, sash (unpleated, indicating it is not that of the Appeals Court, but they were seated in Alexandria), and judicial badge of office. I cannot determine if Hansson's initial appointment was to the District Courts or the Parquet. Jasper Brinton's 1931 book on the Mixed Courts mentions only one Norwegian who served on the Parquet by 1930, but does not name him (although Brinton does discuss some of Hansson's judicial work). In this photo, it is unclear whether the badge is silver (Parquet) or silver & gold (District Courts). Just this week I received a higher quality print of Judge Crabitès 1911 portrait as a judge of the District Courts (shown as a lower resolution scan in my first post in this thread) that does show the gold contrast with the silver of that badge design in a black & white image approximately contemporaneous with this image of Judge Hansson (and that contrast can be seen in the image on my first post here). The above photo of Hansson may suggest a central stripe of a different color and fabric from the margins, as seen in the color image of the first photo in my post of April 27, and possibly in the portrait of Judge Gennaropoulo, in the final photo in my post of 24 March, 2017. I suspect this portrait of Judge Hansson may show him in the regalia of the Parquet.  (https://nbl.snl.no/Michael_Hansson); (Michael Hansson av Ukjent/NTB Scanpix ※. Gjengitt med tillatelse)


  2. Here is a better resolution version of the photographs portrait of Abbas Hilmi II that appears to be the primary basis for the portrait bust on the Abbas Hilmi II commemorative medal for his coronation anniversary and return from Hegaz. This image, and the one I included on April 28, are the only two versions of this portrait I have so far found on the internet. 

    Abbas Hilmi 1910 portrait Atelier Resier from AMAR copy.jpg

    This is identified as a 1910 portrait of the Khedive, the year he returned from his pilgrimage and the year of his coronation anniversary, made by the studio Atelier Reiser, of Alexandria & Cairo. This version of the image comes from the AMAR Arab Music Archiving & Research website, for podcast #20 of August 1, 2013 playing examples of music associated with Abbas Hilmi Pasha, both during his reign and well after he was deposed due to ongoing anti-British sentiments in Egypt. (http://www.amar-foundation.org/020-khedive-abbas-ilmi-ii/). The signature on the lower left is that of Abbas Hilmi II. 


  3. Below is an Egyptian medal commemorating the termination of the Mixed Courts in October 1949 (they were initially established in October of 1875), and the unification of the Egyptian Court system. I have a couple questions about signatures & hallmarks on these medals. The first example from Sixbid.com/Stephen Album Rare Coins may be silver, see the hallmarks on the reverse below. All 3 examples have a signature under the R shoulder of the obverse Farouk I bust, and I wonder if anyone knows who this may identify as the medallist? The signature appears to be similar to that on the Egyptian 1955 five pound coin showing Tutankhamun riding in a chariot with a drawn bow (underneath the forequarters of the horse), also on the 3rd & 5th Anniversary of the Revolution 1 pound Egyptian coin, and is a design very similar to that on the Republic of Egypt Military Medal of Courage (lacking this signature on the obverse). The 2 examples from eBay are bronze, they lack the hallmarks seen on the Sixbid.com/Stephen Album Rare Coins medal, and the eBay listing identifies the "STB" signature, seen on all 3 medals on the inferior of the reverse to the R of "MIXTE", as that of Tewfik Bichay. Is that a signature Bichay used? The engraving of this medal seems much less fine than any other Bichay commemorative pieces I have seen.


    This 1949 medal from an auction taking place on 18 May, 2018 on Sixbid.com/Stephen Album Rare Coins (lot 1776) shows King Farouk I on the obverse and the inscription of the commemoration of the end of the Mixed Courts and judicial symbols. I am unclear what the symbolism of the R side of the design may be that is overlapping with the scales of justice? The medal is identified as 42 mm in diameter weighting 32.27 g, no material is identified, but note the hallmarks on the inferior margin of the reverse to the L of "MIXTE" suggesting this is a silver medal. (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=4785&category=141394&lot=3944922



    Two of these medals are offered on a current eBay listing by egynotes_74. Both are identified as 43 mm in diameter, variably weighing 27.27 (shown above) and 27.32 g. Both of these eBay medals are identified as bronze and lack any hallmarks seen on the silver example above. The example shown above is supposedly identified as being the work of Tewfik Bichay because of the "STB" hallmark on the inferior portion of the reverse. (https://www.ebay.ie/itm/EGYPT-BRONZE-MEDAL-OF-KING-FAROUK-1949-MIXTE-NE-EXTREMELY-RARE/222926942423?hash=item33e77b30d7:g:X1kAAMXQyY1TV6cB) - this example is shown above & (https://www.ebay.ie/itm/EGYPT-BRONZE-MEDAL-OF-KING-FAROUK-1949-MIXTE-EXTREMELY-RARE/222944960504?hash=item33e88e1ff8:g:afAAAOxyoA1RSx18)

    Incidentally, the 4th photo in my April 27 post on this thread showing Youssef Zulficar Pasha talking with Aly Maher Pasha, also is of interest to my research on the Mixed Courts. Zulficar was a judge on the Mixed Courts beginning in 1926 and became vice President of the Alexandria Court of Appeals. In addition to being father of Queen Farida of Egypt (married to King Farouk I), Zulficar married Zainab Sa'id, the daughter of former Prime Minister Muhammad Sa'id Pasha, and she was the sister of the influential modernist artist Mahmud Sa'id (who painted the portrait of the President of the Appeals Court, Jasper Brinton, shown in my post on this thread of 1 December, 2016). As I've noted elsewhere in this thread, Mahmud Sai'd also was a judge on the Mixed Courts. Although Mahmud Sa'id is currently quite well-known for his paintings that can command high auction prices, he was never a professional artist, his work on the Mixed Courts was his profession.  At least one of my posts incorrectly says he only served on the courts for a short time. Sa'id joined the Mixed Courts in 1922 as an Assistant Judge, he then served as a Judge on the District Courts of Mansourah in 1927, and in Alexandria from 1937 until resigning in 1947 at age 50. Youssef Zulficar is controversial for his sympathies with the Axis powers during the early potion of WWII, making several communications with the Germans regarding King Farouk's potential interest in alliance with the Axis, and delivering one communique about the upcoming British & Soviet invasion of Iran, while serving as the Egyptian Ambassador to Iran (1939-41). Zulfikar was initially opposed to his daughter's marriage to Farouk, and later drew Farouk I's ire by discussing the marriage and 1948 divorce following the King's abdication. 

  4. Here is an image of Ahmed Hassanein Pasha, Chief of the Diwan and Chamberlain to King Farouk I, wearing the Order of Ismail. He is obviously violating the convention that Owain mentions of limiting the medals worn on any occasion to 4 on his March 12, 2018 post in this thread discussing precedence in how they are worn. Although Owain states that is a UK practice, it seems that Egyptian royalty at least did often adhere to displaying a limited set of medals for official appearances or portraits. In contrast, Ahmed Hussanein Pasha is sporting at least 10 medals, in addition to a sash with badge (which appears to be the Egyptian Order of Muhammed Ali), and at least 8 smaller medals. The Order of Ismail is prominently visible in a comparable position to that shown in the official portrait photo of Farouk I on 13 November, 2017 in this thread and in the birthday photo of Fouad II posted here on 12 March and on 22 April, 2018. 

    Ahmned Hassanein pasha 2.jpg

    Photo of Ahmed Hassanein Pasha (https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9b/Ahmad_Hasnein.jpg)

  5. I have an update on Massonnet Editeur, some additional information about this commemorative medal, and comparative info on other Abbas HIlmi medals  in the thread on this topic in the Middle East & Arab States section: 


  6. Gentlemen, I have found some additional information about the medallist Massonnet and a have a few other observations about this Abbas Hilm II commemorative medal. 

    Massonnet represents a family of medal designers and die engravers in Paris who designed a range medals, primarily European commemorative and art medals. The earliest references I can find to the company is an 1855, copper 10-sided medal measuring  26 mm in Diameter, medal, the reverse has C. Massonnet et Fils. identified with their full "Éditeur de Médailles Imperials... " title & street address in Paris as the entire reverse "design", catalogued at the (Musée Carnavalet, Histoire de Paris) website. Frequencies of "Massonnnet Edit" work can be identified by their appearance on numismatic auction listings of dated commemorative medals. The Abbas Hilmi II medal was probably designed/engraved by one of the sons of Charles Massonnet, the likely founder of this somewhat prolific but minimally documented family. The presence of certain photographic documentation of this medal with Catherine Bichay in Canada, suggests that the design/dies were provided to Maison Tewfik Bichay in Cairo and they cast the medals. There is only minimal mention of Massonet in Leonard Forrer's immensely encyclopedic tomes: Forrer, L. (Compiler), Biographical Dictionary of Medallists: Coin-, Gem-, Seal Engravers, Mint Masters &c., Ancient and Modern, with References to Their Works, B.C. 500 - A.D. 1900. Spink & Son. London. Published in 6 main volumes and 2 supplemental volumes between 1904 and 1930, at various addresses across that period. Information about Massonnet is mentioned once in Vol III (Pg. 603) and once in the supplemental volume VIII (pg. 33). The Massonnet name is associated with the signature "Massonnet Edit", and they were known as Massonnet Éditeur de Médailles Impériales, Massonnet Éditeur (designer/engraver) médailleur (medal maker), and made prize medals, royal commemoratives, badges, tickets, etc. engraved by various artists.

    Interestingly, very few Kingdom of Egypt medals were made by Massonnet. None of the best-known Abbas Hilmi II medals were designed by them.


    The Abbas Hilmi II commemorative medal (67 mm in diameter) for the International Import & Export, Suez Competition, in gilt bronze, c 1892 (the year he began ruling at age 18) is signed "SJ", probably Stefano Jonhnson of Milan. (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=1655&category=34440&lot=1484705)


    The Abbas Hilmi II 1895 bronze commemorative medal (67 mm in diameter) celebrating the International Exposition of Progress also is signed "SJ", probably Stefano Jonhnson of Milan. (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=1655&category=34440&lot=1484706)


    Both of the above medals appear to have used this photographic image of the young Abbas Hilmi II Pasha as the model for his bust on the obverse. On the medals, his mustaches have been given some added heft to make him look more authoritatively older. (http://lcivelekoglu.blogspot.com/2013/12/tarihten-bugune-dusen-notlar-20-aralik.html)


    The Abbas Hilmi II commemorative medal of 1897 in silver, 70 mm in diameter, issued for the Dedication of the National Museum of Egyptian Antiquities in Cairo was designed by Séraphin Emil Vernier, of Paris. He was a sculptor, metal worker, engraver, and medallist. Interestingly, at least to me as an archaeologist with a familial connection to a Judge in Cairo, one of the French houses he made jewelry for was Froment-Meurice in 1882-85. They and other French & Egyptian jewelers manufactured the beautiful, large, & heavy Judges' badges for the Mixed Courts and Native Courts of Egypt (see my thread "Egypt Khedive Judge's Badge question" started 17 November, 2016, in the Middle East & Arab States section). Vernier was sent to Egypt by the French government in 1896-97 to study Ancient Egyptian jewelry. Vernier's signature appears on many Egyptian commemorative medals, in addition to his large body of important European médailleur work. (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=1655&category=34440&lot=1484707)



    The Abbas Hilmi II medal commemorating the 1st Congress of Medicine in Cairo on the 19-24th of December, 1902 in silver is unsigned (unless there is engraving on the rim), but is not the work of Massonnet Edit. Obverse=above, reverse=below. (http://www.ebay.com/itm/like/323207911226?vectorid=229466&item=323207911226&rmvSB=true)


    The 1869 Ismail Pasha medal commemorating the Opening of the Suez Canal, cast in white metal, 50 mm in diameter, is the only other Egyptian medal I have found so far that was made by Massonnet Edit. This particular medal appears to have been designed or engraved by C. Trotin, a fairly prolific medallist, for Massonnet. Trotin's signature ("C. TROTIN") appears on the inferior of the obverse (L). Massonnet's signature ("MASSONNET EDITEUR") is on the inferior of the reverse (R). (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=1655&category=34440&lot=1484698)

    Abbas Hilmi Coomemmorative medal.jpg


    The portrait of Abbas Hilmi Pasha on the medal commemorating the anniversary of his coronation and return from Hejaz is quite different from the first two medals illustrated above. It does not appear to be solely based on any one photograph, at least not the best-known of Abbas Hilmi II. The details of his uniform closely match the following portrait of Abbas Hilmi I, including the chest medals. Details of the proportions and perspective of his fez are identical between the photo and the medal. Perhaps because His Highness the Khedive of Egypt, Abbas Hilmi Pasha is a low resolution image, some facial aspects of the bust do not seem to match. However, there is significant similarity in the facial outline, perhaps in eyebrow shape & definition, but the medal bust does not appear to be completely adapted from this portrait photo shown below. The bust may be modeled or modified partly from one of the other most-used portraits of Abbas Hilmi Pasha. There is a chance that other photos were used for the modeling of his facial features on the medal (which exhibits slightly more scowl in the eyebrows, narrower eyes than in the two portraits I'm illustrating, thinness & height of the face of the face compared to this portrait, differences in the chin and jowls). All of that could be my imagination, or the médailleur using artistic license to make Abbas Himi II look more imposing, or the difficulty in changing 2-D art into a 3-D low-relief sculpture? Certainly, the more centered chin dimple also suggests some idealizing was done to any extant portrait images. As an archaeologist, I well know that Pharaohs & Queens of Ancient Egypt almost all (really, except 1) idealized their own public images in all available media. There is no suggestion that Abbas Hilmi did life-posing for the portrait, although that is possible (the stern expression of the eyebrows and narrower eyes might suggest exposure to more than the available photos, unless it is purely artistic improvement and not mostly political design strategy). Compared to the other official Abbas Hilmi II medals, this commemorative medal is only about the Khedive's personal achievements. The design of the new bust for this very handsome medal might have merited some form of a sitting, or brief observation by the Massonnet Edit artist. 


    Portrait of Abbas Hilmi Pasha with uniform and fez matching details on the commemorative medal for the anniversary of his coronation and return from Hejaz. Several aspects of the face also match the medal's bust, such as the outline of the face, prominence of the cheekbones, nose shape, perhaps the eyebrow configuration. However it seems to differ in the height of the face, narrowness of the eyes, details of the jowls, and curl of the mustaches. (https://www.huzursayfasi.com/biyografi-sayfasi/9223-abbas-hilmi-pasa-kimdir-s1.html)


    Probably the most commonly duplicated photo portrait of Abbas Hilmi II used for a wide quality range of cards, hand-colored single & composite images, newspaper illustrations, etc. during the Khedive's lifetime.  Possibly a 1911 image. (https://www.periodpaper.com/collections/antique-vintage-art/products/1911-print-egyptian-khedive-abbas-il-hilmi-bey-sudan-military-uniform-portrait-168464-xgjc9-036)


    An example of the above portrait use in a hand-colored card. (http://1.bp.blogspot.com/--UtYF3QtK8U/UJ_zVJ2JcaI/AAAAAAAAaQw/wmHc-BVA4yg/s1600/544691_487730171259309_364027293_n.jpg)

    I am still unsure of the date for the manufacture of this medal? As you may see if you look at past threads, Egyptian Zogist evaluated the low resolution images of the  inscription on the reverse, and after he re-calculated his dates wrote in his post on this thread of 28, August 2016 that 1328 AH (1910) AD) was associated with the coronation anniversary, and 1327 AH (1909) with the Khedive's return from Hegaz. See Egyptian Zogist's post for other cool details on these dates. These are confirmed as dates for the Hajj from skimming document & photograph entries in the Univ of Durham Catalogue of the Abbas Hilmi II Papers online listings. The catalogue identified photos from his pilgrimage dating to 1909, possibly lasting into 1910. It is further confirmed through dated memories an Egyptian colleague consulted recently. His great grand uncle was Ahmed Chafik Pasha, Chief of the Khedivial Cabinet at the time, he wrote that the Khedive's departure for the Hegaz was in Dec 1909. Abbas Hilmi II's enthronement anniversary was 8 Jan 1910. His return to Egypt was on 25 Jan, 1910. I can further explore this with the Durham Univ Abbas Hilmi Papers. I can't link to documents in the Catalogue, and it is a very large archive (19 meters long & in 9 languages), but it is indexed in useful detail. Many photo descriptions in the Catalogue identify locations and dates along the Khedive's Hajj. However, I still do not know when this medal was made? How did Tewfik Bichay articulate with Massonnet Éditeur médailleur? That's enough for right now.

    As a complement, and a compliment, to Egyptian Zogist for the Cairo Punch cartoon supplied on 5 November 2016 in my initial thread on this medal in the Africa section (see http://gmic.co.uk/topic/69654-help-with-egyptian-khedive-medal/?do=findComment&comment=643578) showing Abbas Hilmi arriving in Al-Madina, I am including another Cairo Punch cartoon below.


    Cartoon from Cairo Punch showing Abbas Hilmi (identified at the head of the pilgrims with the stamped words THE KHEDIVE) leading the sa'i ceremony in Mecca. The British Museum identifies this images as dating to 1910. Can "No. 62 Third Year" in the top left corner of the cartoon border be associated with a volume or date for The Cairo Punch?  (https://blog.britishmuseum.org/hajj-pilgrimage-to-mecca/)

  7. I found a fun image of the Mixed Courts' Judges' badge embossed in gold on the front cover of one of the definitive volumes about the Mixed Courts that went through 3 printings between 1930 and 1968: Brinton, Jasper Yeates, 1931 (revised edition). The Mixed Courts of Egypt. Yale University Press, New Haven (Oxford Univ press, London, Humphrey Milford). I know this embossed badge graphic is not stamped on the 1968 2nd edition, but don't know if also was embossed on the 1930 printing. I had not seen this lovely publishing touch until I took off the fragile dust jacket. 

    Brinton book embossing best image 2MB.jpg

  8. I came cross an interesting picture on Pinterest of regalia for the Mixed Courts recently, it still raises several questions I have not yet resolved in my research. 


    This photo from what I believe is a Turkish website shows a silver version of the judge's badge for the Mixed Courts. As I have noted, the silver form of this badge was used in the Parquet (the office of the Procurer-General), technically called the Ministère Public that included judges (seated magistrates), prosecutors, a range of roles that would be considered analogous in the United States to US Attorneys or District or State Attorneys. This particular example was made by Froment Meurice. The illustrated sash is green and red, matching the few descriptions I have encountered for judges of the Parquet, and also providing good detail on the metallic gold border & fringe. However, the only description I have found of the the Parquet sash described it as having a superior green stripe over red, maybe it means "green over red" but not implying an upward-oriented green stripe. Obviously this example has a central green stripe surrounded by 2 red stripes. The one photo I have seen of a Parquet judge, in black & white, may show this configuration of a central stripe of different color than two possible border stripes (photo of Judge Gennaropoulo, in the final photo in my post of 24 March, 2017 in this thread), even though I initially interpreted it as a green stripe above red. The above example appears to be a single type of fabric, but either with hindsight or influenced imagination, it appears there may be fabric differences in the portrait of Judge Gennaropoulo suggesting a configuration like that in the koleksiyonerim.blogspot image above. The crescent and 3 stars, are probably silver. I have not seen these devices used in the few illustrations of judges on the Appeals Court (the painted portrait of Appeals Court Judge and President Jasper Brinton in my post of 1 December, 2016; and probably the 4 photos in my post of 27 October, 2017); the District Courts (2nd image provided in Egyptian Zogist's post of 23 November 2016 in this thread that is a painted portrait of an unidentified judge; the 1911 photo of Judge Crabitès in my first post of 17, November 2016 in this thread); nor the Parquet (photo of Judge Gennaropoulo, in the final photo in my post of 24 March, 2017). I have seen the crescent and stars worn with sashes of unidentified men who are supposedly Egyptian judges who are not wearing the large Mixed Courts' badges (see below). These forms of judges badges may also have been worn by judges working in the Native Courts (see my post of 6 November, 2017 in this thread). The tip from Egyptian Zogist of 4 November, 2017 identified an auction sale of a gold judge's badge used by a British member of the Native Courts, identical to that worn by judges of the Appeals Court of the Mixed (Intenational) Courts. So the Native Courts may also have had judges using gold & silver badges (as did the International District Courts) and silver badges (as did the members of the International Parquet). I wonder if the gentlemen identified as "judges" in the photos below, and using the crescent & star devices on their sashes, are another form of legal official, or worked in lower courts, outside of the Mixed Courts or Native Courts? I still have no idea how the crescent & stars are associated regalia with the sash and large judges badge in this photo. The associated description for this images is: "Hidiv Adalet Nişanı: Fransa'nın meşhur kuyumcu ustası Froment-Meurice tarafından yapılmıştır. Mısıra görevlendirilerek giden Türk Adalet yetkililerine hizmetlerinden dolayı takılmıştır. Eser Abdülaziz Döneminde 1850-1876 tarihleri arasına tarihlenmektedir. Eserin ön yüzünde, bir taç altıda ışıldayan bir yıldız, orta kaidenin içinde ise " El adlü asaü'l mülk" yani "Adalet mülkün temelidir" ibaresi, arka yüzünde ise sanatçısı Froment Meurice damgası yer almaktadır." (Pinterest: http://koleksiyonerim.blogspot.com/2013/01/osmanli-donemi-nisan-ve-madalyalari-1.html) 


    Photo on an eBay auction with the identification "Egypt old vintage photo of judge with scarf" showing the use of a sash (monochrome?), the crescent and there stars. The crescent & stars appear comparable in size to those in the Pinterest image. The two men on each side of him have been dodged out of the print to make it a single portrait. The dodging did not eliminate the traces of a sash on the man to the viewers L, who may have been similarly attired. (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-Judge-with-the-scarf/273105393192?hash=item3f96599628:g:z7YAAOSw2LlapUOW)


    Photo of a man identified as Egyptian judge during the Khedivirate. He is wearing a Crescent with 6 of the smaller stars comparable to those in the eBay image and to those in the Pinterest image with the addition of one larger star on a pleated sash, as seen only for the Appeals Court of th International Mixed Courts. The studio image is from Photo-Ramses, le Caire. (http://picssr.com/photos/kelisli/interesting/page21?nsid=7892156@N08). 


    Modern Egyptian judges shown during a more general pro-democracy demonstration in March, 2006 supporting legal protection for judicial independence (from the baheyya.blogspot http://baheyya.blogspot.com/2006/03/spring.html) wearing green, pleated sashes with metallic gold border & fringe, showing the use of 3 comparabley-sized stars and the Republic's Eagle of Saladin instead of the Ottoman Crescent. This photos show the judges in green, pleated sashes (the Supreme Judicial Council) standing in front of judges in red, unpleated sashes (as also shown in the illustration on my post of 1, November, 2017in this thread), suggesting the retention of costume similarity and precedence in the modern judiciary inherited from the Mixed Court practices. (http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger/3388/941/1600/IMG_2412.jpg

  9. In relation to my post of April 22, I have a couple photos of the individuals who discussed Judge Crabitès' return to Egypt in correspondence I quoted in that post. 

    Ahmed Hassanein Pasha,  who  conveyed King Farouk I's enthusiasm for Crabitès' impending return to Cairo in 1942, was Chief of the Diwan and Chamberlain to King Farouk I. 



    Ahmed Hassanein pasha.jpg


    Aly Maher Pasha, who wrote to Crabitès in 1938, 2 years after left the Egyptian bar, telling him that King Farouk I wished to send him a map of Africa realized under orders of Khedive Ismail, was Prime Minister in 1936, and from 1939-1940, and again in 1952.

    King Farouk I with primeminister Aly Maher pasha.jpg

    King Farouk I (L) with his Prime Minister Aly Maher (R)  (http://picssr.com/search/aly+maher+pasha)

    Youssef Zulficar pasha with Aly Maher pasha.jpg

    Aly Maher (R) talking with Youssef Zulificar Pasha (father of Queen Farida)

  10. Indeed, I have strayed from miniatures, let's get small...

    Here is an example of a miniature of the Kingdom of Egyptian Medal for Devotion to Duty. Ed Haynes has a thorough discussion of the award and and high resolution images of the 1st Class (gold) miniature medal on a post of 25 January, 2007, in the thread "Arab Medals - Egypt" he started on 12 January, 2007, here in the Middle East & Arab States section (http://gmic.co.uk/topic/20809-arab-medals-egypt/?do=findComment&comment=143010). The medal I illustrate below appears to be lower resolution images of the same medal on Ed Haynes' post. Owain illustrated the obverse of a silver (2nd Class) miniature of this medal on 11 December, 2017 in this thread (bottom row, 3rd medal from L), and the reverse of that miniature on 12 December (bottom row, 3rd medal from L). Owain also illustrated the obverse of another silver mini of the Medal for Devotion to Duty from a Spink auction on 16 February in this thread (lower row, 2nd from L). 



    miniature of the 1st Class (gold) Medal for Devotion to Duty showing the blue ribbon color (http://picssr.com/photos/kelisli/interesting/page171?nsid=7892156@N08).


    Obverse of this same miniature of the 1st Class (gold) Medal for Devotion to Duty (http://picssr.com/photos/kelisli/interesting/page163?nsid=7892156@N08).


    Reverse of this miniature of the 1st Class (gold) Medal for Devotion to Duty (http://picssr.com/photos/kelisli/interesting/page163?nsid=7892156@N08).


    Here is an image of a miniature of the Khedive's Sudan Medal, 1910 in silver (also awarded in bronze). Obverse is on the L and reverse is on the R. (http://picssr.com/photos/kelisli/interesting/page63?nsid=7892156@N08)


    Because the resolution of the image above is not good, here is an illustration from a Player's Cigarettes Card that shows the reverse detail well, and has a short description of the medal. (https://www.pinterest.com/offsite/?token=770-659&url=https%3A%2F%2Fi.pinimg.com%2Foriginals%2F78%2F95%2Fed%2F7895edbc6bb45e66543093224b8445fb.jpg&pin=7881368070921510&client_tracking_params=CwABAAAADDk5NTc1OTE3ODA0MwA~0). Ed Haynes also has high resolution images of the obverse & reverse of the full-sized bronze medal of this award (identifying it as being issued from 1910-1917) in his post of 6 July, 2007 on the thread "Arab Medals - Egypt" he started on 12 January, 2007, here in the Middle East & Arab States section (http://gmic.co.uk/topic/20809-arab-medals-egypt/?do=findComment&comment=189652). 


    And yet another miniature Order of the Nile, identified as the Grand Officer Class, with correct galon for the 2nd Class. However, the galon orientation appears to be incorrect (gold on R, silver on L) on the above example. Owain's illustration of 2 April also shows a 2nd class with galon, but with the gold on the L and silver on the R, which is the correct orientation. The miniature Order of the Nile I illustrated on my first post of 2 April has the galon of the 3rd Class, Comander, all silver (or blanc). All of the other miniatues of the Order of the Nile illustrated in this thread with rosettes lack any galon, indicating they are the configuration of the 4th Class Officer award.

    Obverse =https://www.flickr.com/photos/kelisli/3051549274; Reverse=https://www.flickr.com/photos/kelisli/3051549296/in/photostream/

  11. I recently came a cross a medal commemorating the life of one of the judges on the Egyptian International Courts, Dr. Manuel Monteiro. He was educated in archaeology, ethnology, and was a historian of Romanesque art in Portugal, later completing his law studies. He was a Portuguese appointee to the Egyptian District Courts, serving much of his time in Alexandria. He was originally commissioned to the District Courts of Mansourah in 1916. The obverse identifies a date of 1921 which is when he was transferred to the Courts in Alexandria. He was appointed as the Vice-President of the District Courts in Alexandria in 1930, and left the Courts in Egypt in 1940 as WW II loomed and returned to Portugal. Manuel Jaoquim Rodrigues Monteiro also was involved in liberal politics in Portugal prior to assuming his position in Egypt. After 1940 he devoted most of his time to his interests as an art historian and scholar of cultural heritage. 


    Obverse of the Dr. Manuel Monteiro commemorative medal, designed by João da Silva in 1955. (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-ALEXANDRIA-JUDGE-OF-INTERNATIONAL-COURT-1921-DR-MANUEL-MONTEIRO/202278118157?hash=item2f18b7230d:g:l7YAAOSwkLhZ54pB) 


    Reverse of the same medal on a recent eBay auction.

    Peripherally related to this thread on regalia of the Egyptian Mixed Courts, the only numismatic reference I've found related specifically to a judge on those courts, and associated with my own field of archaeology. 

  12. Owain, do you know why the central inscription on the reverse of the Republic era Medal for Merit is calligraphically the same as on the obverse of the Order of Independence of the Republic? You illustrated the obverse of 2 miniatures of the Medal for Merit in you post of 13 December, 2017 showing a 1st Class (gold, 3rd from left) and a 2nd Class (silver, 4th from left). Good illustrations of all 3 classes of the 1984-present Type 4 versions of this medal are shown on the Medals of the World website (http://www.medals.org.uk/egypt/egypt-republic/egypt-republic018.htm).

    1954 Egypt Medal for Merit eBay reverse.jpg

    Reverse of the Republic of Egypt Medal for Merit, identified as from 1954 (If so, then Type 1), from a recent auction listing on eBay. Compared with the Medals of the World illustrations, the eagle suspension device appears to have been attached backwards in this photo, or twisted (the eBay illustration of the obverse shows some deformation of the hole under the eagle's tail and the link does not appear attached in either image). (https://www.ebay.ca/itm/1954-Egypt-Military-Merit-Order-Badge-Medal-Wisam-Nichan-Sash-Solid-Silver/222945666193?_trksid=p2485497.m4902.l9144)


  13. Owain, thanks for your information. So there are 5 classes, not 3 as many sources list? I'm grateful for your description of the bright red & dark red variations in the arms on the embellishment. I wasn't sure if some of the photos I looked at showed something like that or just color differences in how the photos were taken/processed. 

    Here's an attempt to present the Fuchs hallmark form my last post in correct orientation-I feel really dumb about this-

    Order of Independence of the Republic hallmark 2.jpgOrder of Independence of the Republic hallmark.jpg

    Fuchs hallmark on L from the La Galerie Numsmatique 1st Class full-sized medal (https://www.coins-la-galerie-numismatique.com/auction-xxix/order-independence-republic-egypt). Fuchs hallmark on R from Sixbid.com/La Galerie Numismatique full-sized 3rd Class neck badge (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=1845&category=37879&lot=1613256

    000183 (18)-500x500.JPG

    An example from the falera-et-orbis website has this engraving on the reverse of the full-sized chest star of the 1st Class award (https://www.falera-et-orbis.com/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=241). 

    000183 (16)-500x500.JPG

    The reverse of the 1st Class full-sized sash badge on the falera-et-orbis website shows the same reverse engraving (https://www.falera-et-orbis.com/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=241)

  14. Here is a photo of a miniature of the Egyptian Order of Independence of the Republic (Nisah al-Istiklal). Owain has (of course) previously illustrated 2 examples with slightly different configurations in his post on this thread of 12 December, 2017 (2nd photo, the 2 medals on the left). 


    This example is identified as the "5th Class, Knight's award", although most sources I've seen only identify 3 classes. The dimension are given as 17 mm wide X 24 mm high, partially silver gilt with enamel. From Sixdbid.com/La Galerie Numismatique (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=4662&category=133592&lot=3837429). Both of Owain's illustrated miniature examples from 12 December, 2017 each show different execution from each other and from this example. The leftmost example in his photo with a rosette on the ribbon has a galon indicating a 2nd Class award. 

    For comparison, below are a few examples of the the full-sized medals for this Order.


    image of a Grand Cross Class sash badge of the Order of Independence of the Republic from La Galerie Numismatique. Dimensions are 64 mm wide X 84 mm high (inclusive of the eagle suspension device). Silver, partially gilt, and enameled. (https://www.coins-la-galerie-numismatique.com/auction-xxix/order-independence-republic-egypt)


    Chest star of the same Grand Cross Class set of the Order of Independence of the Republic from La Galerie Numismatique (apparently with some slippage of the silver embellishment for problematic orientation on this medal). The star measures 73 mm in diameter, silver gilt and enamel. (https://www.coins-la-galerie-numismatique.com/auction-xxix/order-independence-republic-egypt)

    Egypt Order of Independence of the Republic.JPG

    Example of the neck badge of the 3rd Class Commander version of the Order of Independence of the Republic from falera-e-orbis.com (https://www.falera-et-orbis.com/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=147). No dimensions given for this medal, however, other examples identified as 3rd Class medals from from Sixbid.com/La Galerie Numismatique give the dimensions as 56 mm wide X 80 mm high (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=1845&category=37879&lot=1613256) or from La Galeri Numismatique as 63 mm wide X 93 mm high (https://www.coins-la-galerie-numismatique.com/auction-xxvii/order-independence-republic-egypt-0). The positioning of the gold rays of the medal over the silver rather than red enameled rays on the embellishment appears to be an incorrect configuration on this piece.  

    Order of Independecne of the Republic hallmark 2.jpg

    This hallmark is shown in several internet examples of the full-sized medal for the 1st & 3rd Classes. Please forgive me if my ignorance of Arabic has let me illustrate this incorrectly, the orientation of photographs of the hallmarks are highly variable, even in this one it is shown two different ways (https://www.coins-la-galerie-numismatique.com/auction-xxix/order-independence-republic-egypt). Sixbid.com illustrates a Tewfik Bichy hallmark for a Grand Cross set from a Katz Coins Notes and Supplies auction, as does eMedals for a Grand Cross set and a probable 2nd Class set.   

  15. Below is a photograph identified as the Grand Officer Class miniature of the Egyptian Order of the Republic (Type II, unspecified variant of the post-1958 designs). Owain has illustrated a miniature of this medal here in this thread on 12 December, 2017, that is a Type II post-1958 design (see discussion below) and may have some greater detail in its execution compared with this medal (2nd photo, 4th medal from the right, with a green, white & red colored ribbon). That example shows at least 2 divisions in the blue enameled frame of the central medallion, possibly some differences in the length of the enameled arms compared with the rays of the embellishment star below, and has the Republic's eagle on the suspension device. Owain's example has slightly different ribbon colors from the correct colors illustrated below. 

    Egypt Order of the Republic mini.jpg

    From: the Liveauctioneers website, an auction listing of 23 November, 2013, Lot 0214. It is identified as silver gilt, 17 mm in diameter, with original suspension ring, ribbon, & rosette with galon exhibiting gold on L and silver on R, correct for the Grand Officer Class. Manufacturer is not specified. The design indicates this is a miniature for one of the later versions of the Order of the Republic award (see descriptions of the full-sized medals below).  (https://www.liveauctioneers.com/item/21114502_order-of-the-republic)

    Below are a few examples of the full-sized Order of the Republic award to show design differences from the miniature. 

    Order of the Republic Grand Cordon 1st Class Type I c 1953.jpg

    For comparison, here is a full-sized example of the GrandCordon (1st Class ) Order of the Republic in its earliest Type I form (1953-1958) with one of the five arms oriented to the top, light blue enamel on the arms, and an arabesques suspension device. Made by Tewfik Bichay. From eMedals, identified as c.1953, the sash badge measures 62 mm wide X 79 mm high. the chest star measures 92 mm wide X 93 mm high. (https://www.emedals.com/egypt-republic-an-order-of-the-republic-1st-class-grand-cordon-c-1953)

    Order of the Republic type II 1958-71.jpg

    Picture of 1st Class breast star of the Order of the Republic, Type II form, from eMedals. Made by Tewfik Bichay, measures 79 mm X 79 mm in diameter. Note that one of the five arms is no longer oriented at the top the medal, the dark blue enamel on the arms, and the eagle suspension device. This design is identified as covering 1958-1971.  The Eagle of Saladin used during the UAR period (1958-1961) and 10 years following has 2 green stars in the central white enamel stripe. The sash badge (and neck badge) has the same form of the Eagle of Saladin with 2 stars, but is a solid casting with no enamel. (https://www.emedals.com/an-early-egyptian-order-of-the-republic-1958-1971-w1756)

    Order of the Republic Grand Cross 1sr Class 1984-persent .jpg

    Image of 1st Class Order of the Republic full-sized sash badge (R) and chest star (L) from eMedals. Made by Fahmy Tewfik Bichay, the sash badge measures 63 mm wide X 83.5 mm high and the chest badge measures 79.5 mm wide X 84.5 mm high. This is identified as the 1971/72 - present form of the design. It is nearly identical to the previous Type II example except for a few differences in the form of the Eagle of Saladin suspension device: the form of the eagle compared with the earlier example (or is this the Hawk of Quraish used in the Egyptian coat of arms 1972-84?, but also facing the viewer's left), the lack of the 2 stars in the central white enamel stripe in the shield on the eagle from the UAR period (and then until 1971?), and a slightly longer legend under the eagle bearing the name of the state "Arab Republic of Egypt" as on the shorter version of this scroll on the 1958-71 period. There is no enamel on the shield on the eagle for the sash (or neck) badges.  (https://www.emedals.com/the-egyptian-order-of-the-republic-grand-cross-set-w1759)

    Full-sized examples of an interesting variant of the Order of the Republic also can be seen on the thread "An Egyptian Unit Award: The Military Order of the Republic", started by ChrisW on 27 January, 2017 here in the Middle East & Arab States section. In that thread, ChrisW describes & illustrates a variant of the Order of Republic awarded to military units, issued in a single class, that is identical in form with the 1st Class of the individual award (except for a 5-pointed star on the lower portion of the medal). ChrisW also provides several useful details on this award. His example of the Military Order of the Republic is a Type II example, with dark blue enamel on the arms and a post-1971 Eagle of Saladin suspension device. Owain illustrates an earlier version of this same award (Type I) in his post of 8 April, 2017 on that thread, which has the light blue enamel on the arms and an arabesques as the suspension device. 

    Aslo see the thread "Egypt Order of Republic" started by Markus on 18 January,  2011 here in the Middle East & Arab States section for additional information on the full-sized awards. 



  16. 922F, many thanks for this information, the JOMSA reference, and the photos! I wasn't doubting your information, just checking what someone else had told me about this question. You obviously are more aware of the situation in relation to the exiled royals' role in continued award of orders, as well as being a dedicated phalerstics enthusiast. I was interested in the JOMSA article, and can see the resemblance to Nishan el Kamal elements, although I think the Order of the Virtues has a much more elegant & beautiful set of designs. 

    Here is a higher resolution image of the Farouk Family Order/Egyptian Order of the Crown:


    Higher resolution image of what is called the "Star of the Imperial and Royal House of Farouk of Egypt" on the Royal Egypt blogspot http://petersroyalegypt.blogspot.com; higher resolution image from: https://petercrawford1947.wordpress.com/2011/02/03/royal-egypt/the-star-of-the-imperial-and-royal-house-faruk-of-egypt/

    What do you know about an item identified as a diamonded "Honor Badge of the Egyptian Dynasty"? This image below is from Sixbid.com/LA Galerie Numismatique (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=3427&category=71681&lot=2842249).

    Diamonded Honor Badge of the Egyptian Dynasty.jpg     From an April 19-21, 2017 auction (Session1, Lot 719). The description for this states: "engraved and dark-toned medallion with golden monogram "Sultan Mohammed 1333"... 51 X 25 mm, gold, with an outer circlet set with brilliants, ornamented suspension loop, surmounted by the royal crown of Egypt, also set with brilliants, bar, with reverse pin. A most rare Court decoration of Egypt...Provenance: the Royal Family of Egypt." 

  17. In relation to the recent manufacture of the Order of Ismail by the firm ELM out of Singapore (http://elm.com.sg/fr/orders-decorations-medals/orders-decorations/) that is probably still manufacturing the Order of Ismail. 922F points out on in this thread on 5 December, 2017 that these awards are probably presented through Fuad II. 922F also wrote on July 9, 2007:

    "Egypt's President formerly was (and still may be) chief, formerly Grand Master, of all Egyptian Orders and some decorations, thus explaining Mubarak's Egyptian awards. As long-time head of state, he also holds many foreign decorations. 

    An Egyptian Crown Council affiliated with exiled King Fuad [Fu'ād] II administers his dynastic Muhamed Ali and Ismail Orders; occaisional awards still occur. An Egyptian source reports that Fuad authorized the Crown Council to re-institute the Royal Order of the Nile in the mid-late 1990s. One of Farouk's supposed "love-children" distributes an "Order of the Egyptian Crown" for a fee.. "

    -from the thread "ARAB MEDALS -- Egypt" started by Ed_Haynes on January 12, 2007) here in the Middle East & Arab States section. 
    My Egyptian friend provided some additional detail about this: "I am not aware that King Fouad II is awarding any orders or decorations. He has awarded very few with the rank and title of Pasha, but this is not common knowledge.  He likes to keep it hush hush. However, I am not aware of any other honors that he has invested people with or awarded them. There is no Egyptian Crown Council whatsoever.  The order of the crown, along with another award or two (in the form of breast stars) are nothing official. I think that may have been established by the Mohamed Ali Foundation, which is run by a junior prince and cousin of the King, but it is not recognized by the King." 
    ELM Order of Ismail advert.jpg


  18. In relation to questions about the order of precedence in wearing orders (see the portrait of Farouk I that I posted here on 13 November, 2017, 11th & final image; and the image of Fuad II posted March 12, as well as Owain's 2 responses of March 12), an Egyptian friend with connections to the royal family provided the following information about wearing medals: 

    "The picture of King Fouad II, in front of the late King Farouk is at his home in Switzerland [see image below, picture at upper right & center right-RG]. The breast star of the Order of Mohamed Ali [in the central image below, or that posted on March 12-RG] is in the place of precedence as it is closer in the center of the body and the star of the Order of Ismail is to its left.  Order of precedence of breast stars are on the left side of the body (closer to the heart) and either closer to the axis of the body and to the right of another breast star, or above another breast star. Either position is seen as a superior position to any other insignia of orders. At last that was the protocol in the Middle East.  A peculiarity to Middle Eastern Orders is that the star of a Grand Officer (second class) is a smaller version, but similar design to the star of a Grand Cordon and is worn on the right side of the chest as opposed to the left, which is the custom in western protocols. In your language the 9 o'clock position (for breast stars of Grand Cordons is an place of superiority, equivalent to the 12, if the 12 is not occupied (as in the case of King Fouad II and his late father, King Farouk)." He also note that: "...the King wore his Cordon of the Order of Mohamed Ali on the wrong shoulder, at HRH Prince Mohamed Ali's wedding!  [below, center image on left-RG] Not sure who advised him to do that."
    So in the portrait of Farouk I, the Grand Cordon Order of Muhammed Ali in the upper left position is the position of precedence,  the Order of Ismail is second, and the Order of the Nile third (with no medal occupying the 12:00 o'clock position). In the portrait of Fuad II, the order of Muhammed Ali is taking the 12:00 o'clock position as an alternative position of precedence to the 9:00 o'clock position


    Photo montage images of Fuad II by ROYAL WORLD THAILAND (@royalworldthailand) commemorating 16 January, 2018 – the "66th Birthday Anniversary of His Majesty King Fuad II of Egypt; the only son of King Farouk I. He succeeded the throne of the Muhammad-Ali Dynasty after his father’s forced abdication. Fuad became the King for almost 1 year, and he was about a year old. The monarchy was officially abolished and declared the Republic in 1953". (https://instarix.com/p/1693358436737010408_3629956815#)

  19. I recently had an opportunity to visit one of the library document archives of materials related to my wife's great grandfather, Pierre Crabitès. His 25 years serving on the Mixed Courts in Cairo is the reason I have started looking into the judges' badges for this court, the Order of Ismail, and the Abbas Hilmi II commemorative medal I have posted about here under the Middle East & Arab States section. 

    I went to the Crabitès Collection at the University of New Orleans that contains a number of correspondence documents, newspaper clippings, and miscellania that his wife saved and donated to the University. This is apparently not as rich an archive for Crabitès as those in Washington, Boston, and London.
    Crabitès retired from his judgeship on the Mixed Courts in Cairo (the District Courts) in 1936 because the British had blocked his advancement to the Court of Appeals due to his royalist sympathies. Back in the US, he eventually managed to get an assignment from the OSS to return to Egypt in January 1942, and went to Cairo that May. Immediately, the British started to block his assignment in Egypt, again because of his friendliness with King Farouk I. The OSS acceded to their wishes and cancelled his position, despite the reason they accepted Crabitès was they wanted his closeness with King Farouk to help get information about how the King was disposed toward the Allies. Initially Crabitès made contact with Hassanein, the Chief of the Royal Cabinet, and it was clear Farouk was happy to have Judge Crabitès in Cairo. Hassanein conveyed the King’s belief that: "He has long felt the need of having the counsel of a foreigner of his father’s generation who knows Egypt and who has no ulterior motive to subserve. There is no telling what blessing to Egypt, to the Allied cause and to a heal thy understanding with England may not flow from your presence here." (State Department Document: 123 Crabitès, Pierre/7: Communiqué from Pierre Crabitès,transmitted by Alexander Kirk, Cairo, to Colonel Donovan, through the Secretary of State, 28 May 1942). Crabitès was sent back to the US for a while, was tentatively given an appointment to Beirut, which the British eventually blocked as well. He returned to Egypt in June 1943 for his re-assignment to Baghdad, where he arrived in July. Crabitès died there in October 1943, from complications of lung infections he got shortly after returning to Egypt in May 1942. 
    I came across a couple of brief telegrams from King Farouk I to Crabitès. The first is from October 1942 to Crabitès c/o Washington DC (when he was back in Virginia). The second is from February 1943, also when he was in Virginia, unfortunately the first pasted paper line of that telegram has been lost. Both are illustrated below. 

    telegram 1.jpg

    Telegram of October 14, 1942 from King Farouk I from October 1942 to Pierre Crabitès c/o Washington DC, while he was back in Virginia prior to returning to Egypt (Crabitès Collection, University of New Orleans, New Orleans Louisiana, 73-2).

    telegram 2.jpg

    Telegram of 11 February, 1943 from King Farouk 1 to Pierre Crabitès c/o Washington DC, also when he was in Virginia, unfortunately the first pasted paper line of that telegram has been lost (Crabitès Collection, University of New Orleans, New Orleans Louisiana, 73-2).

    I also found a letter of 18 August 1938 from "Aly Maher, Palais de Ras El-Tine, Alexandrie, Cabinet de S.M. Le Roi", (on letterhead with the Khedival Crown) to Crabitès then teaching at Louisiana State Univ in Baton Rouge, (he also kept an apartment at an address directly across from Jackson Square at 526 St. Peters, New Orleans, and his granddaughter recalls that he had a mummy in that apartment near his study). I did not get a scan of that letter, but my notes indicate it states he has the honor, on order of "S. M. Le Roi, Mon auguste maître et souverain, la Société Royal a expedidé á votre adresse, par l’entremise de la maison cock, un exemplaire sur toile de la carte de l'Afrique estable sur les ord de S. A. le Khedive Ismail." (Crabitès Collection, University of New Orleans, New Orleans Louisiana, 73-2. Please pardon my transcription, I can read some French because I speak Spanish, but have never studied French).  

  20. Owain, many thanks of the wonderful images of this example of the Order of Ismail. It is great to have your documentation of the case labelling and high resolution image of the hallmark of Fahmy Tewfick Bichay (my post of 4 December 2017 has a lower resolution image of this hallmark). I am very interested in 922f's point about shortages of ribbons dyed in appropriate colors, in this case for the 1940-44 period. I'm not sure whether the colors in the picture you reference of the Grand Officer Class that I posted on 13 November, 2017 (6th photo) may represent a similar dye discrepancy. Some other aspects of the blue enamel color and possibly the green of the wreath in this photo make me think there may be a color shift in the image, rather than significant variation in the actual piece as appears with both the blue & red (pink) of the ribbon on the example in Owain's recent contribution of April 5. I have not seen other examples of those color differences in internet images of these awards. Very interesting and important point you make about potential scarcity from a discussion with Fahmy Tewfick Bichay, fascinating! 

    I'm including 2 images below from Pinterest boards (identified as Grand Officer Class awards) that are very high resolution and particularly good for providing details on the engraving in the gold ornamentation of the arms of the stars in the blue enameled rays for both the chest star and neck badge. In Owain's example above of the April 5, there is no engraving on this gold ornamentation. The resolution of other internet images I have seen of the Commander Class is not good enough to tell whether other examples may lack that engraving. Several photos of 4th Class (Officer) medals are good enough to show the 3-D engraving of this ornamentation is present on most examples I have seen on the internet. Could this also be a variant because it is a casting by Fahmy Tewfick Bichay and not from from Lattes or Tewfick Bichay, or the time period? The wreath on Owain's Commander badge also shows some differences from other examples; all aspects of the wreath, the gold dots (blossoms or fruit?), and the red bands with gold borders all are less detailed than on other examples by Lattes & Tewfick Bichay. The ball finials at the end of each arm also are flatter and have smaller areas of enamel than seen in other images of the neck badge. The examples in my illustration from 4 December 2017 by Fahmy Tewfick Bichay also appear to show this same lack of detail in these design elements, although the photos are not high resolution. In those photos, the chest star also appears to lack the engraving on the gold ornamentation, as well as some difference in the details of the wreath (and these are identified as Grand Officer regalia). 

    Order of Ismail GO Class neck badge.jpg

    High resolution image of the neck badge of the Grand Officer Class of the Order of Ismail. This image shows the 3-D details of the engraviging on the gold ornametaion of the arms of the star better than most other photographs I have seen. From Charles Huggins Pinterest board: Flags of the past. (https://www.pinterest.com/pin/298433912792222444/)

    Order of Ismail GO class copy.jpg

    High resolution image of the chest star of the Grand Officer Class of the Order of Ismail. This image shows the 3-D details of the engraviging on the gold ornametaion of the enameled arms of the star better than most other photographs I have seen. From Worldantiques Antiques Pinterest site The Khedives of Egypt (https://www.pinterest.com/pin/7881368074139698/)

  21. Here is another example of variant design execution on a miniature Order of the Nile. This image is from a current auction of La Galerie Numismatique/Sixbid.com


    Miniature Order of the Nile identified correctly as the Officer version (4th Class) with some variant design elements. Unlike all other examples of miniatures shown in this thread, this medal features diamond facets only along the primary central rays of each arm on the star design and a very open set of fewer relief spheres forming the medallion margin for the inscription. This example appears to have no enamel in the inscription, it is unclear if this is a design variation or if the enamel could be missing for another reason. The given dimensions of the medal are 27 x 17 mm in diameter. Only the central medallion is identified as gilt (gold?). (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=4662&category=133592&lot=3837425)

  22. Owain, thanks for the rapid reply & clarification. I just want to confirm what you've outlined means that the wings are only worn with miniatures for designating the class of the award? 

    Here is another example of a miniature Kingdom-era Order of the Nile medal with some minor design variation compared with those previously illustrated. This is from a January 2018 auction on eBay. (https://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/372202693345?clk_rvr_id=1487114366260&rmvSB=true).


    Obverse view of a Kingdom of Egypt-era miniature Order of the Nile from a past eBay auction. It is identified as made of silver and as the "5th Class" of this award, but probably is the 4th Class (because of the rosette on the ribbon) This example has a variation in the configuration of the suspension device that is seen in some examples previously illustrated on this thread. The most noticeable design variation from other examples shown in previous posts here is the narrower width of the Khedival crown portion of the suspension attaching to the link ring. (https://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/Miniature-Medal-Group-1WW-Coronation-1937-and-Egypt-Order-of-the-Nile-5th-Class-/372202693345?rmvSB=true&clk_rvr_id=1487114366260&nma=true&si=EdnxlJchhEz4pHCHK4ZZ5CyX0a4%3D&orig_cvip=true&rt=nc&_trksid=p2047675.l2557)


    Reverse view of the same Kingdom of Egypt-era miniature Order of the Nile medal on a bar exhibiting 3 other miniatures as part of this group, from a January 2018 eBay auction (https://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/Miniature-Medal-Group-1WW-Coronation-1937-and-Egypt-Order-of-the-Nile-5th-Class-/372202693345?rmvSB=true&clk_rvr_id=1487114366260&nma=true&si=EdnxlJchhEz4pHCHK4ZZ5CyX0a4%3D&orig_cvip=true&rt=nc&_trksid=p2047675.l2557)