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Morar Andrei

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  1. Some of the vehicles used by the Romanian Armed after WW2. Most of them are still in service. Are still suitable for modern combat or are obsolete? TAA - tank destroyer project TR-77 T-55A TR-85 M2 - tank project MLI-84M TR-81M1 - Romanian main battle tank since 1980's TAB-71 (Transportor Amfibiu Blindat / Armored Amfibium Transport 71) ABC-79 TABC-33 Zimbrul APC
  2. Romanian armored car - What model?

    I found another armoured vehicle. This time, I'm sure this one is Romanian. It's an Austin (possibly modified) called "Mărășești".
  3. I've seen this image on the internet and reminded me about armored vehicles were used by both sides during the battle of Mărăști, Mărășești and Oituz. What model is this armored car? Is it captured, received during the French Military Mission or from other source? Thank you very much!
  4. The question is simple: did Romania use Assault Infantry durin's the Great War? If not, when was this kind of unit implemented in the Romanian Army?
  5. The arms supply of the Romanian Armed Forces after the Independence War was made almost exclusively by foreign acquisitions. In view of the accession of the Kingdom of Romania to the Triple Alliance, these acquisitions were made mainly from German companies - for artillery weapons - and Austrians for light infantry weapons. On the other hand, the provision of aircraft and the navy was done through French, British and Italian firms. In this respect, General Dumitru Iliescu remarked with bitterness that "the real arsenal, our pyrotechnics and our pulverization were in Essen-Krupp (for cannons) or in Austria, Steyr (for rifles) and Hirtenberg (cartridges), Bluman, Troisdorf and Rottweil (for powders)". At the beginning of 1914, the War Ministry drew up a plan to complete the war material, which provided for the purchase of the following military equipment from abroad, especially from Germany and Austria: 200 000 rifles, 134 machine guns, 582 machine gun rifles, 22 000 carbines, 45 000 guns; 85,000 daggers; 60 75 mm field batteries, 26 heavy 155 mm cannon batteries, 100 million infantry cartridges, 4,000 150 mm shell projectiles. The outbreak of war stopped importing, until August 1914 reached the country with only 24 machine guns, 102,806 rifles and 29,535 Mannlicher carbines. At the outbreak of the war, the Romanian Armed Forces, in terms of combat capacity, could not provide the force instrument at the hands of the country's political leadership to achieve the goals of eventual participation in hostilities. This state of affairs was due to a permanent neglect of the army by political decision-makers. As shown by Ion G. Duca: "The expedition in Bulgaria from the previous year showed that our military power was fictitious, that our army did not have enough cadres, that its reserves were not organized, that equipment, ammunition, weaponry, heavy artillery was missing , services back, drugs". Under the impact of these lessons identified, the new liberal government installed in early 1914 decided to launch a massive recovery program and strengthen the military's combat capability, which is in a critical situation because, as general Dumitru Iliescu showed, the sub- Chief of the General Staff, "on January 1st 1914, the army was in the greatest lack of everything it was necessary to enter the campaign." In this context, the Ministry of War - whose owner was even Prime Minister Ion I.C. Brătianu and the General Staff have developed four military reform plans with the overall aim of increasing its combat capability, including the "Plan for the Completion, Transformation and Repair of Weapons, Ammunition and War Materials" and "Equipment Completion Plan of all categories, and that of resolving the subsistence of humans and animals at all echelons of struggle and studying the establishment of large centers for the supply of nutrition and equipment." To implement these plans, significant funds were allocated, both through budget and extraordinary credits. The budget of the Ministry of War increased from 73,000,000 lei in 1913 to 115,000,000 lei (18% of the state budget) in 1916. At the same time, until the autumn of 1916 the amount of the credits for the army reached 700,000,000 lei, and until Romania entered the war at 838,841,215 lei. Regarding the addition of military equipment and military equipment, military officers had to cope with two critical situations: the lack of qualified personnel and means for domestic war production and the restriction of external supply sources, the two coalition battalions being reluctant when it was about honoring the orders of the Romanian state. Also, the variety of armament gauges had a negative impact on the training of troops, not allowing the uniformity of instruction and brought difficulties in the supply of ammunition during the World War. The result of the efforts of the years of neutrality resulted in the transformation of the Romanian army into a fighting instrument, but with two great limitations: an inferiority of the technical endowment - as a result of the difficulties in providing arms and ammunition as a result of the outbreak of the war - and a lack training and instruction on new methods, tactics, and procedures for fighting the warfare. Infantry equipment: In the period immediately following the conquest of independence, a first stage of the process of endowing the Romanian Armed Forces with modern armaments took place. The German Henry-Martin Caribbean model 1879, imported from Germany, as well as the Steyr carabiners in Austria, have now been purchased and imported. In a later stage, starting with 1894, they were replaced by the Mannlicher re-rifle, model 1893, caliber 6.5 - for infantry and similar caravans for cavalry. The Mannlicher was delivered in a modified model according to the requirements of the Romanian part (especially the replacement of the standard 8 mm diameter pipe with a 6.5 mm diameter), known as the "Mannlicher Romanian model - 1893". Until 1902, 150,000 such rifles and carbines were ordered. With the entry of these weapons, ammunition with smokeless powder was introduced, which provided an initial bullet velocity of over 700 m / s. After 1910, the first automatic weapons, the Maxim, Md. 1909, cal. 6.5 mm (specially modified to use the same ammunition as the Mannlicher rifles), Germany, and Schwarzlose, Md. 1907/1912, 6,5 mm, from Austro-Hungary. The quantities delivered until the outbreak of the war were small, providing only the endowment of a four-piece company for each infantry regiment (160 pieces). Prior to World War I, the infantry armament of the Romanian Army endowed: 474,036 rifles, 39,231 carbines, 413 machine guns and 61,189 pistols and revolvers, of a great variety of types and sizes, which would negatively influence both the quality of troop training and the supply with ammunition during the war. Here is a list of the infantry equipment used during the war: - M.1893 Manlicher rifle cal. 6,5 mm (271.130 in the army stock, together with 194.570.000 bullets) - M.1889 and M.1895 Manlicher rifles cal. 8 mm (60.000 in stock, together with 28.229.856 bullets) - M.1879 Martini-Henry rifle cal. 11,43 mm (142.906 in stock, together with 17.707.676 bullets) - Berthier repeating rifle, M. 1917/1915, cal. 8 mm - Vetterly-Vitali, M.1870/1887, cal.10,35 mm - M.1909 Hotchkiss machinegun rifle cal. 8mm - M.1915 Chauchaut CSRG machinegun cal. 8mm - M.1912 Lewis machinegun cal. 7,62mm - Maxim M. 1909 machinegun, cal. 6.5 mm - Maxim, M.1910 machinegun cal. 7.62 mm - Chattellerault Mittler M.1907 machinegun cal. 8mm - Schwarzlose M.1907/1912 machinegun cal. 6,5mm - Vickers Mk.1 machinegun cal. 7,7mm - Colt M.1895/1916 machinegun cal. 7,62mm - Hotchkiss M.1914 machinegun cal. 8mm - officer's sword M.1893 - officer's infantry sword M.1916 Cavalry equipment: The cavalry troops were endowed with the same type of weaponry as the infantry, with the specification that it was the carbine variant of those weapons: - Manlicher M.1893 carabine cal.6,5 mm - Martini-Henry M.1879 carabine cal.11,43 mm - Maxim M.1909 machinegun cal.6,5mm - Saint Etienne Revolver M. 1896 cal. 8 mm -Steyr M.1912 automatic pistol cal 9 mm - offficer sword M.1893 - mounted gendarm sword M.1895 - cavalry sword M.1906 - cavalry officer sword M.1909 - cavalry lance M.1908 Artilery At the beginning of the war, the field artillery was endowed with German Krupp steel cannons, model 1880, 75 mm and 87 mm guns (slow-blowing cannons). Starting 1905, the "fast-pulling" cannon, M.1904 Krupp, a 75 mm caliber, with ammunition using smoke-free powder, was fitted. In addition to the cannons, the field artillery was also equipped with a large caliber "Krupp" model 1901, caliber 120 and model 1912, caliber 105 and "Schneider-Creusot" model 1912 caliber 150 (imported from France). The artillery was equipped with bronze cannons "Armstrong", model 1883, caliber 63 mm. Prior to the war, a small number of more efficient French cannons "Schneider-Creusot", model 1912, caliber 75, came from import. Fortress artillery was equipped with German cannon "Krupp" and French "Hotchkiss", with cubed dome produced at "Saint Chamond" (France) and "Grüson" (Germany). Field Artillery - Armstrong M.1883 canon cal. 63 mm - Krupp M.1880 canon cal. 75 mm Field Artillery Modification - Krupp M.1904 canon cal. 75 mm - Krupp M.1912 canon cal. 105 mm - Schneider M.1912 howitzer cal. 105 mm - Schneider M.1912 howitzer cal. 150 mm - Smooth-drawing barrel Krupp, Md. 1880, cal. 75 mm - Puteaux M.1897 canon cal. 75 mm - Long barrel De Bange, M.1878 cal. 120 mm - Short barrel De Bange, M.1878 cal. 120 mm - Vickers M.1896 howitzer cal. 127 mm Fortress Artillery - Fast-Tuning Hotchkiss, Md. 1888/1891 cal. 57 mm - Krupp M.1885/1891 canon cal. 105 mm - Krupp M.1885/1891 canon cal. 150 mm - Krupp M.1888/1891 howitzer cal. 210 mm - Fast pulling gun Grusson, M.1887 cal. 37 mm - Fast pulling gun Grusson M.1887 cal. 53 mm - Sprue horns Krupp, M.1888/1891 cal. 120 mm Air Defense Artillery - Krupp M.1880 canon cal. 75 mm, installed on a rotating platform - Fast-Tuning Hotchkiss, M.1888/1891, cal. 57 mm, mounted on the "Black" type - Fast-Tuning Hotchkiss, M.1888/1891 cal. 57 mm, mounted on the "Burileanu" - Fast pulling gun Grusson, M.1887 cal. 53 mm, mounted on the "Burianu" - Fast-Tuning Hotchkiss M.1888/1891 cal. 57 mm, mounted on the "Krupp" - Antiaircraft Tunnel with Deport Dragging Fast, Md. 1911, cal. 75 mm - Anti-aircraft gun with fast firing Puteaux, M.1897 cal. 75 mm - Antiaircraft autotun Putilov M.1902 cal. 76.2 mm Antiaircraft guns - Christopher & Montigny anti-aircraft guns, M.1872 cal.11 mm - 90 mm Harel projectors White Arms Change - Sword for artillery troop, M.1890 - Officer sword, M.1893 - Sword for artillery troop, M.1896 - Sword for artillery troop, M.1916 Air forces The aeronautics had two sections in 1913, the first of which had five "Bristol-Coanda" machines at the Cotroceni Pilot Military School, and the second nine Bristol-Coanda aircraft, "Bleriot", " Farman "" Vlaicu ". Until the outbreak of the war, the number of planes reached 29. Planes used: - Bleriot - Maurice Farman - Henri Farman - Voisin L III - Caudron G3 - Morane Saulnier - Nieuport (tip 11,12,17,21) - Aviatik - Breguet-Michelin - Farman 40 - Sopwith 1 1/2 Strutter Aerostatic equipment: - Captured Drachen cylinder baloon of 630 cubic meters - Caquot type M balloons of 930 cubic meters Military Navy The Military Navy's development program provided for the purchase of twelve new ships (three torpedoes, a cruiser, five police boats, three cannon boats) from French and British companies between 1886 and 1887, as well as various shipping and barges produced at the Galati Flotilla Workshop. Since 1906, eight UK stars have been introduced to the Danube Fleet, and four Italian monitors have been hosted. Monitors - „Brătianu” - „Catargiu” - „Lahovary” - „Kogălniceanu” River stars - ,,Maior Ene Constantin” - „Căpitan Nicolae L. Bogdan” - „Căpitan Romano Mihail” - „Maior Dumitru Giurăscu” - „Maior Șonțu Gheorghe” - „Maior N. Ioan” - „Locotenent Călinescu D.” - „Valter Mărăcineanu”
  6. Here are some other strange vehicles. I have the mention that there is a little misconception, some of the tanks from this whole story have been attributed to the German designers, but they have never been planned, at least in Germany during the war. First examples are some fake images from that period or are modern-made:
  7. I have a collection of more or less blizzard German tanks images, and I was wondering if any of these could have been suitable, or at least having decent results in combat. Also, which one is your favourite?
  8. I want to say a huge thank you to Wardrawings for the very interesting images he created.
  9. Unfortunately, I couldn't find an exact answer to your question, but I recommend you the book "Artileria Română în date și imagini"/ "The Romanian Artillery in datas and images". I can give you a link to the book (I think it's only in Romanian, so you must translate it, but is a very good source of information): http://www.rft.forter.ro/17_bibvirt/pdf/004-artileria-romana-in-date-si-imagini.pdf
  10. The 1812 Russian-Turkish War

    I'm looking for images from this war, especially about any battle that took place on the teritory of modern Romania. If find same kind of images, but from the other wars, would be as good. Thank you! It's very interesting to from nd out that the Romanian Prinicipalities have bern the battlefield for the large empires for centuries. Here are 2 examples of other batyles that took place here: - battle of Oituz from 1788 (Austrians vs. Ottomans) - battle of Giurgiu from 1790 (same combatants)
  11. IAR CV-11

    The IAR CV 11 was a Romanian fighter prototype from 1930, designed by Elie Carafoli, and it was IAR's first original aircraft. In early 1930 a contest was called by the ARR for a new fighter type to equip its squadrons. During July and October, seven foreign types were tested at an airfield near Bucharest. No decision was made, however, since none of the contenders reached the minimal speed limit set by the requirements at 300 km/h. Despite the inconclusive results, the favourite plane seemed to be the chunky-looking Polish P.Z.L. P.1/II prototype, registered SP-ADO. During the same period, the air force commission was informed that a new fighter prototype had been completed at I.A.R., and it had reached an impressive 319 km/h top speed during initial test flights. Built according to the plans of Dipl.-Eng. Dr. Elie Carafoli and Lucien Virmoux, the I.A.R. fighter was an advanced construction. Named the C.V. 11 after its designers, it had a mixed metal-wood structure and cantilever, low-wing configuration, modern features soon to be adopted by all major aircraft manufacturers. The front fuselage structure was made of duraluminum tubes, while the rear part was of pinewood. The engine nacelle and the fuselage up to the cockpit were covered by duraluminum sheets, the aft part by plywood. The rear part of the fuselage merged with the tail without a substantial cross-sectional change, giving the aircraft a rather unusual arrow-like look. Due to its unconventional fuselage configuration the overall length came to less than 7 m, while the height was only 2.46 m. The 11.50 m span wing was made up by three sections of combined duraluminum/pinewood construction,reinforced by steel cables. The centre part housed the main wing fuel tank. The unbalanced control surfaces, which proved to be too small during trials, were made entirely of wood covered by fabric. The powerplant chosen was a Lorraine-Dietrich 12Fa Courlis with 12 cylinders arranged in a W configuration. Its maximum output was an impressive 600 h.p. (447 kW) but it proved to be too heavy for the small and light fuselage, which weighted only 1,100 kg, and caused a dangerous tendency to go into a spin at low speed. This shortcoming could not be eliminated, so the prototype, officially designated I.A.R. C.V. 11/W.8, had finally to be abandoned. In the meantime, a second prototype was completed at I.A.R. This time a less powerful but sensibly lighter Hispano-Suiza 12Mc engine, with 12-cylinders in V, had been fitted to essentially the same fuselage. Although weaker than its predecessor, this engine gave a superior maximum speed of 328 km/h at sea level and 295 km/h at 5,000 m. The armament of two 7.7 mm Vickers machine guns firing through the propeller arc had been retained from the first prototype. An O.P.L. type gunsight helped the pilot to aim its guns. After initial test flights, the second prototype, designated in French style I.A.R. C.V. 11 C1 (Chasseur monoplace), had been shipped to Istres, in France, where it arrived in January 1931. During the following two months further trials were conducted involving French specialists as well. The French specialists report, however, did not have any significant impact on ARR commission members. After the initial failure in reaching a verdict, this prompted the ARR leaders to set up a new, five member committee to decide the choice of fighter type to be introduced into Romanian service. After several months of inquiries and test flights, the commission finally decided four to one in favour of the P.Z.L. P.1 and against the faster but less manoeuvrable, spin-prone I.A.R. C.V. 11. Therefore, once the prototype returned to Romania, as a last measure, the I.A.R. team decided to make an attempt to break the speed record on a 500 km closed circuit. The record of 306,696 km/h in effect at that time for this category had been set up by the Frenchman Joseph Sadi-Lecointe, with a Nieuport-Delâge airplane. The record-breaking attempt was scheduled for the morning of 9 December 1931 on the Bucharest-Fetesti-Bucharest route. With the Capitan aviator Romeo Popescu at its controls, the C.V. 11 took off from Pipera-Bucharest military airfield at 11.30 a.m. The first 370 km were flown without any trouble at an encouraging average speed. Close to Lehliu railway station, however, the overheated Hispano-Suiza engine suddenly stalled, forcing the pilot to try an improvised forced landing with the now vicious airplane. Cpt. Popescu approached a nearby open field, but at contact with the thick snow cover one of the main wheels collapsed and the fighter turned over, crushing the pilot under the fuselage. Romeo Popescu, an experienced test pilot and holder of three Romanian national aviation records, died instantly. The investigation following the incident concluded that the lubrication of the overstressed engine, working at maximum power, was insufficient, causing seizure. Until that fatal moment, during an hour and thirty-four minutes of flight, an average speed of 319 km/h had been recorded by the onboard instruments, thus a good chance had existed of achieving the goal set by the temerarious pilot. However, by that time the dies had already been cast. Months before, in September 1931, General Constantin Lazarescu, the new inspector of DSA, decided not to consider the I.A.R. design any more, but to purchase the Polish P.Z.L. P.11, an upgraded version of the initial P.1 Characteristics: • Crew: one • Length: 6.98 m (22 ft 10⅞ in) • Wingspan: 11.50 m (37 ft 8¾ in) • Height: 2.46 m (8 ft 0¾ in) • Wing area: 18.20 m2 (195.9 ft2) • Empty weight: 1100 kg (2425 lb) • Gross weight: 1510 kg (3329 lb) • Powerplant: 1 × Hispano-Suiza 12Mc, 373 kW (500 hp) Performance • Maximum speed: 329 km/h (204 mph) Armament • 2 x .303 Vickers machine guns
  12. IAR 471

    The IAR 471 was a 1943 prototype of ground attack aircraft and dive bomber aircraft built by Industria Aeronautică Română. The IAR-81 had not proved a great success as an improvised dive bomber and experience with the IAR-47 showed that the IAR 14K would not be up to the demands of powering a full-sized dive bomber. Thus by early 1943 the Romanians still lacked an effective ground support aircraft . In November 1942 IAR had at last secured a license for the manufacture of the German DB 605 engine and planning now centred on this powerplant. On January 16, 1943, a new dive bomber project, the IAR-471, was commissioned which was to be powered by the DB 605. Although the Germans lent Romania numerous Stukas from mid-1943, they would not sell any. Therefore, the design of the IAR-471 was persevered with for reasons of self-sufficiency. Despite its designation, the IAR-471 bore little resemblance to the smaller IAR 47 and was essentially a different aircraft. It was designed with a superior performance to the Stuka, much helped by the retractable undercarriage, but a lighter bomb load, and on May 7, 1944, the Stuka's two underwing 37mm cannons were ordered to be included in its specification. It was planned to order 100 IAR-471s and 136 engines from IAR in 1944/1945, but IAR was in the throes of dispersing its factories and beginning production of the Bf 109G and declared itself incapable of simultaneously producing the IAR-471. This halted the project even before Romania's defection to the Allies in August. No prototype flew. There were (at least) one IAR 471 prototypes built, its fate being unknown. No picture of the plane has survived. Characteristics: • Crew: 2 • Length: 11 m ( ft in) • Wingspan: 14 m (45 ft 10 in) • Height: 3.2 m ( ft in) • Wing area: 29 m2 (312 ft2) • Gross weight: 4300 without bomb load kg (9,479l lb) • Powerplant: 1 × IAR DB 605, 1,100kW kW (1,475 hp) Performance • Maximum speed: 490 km/h (304 mph) • Service ceiling: 8000 m (26,245 ft) Armament • 1 x 20mm MG151 cannon firing through the airscrew spinner • 2 x 7.92mm Rheinmetall wing mounted • 2 x 37mm BK 37 Rheinmetall under wing • 2 x 7.92mm Rheinmetall MG for rear gunner • 500kg (1,100lb) bomb under fuselage 2 x 100kg (220lb)
  13. I like military vehicles from the Second World War, and I even started a small collection. But I got stuck. I was looking in all the shops from Romania after a tank metal figurine (I don't want to build it from scratch, but to find an already built one, just like a toy/model) but I found nothing. Can you help me with some suggestions from foreign countries? I can also request my uncle, who is living in Canada to look after any, but I want to find first anything useful from you, gentlemen. Andrei (sorry for the mess, at the moment I lack a propper place to put my collection)
  14. Searching for tank metal figurines

    Good question... I once had a Tiger I kit and it was scale 1/72 from Revell, so this would be the scale I'm looking for. Second of all, any WW2 nation tank would be useful, but I have a preference for the German tanks. But if there would be a slight chance to find any Romanian tank, or that was was used by the Romanian army, it would be interesting too. Thank you very mych. Andrei
  15. I found something that might look like an armoured train used in the '90s, during the conflicts from Yougoslavia. I don't know where this photo was done and whose train was. I honestly thought that armoured trains haven't beed used since World War 2. That also makes me question: are armoured trains yet used in modern combat? Or that one was an exception?
  16. Armoured train in the Yougoslavian conflict?

    My question is the next one: where did they get the Hellcat turret from? I don't know if such tanks have been used in Eastern Europe.
  17. Armoured train in the Yougoslavian conflict?

    Thank you for information! The Krajina Express is the armoured train I was looking for. About the Hellcat turret, when I've seen the photo first time, I said like "is that not an American turret?", idea which qas confirmed in your answer. Thank you again! Armoured trains are mostly associated with the Great War and the coventional war in general. That's why it's very interesying to know they are still used in a form or another. Andrei Here is also a bit from its operation history and composition, iformation found on Wikipedia: The main battle in which the train became involved was the siege of Bihać. The train's crew also performed in combat in the role of infantry. The improvisation of weapons was a common feature of all parties involved in the conflict during the breakdown of Yugoslavia in 1991. As a result, both Serbs and Croats assembled a number of armored trains. The Army of Republika Srpska operated a train that was ambushed and destroyed in October 1992 near the town of Gradačac by Bosnian Muslimforces that included a T-55 tank. The wreckage was later converted into a monument. The Croatian Army deployed a two-wagon armored train built in Split with a shield composed of two plates, one 8mm and the other 6mm thick, with a 30–50mm gap filled with sand between them. The vehicle was armed with 12.7mm machine guns. The first wagon train was made of a General Motors diesel locomotive (JŽ 664-013) and two cars by local railroad workers at Knin. The cars were initially protected with sandbags. The first operational mission took place in the area between Gračac and Stikada.The usual tactic was to appear suddenly in a pre-established point of the railway, fire its guns and withdraw quickly. The 20-member crew was occasionally re-supplied by small trucks. Following the improvement of the protection with the addition of armor plates, the train provided fire support on the railroad between Knin and Drniš. It was later sent to Lika, where the wagon formation became involved in the battles around Sveti Rok. It is believed that at this time, near the end of 1991, the train was dubbed "Krajina Express". In 1992 "Krajina Express" joined the fighting for the airport of Zemunik, near Zadar. When the train was not suitable for combat operations, the crew fought in the infantry role, like in the course of Operation Corridor. By the end of 1992, the unit became incorporated to the 75 Motorized Brigade, part of the 7th Army Corps of Serb Krajina. Two members of the crew were killed by Croatian artillery while fighting on foot during Operation Maslenica, in January 1993. The train provided support during the struggle for Škabrnja, where the unit was involved in an attempt to destroy an ammunition dump in Zadar by pushing a wagon loaded with 3,650 kg of explosives and five tons of shrapnel through the Benkovac to Zadar railway line. The detonator would be a land mine attached to the wagon's bumper. The plan was to let the wagon roll down from the village of Nadin towards the target in the outskirts of Zadar. The results of this mission, if any, remain unknown. In the last days of May 1993, the train was to be involved in Operation маслинова гранчица (Olive branch), a Serb attempt to break into the Croatian defenses along the Adriatic coast south of Zadar that was eventually called off. In September, "Krajina Express" was part of the Serb counterattack in the battle of Medak pocket. One of the last and best documented actions of "Krajina Express" were a number of fire support missions along the Una river during the siege of Bihać, on 1 December 1994. The train drew fire from Bosnian troops on Ribicka Glavica hill. The unit was attacked with antitank rocket-propelled grenades and 76mm guns and returned fire with its own 76mm weapon and with a barrage of 57mm rockets. Later on the day, one wagon was hit by a 9K11 Malyutkamissile, which pierced the armor shield, but the rubber protection deflected or absorbed the blast. One crew member was wounded by shrapnel. A second missile missed the wagons by 200 yards and hit a derelict building. One source claims that the missile struck the wagon mounting the rocket launcher, while another says that the hit disabled one of the antiaircraft cannons. In the last months of war, the train activity was hampered by the deteriorating military situation in Krajina. At the time of Operation Storm "Krajina Express" was sent to Lika. When its crew realised that the collapse of the Republic of Krajina was unavoidable, they destroyed the train by derailing it into a ravine. The two-wagon train was originally armed with a WWII German 20mm gun and two 9K11 Malyutka missile launchers; a Bofors 40mm gun was added later. A pair of M-53 7.9mm light machine guns were mounted to defend the blind spots. The 40mm cannon was removed in 1992 and replaced by a Soviet-designed 76mm gun mounted on the rear wagon. The convoy was enlarged with a third wagon mounting two 20mm cannons. Two Zastava M84 machine guns and a twin 57mm multiple rocket were also added in 1992. The following year marked the definitive configuration of the armored train, when the 76mm gun was supplanted by an American M18 Hellcat tank destroyer. There was an open wagon with two 120mm mortars, but their operational use was limited. The end of the war in Croatia frustrated plans of mounting an 88mm flak gun. The sandbags which provided the first shield to the wagons were replaced by a 25mm thick armor plate. The roofs remained open and were covered with tarpaulins. On the sides the wagons were wrapped in canvas and rubber sheets, the in between space filled with gravel. This improvised laminated protection proved effective in combat when it dissipated the blast of an antitank missile. During the siege of Bihac three additional wagons were hooked ahead off the formation, in order to trigger any mines planted on the railway. One of the wagons carried tools and materials for railroad repairs if needed.
  18. I'm trying to recreate a Hoved corporal uniform, most probably the 1908 model, similar to the one from my photos. I want to know what is it composed from? What materials should I use? What colours? Thank you very much! Hope to show you when will be done... Here is the photo I'm using for:
  19. Wallachian and Moldavian uniforms 1750-1815?

    This is the oldest one I found: Wallachian Border Guards, 1808 uniform.
  20. Reading about the history of the Romanian Principalities at the beginning of the 19th century (Wallachia and Moldova), I realised that they weren't under complete ottoman occupation, but just paying the yearly tribute. Thinking so, they would had had own armies, even if very small, and the uniforms of their soldiers would be a mix betwen russian, slavic, austrian and ottoman uniforms. But still, is there any image related to my question? This is what I found yet,nit sure about all, but hope to get more suggestions...
  21. Trying to recreate an uniform

    I received the email in response from Military Tradition and found some intetesting things. I was also able to contact Mr. Diaconu's company, called "Romilitaria". Now, I'm waiting their response.
  22. Thank you for appreciation!
  23. This year, Romania gets into the aniversary of 100 years since the end of the Great War and the Great Union of December 1st 1918. Because Romania is many times forgotten in the history pages, I decided to initiate 2 cultural programmes to inform the people: 1) the blog "Miltary Hitory of Romania", where I write different stories about the army and its battles from 1916-1917, or about social aspects, such as "Romanian Soldiers in the Austro-Hungarian Army" 2) by creating a series of videos on YouTube called "Battles of the Romanian Army", where I talk about different battles, more or less known, that took place in the First World War. The first one is already done, being entitles "The Battles for Făgăras County" *Note: I'm sorry for the lack of activity on the blog on the last month. I was looking for an interesting article, but got nothing, at least yet.
  24. Trying to recreate an uniform

    I will try again during the following week.