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Everything posted by oamotme

  1. Gentlemen, Further to discussion on another thread concerning miniatures of the Egyptian Order of Ismail I was asked about other Arabic miniatures. Accordingly I detail below an article I wrote some years ago and which was published in the then Broadsheet of the Miniature Medals Branch of the OMRS. Please feel free to add to add, amend and of course correct as necessary. Kind regards, Owain Miniatures of the Middle East & Arab World Owain Raw-Rees, Miniature Branch Member No. 65, OMSA No. 4978, OMRS No. 3088 I have been for a number of years a member of the Miniature Society and whilst having had a number of articles published in both the Orders and Medals Research Society Journal and the Journal of the Orders and Medals Society of America I have yet to submit any draft to the Miniature Medals Branch Journal. To be honest I do not even collect miniatures, but was encouraged to join the Branch by my late friend Henry Rye. I specialise in the full size awards of the Arab world and over the years, by default, have acquired a number of miniatures or have found references to such. Accordingly I would like to take this opportunity to provide a brief overview of such awards. In ascertaining whether there are miniature awards applicable to any particular country there are to be two key deciding factors: Whether British military personnel have served in a particular area? For example during the Gulf War, or have been on secondment such as to the Trucial Oman Scouts, or on loan service such as to the Sultan of Oman’s Forces. In the event that British military personnel received full-size awards corresponding miniature awards will have been manufactured. Incidentally during my time in the Middle East I have no evidence of any of the local military forces wearing miniatures. Indeed in most instances there are very few occasions when the various Arab forces even wear full size medals. Which company has manufactured the awards? Usually, if of European manufacture, it is reasonable to assume that at least some of the senior orders have also been manufactured in miniature. Listed below, in alphabetical order, is a brief review of each country. Algeria Prior to independence French awards were issued and thus miniatures are of a French design. The post independence awards, headed by the National Order of Merit, are little known and I do not believe that any miniatures have been manufactured. Bahrain Until recently all awards were made by Spink and thus miniatures should be available of most awards and examples have been seen of the following Orders - Sheikh Issa, Bahrain, Achievement and the Military Service. Comoro Whilst a French colony the senior Orders of the Star of Comoro and Star of Anjouan were awarded to French personnel and miniatures are known. A series of post independence awards has been instituted but as of writing I have no evidence of any miniatures. Djibouti Under French control the Sultanate of Tadjouorah instituted the Order of Al Anouar which was awarded mainly to French officers and officials and thus miniatures are not uncommon. Following independence the Djibouti has instituted its own series of awards, the senior of which is the National Order of the Great Djibouti Star. These awards are of French manufacture and awards have been made to French military personnel so it is reasonable to assume that miniatures do exist. Egypt British involvement in Egypt is well known and the first miniatures date back to the Khedivate with the Khedives Star of 1882-1891 – see Dennis Poole’s article in Broadsheet No. 41. The next miniature was the Khedives Sudan Medal of 1896-1908 and its subsequent issue. Miniatures should to exist of all of the main awards from the period of the monarchy - the most common being the Order of the Nile. Miniatures of the senior Order of Mohammed Ali are also known. Other miniatures include the Medal for Meritorious Acts and of Devotion, the Order of the Felaha (Agriculture) and the 1947 Cholera Medal. Royal Egyptian awards were made initially by J.Lattes and then Tewfiq Bichay - both of Cairo. (Examples of the Order of Ismail manufactured by Gardino of Rome are also known.) After the 1952 Revolution the first order instituted was the Order of Independence, since obsolete, and miniatures of this order are known to exist. Bichay also manufactured miniatures of other Republican orders and medals and such as the Order of Sport and the medal Commemorating the 25th Anniversary of the Egyptian Air Force. Federation of South Arabia The short existence of the awards of the F.S.A. limited their distribution and whilst a number of British personnel received appointment to the Order of the Hero of South Arabia I have no evidence that Spink, the manufacturer of the F.S.A. awards ever made any miniatures. Hejaz During the First World War a number of British personnel were awarded the Order of Renaissance. As this was a locally manufactured award any miniatures would have been obtained in the U.K. and such miniatures appear to be of a similar design to the Order as redesigned as a Jordanian award. (Subsequent research shows both Hijazi and Jordanian issues in miniature.) Examples are known of miniatures of the only two Hijazi medals – Independence and Ma’an, although I have no evidence that any were awarded to British personnel. Iraq During the period of the monarchy many British personnel were recipients of the Order of the Rafidain and the Active Service Medal and miniatures of these awards are plentiful. Miniatures also exist of the scarcely awarded Gallantry Medal – please refer to Roger Colbourne’s article in Broadsheet No.48. Miniatures also exist of the Iraqi 1939-45 and Victory medals. All of these miniatures appear to be of British manufacture. Garrard is known to have manufactured some of the royal Iraqi awards. By the reign of King Faisal II most Iraqi awards were made by Huguenin of Le Locle, Switzerland. Huguenin retained the contract for Iraqi awards after the 1958 Revolution and continued making Iraqi medals until at least the mid 1970’s. I have no evidence of any miniatures from the Republican period. (Subsequent research shows a large series of miniature Republican miniatures.) Jordan As mentioned above the Hijaz orders of Renaissance and Independence became Jordanian awards and with the institution of the Order of the Star a number of these awards have been issued to British personnel over the years. The awards have been manufactured by various companies, including the London Goldsmiths & Silversmoths Company Ltd., Garrard, Bertrand of Paris and the Egyptian firm of Bichay of Cairo and it appears that miniatures exist of all the European manufactured awards. Miniatures also exist of a number of the Jordanian medals with examples known of the following: Order of Military Gallantry, 1941 Campaign, 1939-45 War, 1948 War, and Long Service Medals. Kuwait The Order of Kuwait was manufactured initially by the Kuwait Gold and Silver Company and after the Gulf War by Garrard – I have not come across any miniatures of this award. With regard to other Kuwaiti awards miniatures do exist of the Order of National Defence, the Military Duty and Military Service medals. These awards were manufactured by Spink and examples are also known by Bertoni of Milan in Italy. Of course the most well known Kuwait award is the Order of the Liberation of Kuwait and I have seen examples of the three junior classes in miniature. The official issue of these classes in full size appear to have been manufactured in the Far East. Lebanon Of the senior Lebanese orders the most commonplace are those of Merit and the Cedar and the bulk of these orders appear to have been manufactured either by Bertrand, Bichay or Huguenin and miniatures of both orders exist. (Subsequent research has seen miniature issues of most Lebanese awards.) Lybia The first series of awards were instituted by King Idris in the 1950’s and consisted of three orders and two medals. These were manufactured by Bichay and whilst I have no evidence that any miniatures of the orders were manufactured I have seen an example of the medal of Mohammed Al Mokhtar in miniature. With the overthrow of the monarchy Colonel Qaddafi has over the years instituted various medals manufactured by Bichay, Bomisa of Milan, Italy and also the IKOM the State Mint in Zagreb, Yugoslavia – none of these appear to have been made in miniature form. (Subsequent research has seen miniature issues of the Order of the Great Victory.) Morocco Whilst under French influence the Orders of Hafidien and Alouite, were awarded to many French military personnel and these awards in miniature are not difficult to find. Following independence a number of orders were instituted - and these orders along with various medals were made by Bertrand – e.g. the Orders of Interior, Merit, Star and Throne and miniatures do exist. Oman With the long history of British involvement in Oman and the manufacture of the majority of Omani awards by Spink miniatures of almost all Omani awards appear to exist. The only non-British manufactured medal is that commemorating the 25th anniversary of the accession of Sultan Qaboos, which was made by Huguenin, and I have no evidence as of writing as to whether a miniature of this award exists. The miniatures of the Omani Police Force are dealt with in Colin Hole’s article in Broadsheet No. 68. Palestine Following the institution of the Palestinian Authority Yasser Arafat has instituted two awards – the Order of Sacred Jerusalem and of Bethlehem 2000. These both appear to be single class neck badges and I have no evidence of any miniatures. (Subsequent issues of recent Palestinian State Awards have miniatures.) Qatar The primary Orders of Qatar – of Independence and Merit, have been made by Bertrand, and the cased insignia do not include miniatures. With regard to the medals, to date, two series of awards have been manufactured by Spink but never distributed and no miniatures of these series have been made. Qu’aiti Sultanate in Hadhramaut This Sultanate from 1948 to 1967 awarded two medals - the Order of Distinction and the Order of Merit. These were manufactured by the Royal Mint and were awarded in a number of instances to the British Military Resident Advisor. I have yet to see either of these awards in miniature but do believe that they exist. (Subsequent research shows miniatures manufactured.) Saudi Arabia A limited series of awards was instituted in the 1950’s and manufactured by Bichay – miniature examples so the Order of Abdulaziz are known. With the accession of King Faisal this series became obsolete and only in the early 1970’s was a new series of awards instituted. The Order of Abdulaziz and Faisal both are manufactured by Bertrand and whilst the presentation cases do not include miniatures many awards of the former were made to coalition personnel after the Gulf War and I would believe that some of the recipients may have had miniatures made. The most common Saudi award is the Liberation of Kuwait Medal of which miniatures are plentiful. The full size award was initially manufactured by Spink and Huguenin, with later varieties made by Graco of Texas, USA. Of the other Saudi medals - for Merit and the medals for the Army, Air Force and Navy these are manufactured by Bertrand and no miniatures appear to exist. A later series of awards has been instituted, 10 out of 12, have been manufactured by Fattorini of Brmingham and one each by Spink and Huguenin. The initial proof sets included miniatures however the mass production does not appear to have included miniatures. Spink manufactured the Combat Medal and a number of miniatures have been seen. Also seen is a miniature of the Saudi Military Management Medal Somalia The only Somali Order is that of the Somali Star. This was made by Gardino of Rome, and the presentation cases often include a miniature. There are a number of Somali medals and whilst also of Italian manufacture, I have no evidence that any miniatures were manufactured although I have seen a small 27mm diameter version of the 1960 Independence Medal. Syria The situation here is similar to Lebanon. Of the senior Syrian Orders the most common place are those of Devotion and Civil Merit and whilst examples are known by Bichay, the bulk of these orders appear to have been manufactured either by Bertrand or Huguenin and miniatures of both orders exist. I have not seen any miniatures of any of the Syrian medal series. Sudan Prior to independence there was a series of four medals awarded to the Sudan Defence Force and a number of these medals would have been awarded to British personnel. Following independence various series of Sudanese awards were instituted – initially for the Republic of Sudan and latterly for the Democratic Republic of Sudan. Awards were made by Garrard and Spink and miniatures do exist of the senior Orders of the Two Niles and of the Republic. Miniatures are also known of the Order of Regional Government and the Star of Military Accomplishment. Tunisia Whilst under French influence the Order of Glory - the central monogram of which changed with each ruler, was awarded to many French military personnel and the award in miniature is not difficult to find. Early pieces appear to have been made in Paris by such firms as Boulanger, Dupetitbosq and Fayole. Following independence a number of orders were instituted - initially the Order of Independence and the Order of the Republic. These orders along with various medals were made by Bertrand and whilst I have not seen any miniatures I suspect that examples do exist. United Arab Emirates Until recently all of the awards of the U.A.E. and its constituent parts were manufactured by Spink and a number of such awards were made to British military personnel and miniatures are not uncommon. The include the earliest medal for this region being the Loyal Service Medal of the Trucial Oman Scouts - four British officers were awarded this medal – please refer to Colin Hole’s article in Broadsheet No. 43. Miniatures are also known of the Abu Dhabi Defence Force Inauguration, Police Accession and Defence Force Service Medals, the Dubai Defence Force Service Medal, and also of the U.A.E. Armed Forces Amalgamation Medal and 1976 Lebanon Peace Keeping Force Medal. Of the modern series of U.A.E. awards I have no evidence that miniatures have been manufactured and the same applies to the separate series of awards for the Ministry of the Interior, Dubai Police and Sharjah Police – these three series have been made by Fattorini of Birmingham. Finally there is the Order of the Tower of Qassimi being the sole award of Ras Al Khaima – manufactured by Spink and the presentation case of the order does include a miniature. Yemen Arab Republic, and Republic of Yemen. A series of awards were initially manufactured in 1964 by Bichay but no miniatures are known, with the exception of a miniature star the Order of Mercy. This series became obsolete and a new series was made by Skinner of Bond Street, London. Skinner manufactured a number of the orders with miniatures and examples are known of the Orders of the Republic, Ma’areb, Justice, Seventy and 26 September. With regard to the lesser awards no miniatures were manufactured. With the unification of north and south Yemen in 1992 the awards of the Y.A.R. and P.D.R.Y. were to some degree merged into the new awards system of the Republic of Yemen. I have no evidence that miniatures of the new series, which I believe of be of German manufacture, exist. Whilst not miniatures in the normal sense the presentation cases of the Orders of the Hero of Yemen and War Wounded do include miniature pin-back versions of the full size awards. Yemen – People’s Democratic Republic No known miniatures of the awards if the PDRY appear to exist and the design of the full size awards follows an eastern European / Soviet style, with manufacture by the State Mints of Berlin, Budapest and Moscow. Zanzibar The most often seen order is that of the Brilliant Star - a number of British officers received this award over the years and miniatures are not uncommon. Examples are also seen of the Order of the Alijeh. It is believed that the majority of early awards were made by the London firm of Elkington & Co. Miniatures also exist of the 1896 Zanzibar Service Medal - see Dennis Poole’s article in Broadsheet No. 34, and also of the 1936 Jubilee Medal. The above is but a brief overview and I am sure that there are unrecorded miniatures awaiting discovery and no doubt many variations of the various miniatures referred to. I have not included a bibliography for this article as no specific reference exists but I have noted in the text where specific articles in the Broadsheet have dealt with a number of Arab miniatures. Much of the information given above is the result of a number of years of collecting and observation. I would especially thank Ivor Bush for the opportunity over the years to view his medal collection, which contains a number of Arab miniatures. Some of these have been photographed and are illustrated with this article. I hope that the article does give an insight, however slight, into a most interesting aspect of our hobby. Owain Raw-Rees, June 2003, Riyadh, K.S.A.
  2. A nice selection - Iran, Jordan, Libya, Syria, Afghanistan, Egypt x 2, Libya, Jordan, Lebanon & Syria again. I detail below some Egyptian Monarchy miniatures. Owain
  3. Dear Rusty Greaves, With regard to the miniature displayed with the small red stone (or cabochon) this is a miniature of the Order of the Star of Ethiopia although poorly executed as the lower arms of this star should be conjoined. The cross on the suspension crown 'gives it away'. Early examples of the full size in the lower grades has such stars but I have only seen this once seen such in the miniatures and on a higher grade. Regards, Owain
  4. Dear Rusty Greaves, With regard to the miniature displayed with the small red stone (or cabochon) this is a miniature of the Order of the Star of Ethiopia although poorly executed as the lower arms of this star should be conjoined. The cross on the suspension crown 'gives it away'. Early examples of the full size in the lower grades has such stars but I have only seen this once seen such in the miniatures and on a higher grade. Regards, Owain
  5. Gentlemen, With regard to Arabic miniatures I would refer you to the new topic I have just started. Kind regards, Owain
  6. Dear Rusty, Many thanks - I am glad my information was of use. With regard to the miniatures at Spink I think that, perhaps, you are being too harsh. I have collected Arab miniatures for some 25 years and did bid on a number of lots (almost entirely without success), and I agree the prices attained are somewhat surreal and are not , well at least to my mind, sensible. However miniatures are not necessarily made by the principal manufacturers and thus in many instances only approximate to the full size issues. When miniatures accompany the full size presentation awards then there would be an element on conformity, but if bought as stand alone items from other out of country manufacturers the variations in design and quality can be and is vast. I do not believe any are fakes - they may be badly made, but there is not a market - as far as I am aware in fake miniatures - there is not the demand to justify making them. My observation and concern with the 'pairs' offered would be that the 'breast star' only issues may have had badge suspensions which have been removed (almost definitely) to allow the previous owner to display badge and star miniatures, whereas normally a miniature is always the badge of the order with a device upon the ribbon to indicate the grade of the order. Anyway my tuppence worth....... Kind regards from Riyadh, Owain
  7. The Arabic mark is that of Tewfiq Bichay. Close examination will show a date mark. Bichay worked for Lattes and took over the business which his son Fahmy Tewfiq Bickay continued until the early 1970s whereupon he emigrated to Canada. I met him couple of times in the 1990's. A nice man with a large amount of records and documentation which, sadly, since his death has been lost. Bichay made Egyptian, Jordanian, Lebanese, Libyan, Saudi, Syrian and Yemeni awards. Regards, Owain
  8. ARAB MEDALS -- Syria

    See new thread - Yemeni Wound Awards
  9. Ramin7, Many thanks for this correction - almost 2 out of 4 words is good for me! Owain
  10. Markus, A beautiful star. Perhaps I am stretching my reading of the script, but it would appear to read (as far as I can interpret the slightly mangled script), "Nishan Qajr Fateh ??" ( Qajr Order of Victory ??). Or perhaps just wishful interpretation on my part! Regards, Owain
  11. Egypt Khedivate Judge's Badge question

    I believe that awards of the Medjide were suspended after the deposition of Khedive Abbas Hilmi in 1914. Sultan Hussein Kamel instituted the Order of the Nile in 1915. On this basis we have a 'not after' and a 'not before' date for both of McBarnet's orders. It may well be that his Order of the Nile is also in the London Gazette. Regards, Owain
  12. Egypt Khedivate Judge's Badge question

    Great lot, but as medal collector what would one do with all the clothing.....? Owain
  13. ARAB MEDALS -- Syria

    See new thread - Yemeni Wound Awards
  14. unknown arab medal

    Rod, See below my notes on the YAR badge. Owain Y.A.R. War Wounded Badge Obverse A dark red (blood red) enameled/painted circle representing a bullet wound with a gilded rim surmounted by the gilded arms of the Yemen Arab Republic. Reverse Blank Size a) 25 mm x 28 mm - large eagle, small circle. b) 21 mm x 30 mm - small eagle, large circle. Metal a) Brass. b) Base metal. Ribbon Not applicable. Suspension a) A safety pin affixed to the rear of the eagle. b) A safety pin affixed to the rear of the circle. Manufacturer a) Overseas. b) Local. Instituted Republican Resolution # 65, of 08/12/1402 corr. to 25/09/1982. This badge was awarded to all those who were wounded during the Revolution which led to the formation of the Yemen Arab Republic. The badge has been subsequently awarded to all ranks wounded as a result of any civil or military operation. The official entitlement is to “those wounded in defence of the Revolution, the Republic and the independence of the nation.” ....and my notes on the PDRY award. Owain PDRY Order of War Wounded Obverse A circular hollow wreath with a white enamel scroll at the base with the Arabic inscription, “Order of War Wounded” Across the wreath two crossed rifles and superimposed in the centre an enamel shield of the P.D.R.Y. colours. Reverse Plain. Size 38mm diameter bronze–gilt of Hungarian manufacture. Ribbon 30mm - green with a central 2mm blue stripe with 1mm borders. At either side 1mm white, 1mm red, 1mm white and 2mm black borders. The number of ribbon lengths supplied was noted as 3,000. Suspension A triangular frame affixed by a link to a loop at the top of the wreath. Finally it would appear the RoY, according to the law of 1991 concerning the awards of the RoY, carried over the PDRY Order into its system of awards. Regards, Owain
  15. Peter, Many thanks - I would concur. I believe the Medal Rolls are for both the Medal and Star are at the British Library - a task when I am next on leave from Saudi.. Again thank you. Regards, Owain
  16. Gentlemen, I have recently obtained a worn Afghanistan Medal 1878-80 , claps Kabul to "PTE Khyroodeen, 28th Bombay Infantry". He may have also been entitled to a Kabul to Kandahar Star 1880, however British Battles & Medals make no reference to the unit, but other sources make reference to the unit being at Kandahar. Of course if he was present he would have been entitled to the Kandahar clasp to the medal as well. Perhaps if there is no clasp then he was not there and thus not entitled to the Kabul to Kandahar Star. My field of expertise is Arab world so this is all somewhat new to me. Any thoughts / suggestions? Owain
  17. Dear Mark, Further to studying the photo of your grandfather I am almost certain that he is also wearing the Order of the Star of Ethiopia - instituted by Emperor Menelik II in the late 1880's. Do you have any idea as when the photograph was taken? The neck badge is of an early type and I would suggest he received it in the 1890's. Was he on a Mission to Addis Ababa. Kind regards, Owain P.S. I suspect the big star in the centre is Ottoman.
  18. Gieth, OK - I am sorry I do not have one - they are scarce pieces to find either military or civil issues. I have been collecting for over 25 years and I am still looking for one. Good luck, Owain
  19. Geith, Are you trying to sell one or are you wanting to buy one? Owain
  20. Please Help To identify Medal

    Nick, The is a commemorative medallion marking in 1978 the 10th Anniversary of the 1968 Ba'ath Revolution which brought the Ba'ath party to power and ultimately to the rule of Saddam Hussein. The case bears the inscription "Central Bank of Iraq". It is not an order or medal to be worn. No uniform (wearable) medal was issued to mark this anniversary. Kind regards, Owain
  21. buying medals in Kuwait

    Caz, Not been there for a while but from my previous visits no success at all. Try you hotel for suggestions as to junk shops although much which passes for antiques in Bahrain, Saudi , Oman or UAE comes from India or Pakistan and should viewed with a degree of cynicism. Regards, Owain
  22. Gentlemen, Just to reiterate, as far as the Kuwaitis are concerned it is an 'Order' and Spink did not make it nor did they subcontract it to anyone else. Kind regards, Owain
  23. Please Help To identify Medal

    Nubirus, It is, I believe, a 1967 Lebanese military college pocket badge. I think it may be missing a central device. Regards, Owain
  24. The Silver Plate from Egypt

    Nick, As noted it is 900 silver made in Cairo and the date mark is for the period commencing 1 October 1985 to 8 October 1989. Regards, Owain
  25. Unknown Medal

    Nick, The obverse has Gamal Abdulnasser of Egypt and I suspect it is one of the many souvenir or memento medals issued during the 1950s and 1960s. I can't read the obverse script other than the last word which is 'the nation'. Kind regards, Owain