Carol I

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  1. Yes, Romania is naturally placed in the "Central & Eastern European States" section.
  2. Lambert, can you post a good image of the cypher of Queen Maria? Thanks in advance.
  3. The gold edges on the ribbons were introduced in 1938.
  4. The “ΑΩ” on the obverse suggests a church connection. What are the markings on the reverse?
  5. No problem, David, with the misunderstanding. I agree that authenticity could be hard to prove in many cases and for that very reason one needs to continuously study collection pieces to observe and compare details and weed out doubtful pieces or combinations. Regarding restoration, some parts could indeed be hard to find and I would advise a correct replacement ribbon to a period, but wrong one. Good luck with your search.
  6. I think there must have been a misunderstanding because this is what you wrote: I understand now that you must have the wartime insignia with swords through the centre of the cross. Some dealer practices are indeed questionable, to say the least, and one should strive to restore the award to its original condition, including matching the ribbon with the award. This puzzles me again. I do not understand how using a peacetime ribbon for a wartime insignia would be better than using the existing ribbon. Both are wrong ribbons for the wartime insignia. This being said, I wish you good luck to your search for the proper wartime insignia. One solution would be to look for crosses in very poor condition, but with the right ribbon. One could argue that Romania did get involved much earlier when it allowed the passage of the Polish treasury and elements of the Polish army, but I was referring to the issuance of declarations of war in 1941.
  7. I am not quite sure what award you have and what ribbon you are looking for. You first mention that the award should have the peacetime ribbon, but then you say that you have two wartime ribbons for which you are looking for rosettes. You also seem to refer to Type II and WWII interchangeably, but this is in fact not the case as Type II awards were in use between 1932 and 1947, while WWII lasted from 1941 (for Romania at least) to 1945. Please note that for the Order of the Crown you have a similar layout as for the Order of the Star I illustrated earlier, with civilian insignia, peacetime military insignia and wartime insignia.
  8. Thanks for posting the images of the miniature chain. Please note however that award no. 9 is in fact the Order of the Star of Romania in Commander class. It is also interesting to note that it is a type I badge with a type II ribbon. I wonder what might have caused the confusion. Maybe the manufacturer found in a haste only the description of the old type I of the award?
  9. Hi David, Romanian orders in Officer class always had the rosette, irrespective of being peacetime or wartime awards. Please see below an Officer's Cross of the Order of the Star of Romania with Swords on Military Virtue ribbon with the corresponding rosette.
  10. I have seen several badges with these features. They appear to have poorer quality in comparison to other badges, which might indicate lower quality WWI or post-war production, but this is just my feeling as I know of no research to prove this.
  11. Indeed, the medal was established together with the order and was awarded in two classes, 1st (in gold) and 2nd (in silver). Three medals were superseded in 1931 by the Order and Medal for Cultural Merit: Bene Merenti, Rewarding the Works for Education and Rewarding the Works for the Church. Paja is right, the miniature is Carol II type. Actually there is an easy way to distinguish the models: Carol II wears a hat and Mihai is bareheaded.
  12. I do not know of any published lists. However, the Chancellery of Orders was at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs during that period, so I suspect some lists could exist in their archives.
  13. I have found some further details. The number of categories was not the same throughout the history of the order. At establishment it had only 8 categories, but between 1937 and 1940(1) it had one extra category for activities in Straja Tarii. The ribbons were: Category A, literature: white ribbon with purple edges Category B, science: white ribbon with green edges Category C, arts, music and theatre: white ribbon with orange edges Category D, general culture: white ribbon with blue edges and a thin green stripe in the middle Category E, religion: red-blue-red ribbon (equal widths) Category F, school: white ribbon with thin red stripes on edges and in the middle Category G, scouting and sport: light blue ribbon with black edges Category H, social works: purple ribbon with green edges Category I, Straja Tarii: white ribbon with blue edges In 1937, scouting was taken out of category G and included in the new category I.
  14. This is indeed a rather scarce order. It was established in 1931 to reward achievements in various fields of culture, arts and science. The cross of the knight 2nd class was silver without crown and worn on the chest, the cross of the knight 1st class was silver with crown and worn on the chest, the officer's cross was gold with crown and worn on the chest and finally the commander's cross was worn on the neck. The cross of the order was enamelled purple irrespective of category. Two versions exist with respect to the effigy of the monarch in the centre, Carol II (1931-1940) and Mihai (1940-1947). The order had indeed different ribbons according to category, but I do not have my references at hand for further details. The order was disbanded after the fall of monarchy in 1947. An order with the same name was established in 1961 during communist time and disbanded with the fall of the communist regime. The old order was revived in 2000 in the current national system of orders, with a similar purple badge and the organisation in categories identified by different ribbons.
  15. You have a type II wartime Knight's Cross with a type I ribbon. The photos appear to show different colours of the cross and the crown, possibly indicating disparate pieces.