Basic Membership
  • Content count

  • Joined

  • Last visited

About gam47

  • Rank
  • Birthday
  1. My updated entry for Geoffrey Tylden's, is : No (was No 402) OUDTSHOORN VOLUNTEER RIFLES (OVR), or Oudtshoorn Volunteer Rifle Corps. Originally G Company of No Western Rifles, a Western Cape volunteer corps stoodup 15th February, 1890, following efforts by J.Bawden and A.S.Hadfield recruiting some 40 volunteers, CO Captain C.M.Lind. 1897 Bechuanaland Campaign, Cape of Good Hope General Service Medal 42 clasp Bechuanaland. South African War, QSA Medal named “Oudtshoorn V. Rfs.” or “Oudtshoorn V. R.”. In 1904 the Duke of York presented the King's Banner, at Oudsthoorn. 1908 two companies strong with a band; a contingent dressed in scarlet to London for the 1911 Coronation. In 1913 amalgamated into No Prince Alfred's Guard. From 1891 wore khaki uniform with a white helmet, full title on shoulder straps, and the slouch hat for the field. From 1903 full dress khaki with the Wolseley helmet. Badge, the Arms of the Cape, motto “Spes Bona”, “Good Hope”. NOTE : The Drill Hall of the OVR at appropriately No 8 Camp Street, the foundation stone was laid by Cecil John Rhodes 8th September, 1892, and completed that year, in sandstone at a cost of £3,500. In 2010 still a magnificent building, the Dutch Reformed Church Hall.
  2. In my first message re this subject, I informed that the three Egyptian Army officers were awarded for their actions "What the first two received was The Medal of Order of Muhammad 'Ali First Class in Gold, and the Third the same in Second Class in Silver." These awards were recorded in English in a number of publications in the UK in the 1920's that related to Post Great War operations. I presented to the National Army Museum some years ago a document which due to its sheer size I just could not afford to publish (some 3,000 A4 pages of typescript) both in hard print form and electronic copy. This is not available for perusal for the general researchers as it is my intellectual property, and is upon my death the property of the NAM to do as they wish. I do hope to publish in a quality format, a short production run of it before I drop me clogs. This text relates to a systematic page by page examination of the London Gazette in relation to the Distinguished Service Order from the 1880's to the John Major British Honours and Awards system botched "reform', it also includes from both the Great War and 1939-45 War those awards made by grant to Allied Services. Whilst the 'Honorary' awards made to Allied officers were recorded in the LG, those for the period of 1914-20 were obtained from records held by the Chancellery as to the issue of the insignia of the DSO. These through records even include the White Armies in Russia fighting in the White Sea, Southern and Siberian Fronts. I examined the After War Lists published within the LG also, and my records show no Egyptian Army or other Services being in receipt of post 1918 military operations awards. But, also there are no record of any award of the Order to Egyptian Nationals receiving it during the Great War period for operations in the Sudan, Egyptian-Libyan frontier, or Palestine. It would be suggested than an examination of the always authoritive text that is readily available within the UK (including on inter-library loan) : ABBOTT Peter E., TAMPLIN J.M.A. British Gallantry Awards. Nimrod Dix & Co, London, 1981. Hard cover, dust jacket, xx, 316., photographs, index. be made. In this it plainly shows only one DSO (that for Khartoum) awarded for inter-war conflict, the award for Major White being for operations carried out that were a continuance of operations that commenced pre-11th November, 1918 (similar to awards granted for the North West Frontier of India, and Burma). Army Council Administrative Instructions relating to military honours and awards issued during the Great War were printed into ad hoc pamphlets for staff officer use by the GOCs of the British Expeditionary Forces in France and Flanders (including Italy), Palestine, the Army of Salonika, and British East Africa. These plainly describing the granting of awards to Allied Nationals. These transferred into The War Officer Pamphlet On Military Honours and Awards 1920, that remained extant with stick-in amendments until it republished in July, 1953 under same title as WO Code No 10414, 26/Publications/6945. It was a restrictive document not available to the Public through His/Her Britannic Majesty's Stationery Office, London. In the case of both of these documents, due to the sheer lack of available copies during the period of time they were published locally under the authority of Home and Overseas Commands until finally replaced in the 1980's, then by the new regulations from the Major reforms. You may search as you wish, but, you will not find. As I said IMPOSSIBLE. It must be remembered that the DSO is an ORDER, along with the Orders British India, Bath, CMG not granted lightly, with their insignia only available from The Chancellery. Over the years I have been informed of vast numbers of so called missed awards, they not missed they never awarded. In the huge number of battalion histories of the Great War published by enthusiasts, they recording in their pages honours and awards which where never granted. They finding them within the pages of the units War Diary, but, unfortunately due to the so called 'quota', in actual fact the Operational Awards Scale, based upon the average strength of the Force employed, they were not granted. Along with misidentifying awards such as the Distinguished Service Cross for the DSO, or the DSM for the DCM, these errors are picked up by researchers and compounded. In relation to my current major project, I informed in South Africa a move to have two NCOs awarded the VC for their actions alongside Brevet Major H.G. Moore, Connaught Rangers November, 1877. When he involved in the rescue of a dismounted man and awarded the VC. While the two NCOs actions were vastly superior to those of Moore, they could not be awarded the VC as they men of The Frontier Armed and Mounted Police, not a gazetted military organisation. With their CO wisely bumping them up from Third Class Sergeants to First Class and received a good increase in pay. In Australia, we constantly have the civilian enthusiasts beavering away to have awards increased, or granted, usually for the VC. Not comprehending at the time that those powers that be knew what they were doing (in this case well and truly put in their place, WILSON Graham. Dust Donkeys and Delusions. The Myth of Simpson and his Donkey Exposed. Big Sky Publications, Newport, NSW, 2012.) In the case of these three Egyptians, they did receive the equivalent in THEIR ARMY of the DSO and the MC, you cannot blame the enthusiastic officer who does not know, and does not have competent and efficient staff officers at their side when they write their again enthusiastic documents. I must point out that my parents were not drug damaged hippies, and so that my surname is not GAM47 (as much as left wing governments would like us to be all electronically coded) but MACKINLAY, which is plainly displayed at the foot of the messages. Yours, Mackinlay New South Wales
  3. In response to the message from Aberdeen Medals. Yes, I stand by the remark, it was IMPOSSIBLE. The examples that the person gave were for the period of the 1914-20 War, The Great War, the operations relating to "claimed" awards were for EGYPTIAN Colonial Operations, not British. These not operations commanded by the British Army, but, those British officers seconded to the Forces of the Kingdom of Egypt for military duties within the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. November 1924, Sir Lee Stack, The Governor General of Sudan and Sirdar, who was directly answerable to the King in Cairo was assassinated there. Following this the UK assumed direct control of the Sudan, as a Protectorate, not a Colony, although it administered by the then Colonial Office. All members of the Egyptian Army (including British seconded officers), civil servants, and public employees of the Egyptian Government (these included British and Europeans who were direct employees) were ordered withdrawn from Sudan. All British origin officials formerly of the Anglo-Sudan suzerainty were transferred to the British Sudan service (not Colonial Office, Colonial Service employees), and the London Gazette of 1925 is full of those men gazetted into Sudanese appointments; from District Commissioners to deck officers of the Sudanese River Transport Authority. An example of such a man recruited is in : POOLE Major Jack, DSO, OBE, MC. Undiscovered Ends. Cassell, London, 1957. Hard cover, dustjacket, xii, 292p., photographs, index. In its chapters he gives a good description of his recruitment and service. A blurb on it can be seen at :,-obe-mc-64-c-iv9sywiw9c Whilst seconded to the Southern Sudan in 1997, I had dealings with his born out of wedlock to a Dinka woman son, Arthur, who was employed by the Red Cross, this a link to he and his son He during the time I knew him giving me in frequent discussion a excellent description of the British Governance of their protectorate. To replace the disbanded Sudanese recruited battalions, the Sudan Defence Force (SDF) was formed as a para-military policing organisation, not a army to protect from external threat, this the role of the Khartoum based British garrison. After wallying though to this, the honours and awards to the Egyptian Army. It is as I state impossible for such gallantry awards to have been awarded to a foreign army. The awards that Aberdeen Medals quoted are for Allied Operations in the 1914-20 War. During the period of this conflict, under the direction of Sir Frederick Ponsonby, The Keeper of the Privy Purse for George V, had the duty for there being awarded to all "Allied Nations throughout the world" an exchange of Honours and Awards on a one for one basis. So this is how British serving in France and Flanders received the Order of the Rising Sun (in its various grades), while Japanese serving in operations in North China against the German Colonials received DSO, MC, DCM and MM's. Or South African's received Croix de Guerre's for German South West Africa, whilst an officer of Foreign Corps (the so called French Foreign Legion) of the French Colonial Army received a DSO for 1917 operations against the Berbers in Morocco. In his entry; Ponsonby, Frederick Edward Grey, first Baron Sysonby (1867–1935)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; this is well recorded, as his 'stuff up' with the creation of The Order of The British Empire - there no such legal entity as the British Empire, and it was to have been the named for the legal entity, Order of the British Commonwealth, but, he did not like it. Since everyone believed in the British Empire concept, it passed (see GALLOWAY Peter. The Order of The British Empire. Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood, distributed by Spink and Sons, London, 1996, addendum). Ponsonby was not called that 'utter twit' for nothing, although the 'i' in twit was replaced by a 'a'! It was the 'norm' for such awards granted to a foreign nation not to be published in the London Gazette, but, in the case of those foreign awards granted to the British Service, the granting authority did so publish. It can and is confused by foreign officers serving on secondment such as liaison officers who were granted British Awards, such as DSO having the award published in the LG, as the award was made by a British Granting Authority The awards were not made by the 'donating' nation having information of the relevant action of the man, but, just one of the 'job lot' granted to be awarded for similar actions as the Award Warrant recorded. In the case of the Egyptian awards, there is no doubt in my mind that the British hierarchy of the Anglo-Sudan would have ensured the British awards was granted. BUT, in 1920 for the Anglo-Egyptian operations described in Jackson, there was not such exchange. Officers and men of the Egyptian Army and other services serving in operations under British officers in the Sudan, the borders of Egypt and Palestine or within Palestine proper could only be awarded Egyptian awards granted by The King. There was absolutely no British Legislation available in peace time (then and now) to award British gallantry decorations to members of Foreign Nations, and if required for a specific operation, a Special Bill has to be passed through the Houses of Parliament. In exactly the same manner Foreign honours and awards cannot be accepted by the members of the British Service (a prime recent example being the Medal of Honor that the Commander of the US Navy SEAL Team tried to have awarded to a RM Sergeant of the Special Boat Service in Afghanistan in 2001, for the Qala-i-Janghi Fort Uprising, see LEWIS Damien. Bloody Heroes : Ultimate betrayal, Ultimate Firepower, Ultimate Revenge, The True story of Britain's Secret Warriors in Afghanistan. Century, London, 2006. Well worthy of the VC, due to the stuff up ended up with a Mention in Despatches, took his discharge and ended up tragically killed in a motorised hang glider accident in Cyprus the following week!) FORTH Nevill de Rouen. A Fighting Colonel of Camel Corps. The story of Lt Colonel de Lancey Forth, DSO and Bar, MC. Merlin Books, Braunton, Devon, 1991. He in the Egyptian Frontier Force Camel Corps pre and post war, and he recommended for a further Bar to the DSO for commanding in internal security operations against Saudi Bedouin bandits in the Sinai Penisula in 1919, but at this time the exchange of awards had ceased, received the The Medal of Order of Muhammad 'Ali First Class in Gold instead (which he liked as he got another medal riband rather than a little bit of silver on the DSO riband!!!). In regard to the history of the Sudan, there is a huge amount of misinformation on it placed upon the internet. This due to the political nature of the country since 1956, and its recent breakup into two separate nations in a quasi state of war.   The Sudan Studies Society of the UK, which from 1987 a very informative journal which in its early editions produced authoritive article on its Anglo-Egyptian history, which I subscribed to until the mid-1990's when activists of the South had taken the Society over, all the academics and interested persons left and it became a propaganda tool of those rebelling against the rule of Khartoum. A moderate Muslim Sudanese (from the South) wrote, it "turned a British democratic organization into a US style one-sided activist forum flaunting Islamophobic and anti-Arab prejudice and encouraging conflict not reconciliation in the Sudan." Whilst I have my bias I must concurn A good initial primer upon the Sudan and its post Great War history is : O'BALLANCE, Colonel Edgar. The Secret War in the Sudan, 1955-1972. Shoe String Press, not shown, 1977. Hard cover, dustjacket, xx, 177pp., photographs, maps, index (unpaginated). ISBN 0208016929. Its initial chapter gives a good potted history, from 1919 and how the UK ended up (very unwillingly) running it, and as with so many of O'Ballance's texts used by the United Nations as a standard introductory text for UN Military Observers and civilian Field Officers. For those interested in the British history in the Sudan, the Durham University Library Special Collections is huge and superb. An example being the collection of the papers relating to General Sir Reginald Wingate, 200 boxes of this man who created order out of the chaos of the Sudan, but, who today left wing academics sneer and denigrate. I have a particular interest in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, with family members serving there from the 1880's, and having three direct direct relatives in Khartoum in NOV 1924, one a Ordnance Fitter who had just arrived from Apprentice Training in the UK was in the hospital having had ingrowing toenails removed, and escaped the massacre by the skin of his teeth (his words). Whilst not related to this, but, I think of interest, below is a message sent to a Military Railway discussion group in June, relating to the Sudan Military Railway. Yours, Mackinlay New South Wales. I recently assisted a gentleman with some copies of documents relating to the campaign in Darfur in 1916, and other minor campaigns in British Sudan during the Great War. These the product of a relative who had worked the railways in the Sudan (mainly on the Red Sea in his early days) from the 1880’s when he went there as a very young British soldier in the Royal Engineers, and his subsequent service as a civilian. He seeing a great deal of active service up to the Great War when he commissioned into the British Service and became responsible for the rear logistical support for the Darfur Campaign and other military operations to 1919. The chap sent me the link which relates to military railways within the Sudan in the 1880’s>, which may be of some interest. Those soldiers who fought in the Sudan during the Great War were awarded the Khedive’s Sudan Medal 1910-22, this is shown in the entry for Major Gee at A quite large number of British soldiers were awarded the medal, and for those who were involved in the earlier fighting in 1914-15 along the border with Libya against the Turkish led Sennussi they were entitled to the 1914-15 Star. A somewhat inaccurate description of the Darfur is at the writer does not make it clear that the majority of the troops were British Army regulars not local troops, ie. the mounted infantry, artillery and camel corps were all British as were most of the support troops, some 1,300 men out of the 2,700 in the force (not 2,000 as the article says) plus some 1,500 British led Sudanese and Egyptian civilians who mainly running the baggage train of over 1,200 camels, and a thousand plus donkeys and mules, and acting as bearers. I having copies of the ongoing official reports of the campaign. The relative, our mother’s uncle had a great swag of medals and honours for his forty odd years in the Sudan, on his death the medal group was split up with each of his large brood throughout the world receiving two items each. His papers eventually ended up in the hands of our eldest brother, thinking that it would be of interest to catalogue them, I when over in New Zealand in April had a look at the collection. It filling three large tin trunks, containing not just his personal papers, but large scale maps, plans of the entire rail system throughout the Nation, bridge and earth works design, literally thousands of photographs all entitled and contained within albums (it appears he had a long time interest in photography), specifications of all locos and rolling stock, design of railway stations, signal boxes, rail yards, time tables for virtually his entire time in country, reports of railway operations, military support operations, constructions etc! The sheer immensity of the documentation was quite staggering, and my brother is currently in contact with the British National Archives in Kew, London, about handing them over to their jurisdiction, as they would quite probably the most complete set of documents relating to a British African Protectorate (or any colony) railway system in its earliest years. Yours, G/. G.A.MACKINLAY SINCE THEN My brother informed me that National Archives contacted him saying they required a correctly documented record of all items, with photos if possible. If acceptable, he would be responsible for forwarding the items to the UK, with a requirement that he paying also for the insurance. Somewhat annoyed, he has accepted the cost, hired a professional catelouger (a Englishman with military, colonial and railway knowledge to do so), and will ship off (by sea) to the UK.
  4. It was impossible for these three to be awarded a British Commonwealth award, as they were officers of the Egyptian Army not a British colonial corps, the Sudan Defence Force has not yet been raised. What the first two received was The Medal of Order of Muhammad 'Ali First Class in Gold, and the Third the same in Second Class in Silver. The only Distinguished Service Orders awarded in the inter-war years were : CHAPTER SIXTEEN THE SUDAN WHITE Richard Finch Maj Essex Regiment, attached Egyptian Army. DSO 20 Apr 1920, p., for distinguished service in connection with operations against the Northern Turkana and kindren tribes. To be dated 3 Jun 1919. No Campaign Medal awarded. TOTAL : One KHARTOUM 1924 In 1924 the British Government assumed direct rule over the Sudan from Egypt, following the assassination in Cairo of Maj Gen Sir Lee Stack, Governor General of the Sudan and Sidar of the Egyptian Army. The Egyptian Army was ordered out of the Sudan within 24 hours, and the closure of the military school in Khartoum (the capital of the Sudan). On the 27 Nov, the 11th Sudanese Battalion mutinied. In the resulting operations, the British Military Hospital was occupied and a number of its staff killed. The hard core of the mutineers entrenched themselves there and in the Egyptian Officers Mess, a strongly built building. Reinforced by instructors from the Egyptian Army Musketry School, a fierce battle raged with British troops of the 1st Duke of Wellington's Regiment, 2nd Leicestershire Regiment and the 1st Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. By the 29th the mutiny had collapsed, with the majority of the mutineers escaping. Apart from the DSO, two first award bar's to the MC, one MC and four MMs were awarded. No campaign medal awarded. COUPER James Robert Maj, The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. DSO 25 Oct 1925, p.6773. 1st Battalion TOTAL : One Yours, Mackinlay New South Wales.
  5. I whilst a long term subscriber to the GMIC am normally unable to contribute due to both work commitments and two major personal projects. A correspondent knowing of my interest in this subject informed me of this thread. The late Kit Denton and I were long time friends up to his 1997 death, and we collaborated on a number of projects of mutual interest. At his death I had delivered to him some 1,900 pages of photocopied documents relating to the court martial of the members of the Bushveld Carbineers, collected from the Cape Colonial Archives in Cape Town. With other information acquired by him we intended to write a comprehensive history of the Carbineers, and covering other corps of the SA Mounted Irregular Force. These and a vast amount of other documents and his library were destroyed by his son before Kit was even buried, and I cannot comment upon the reasons why. This link : is to a thread in London's Daily Telegraph in May 2012 following a article on the Australian Labor Government refusing to be involved in the attempt to have the war criminals pardoned. There is a message threat following it, reading bottom to top. You will see a pathetic whine by me in the final messages re my health, I was at the time being treated for a fungating bladder cancer. Below is the entry for a well advanced book project on the Carbineers, the bulk of the actual entry is removed, but, the relevant notes remain. Also a entry for Bleddy's Scouts, the adjoining unit to the Carbineers whose CO was the investigating officer of the atrocities committed. With a reference to a medal pair of a man who Morant had stated he would murder, he fleeing for his life to Bleddy's Scouts, his well documentated record of events quite sickening reading. The proponents for the war criminals casually disregard the actions of the those soldiers of the Carbineers who opposed and subsequently reported those who belonged to the Morant clique. I have very strong feelings in regard to the activities of war criminals, be it today or one hundred years ago, with close involvement (including physical recovery of remains) with both the criminals and those who they murdered, in West Africa and The Former Yugoslavia. Yours, Mackinlay New South Wales No (was 81) BUSHVELD CARBINEERS (BVC), entitled Bushveld Rifles on raising, later retitled No Pietersburg Light Horse, 1st December, 1901. Raised as a irregular corps of No South African Mounted Irregular Force in Pretoria, February-March, 1901, by a Mr Levi, an hotelkeeper at Pienaar's River, Northern Transvaal, and served with Plumer's Column. Also served in the Eastern OFS...................................................................................................................................................... A prime example of how a badly led, ill disciplined and inadequately trained unit can easily get out control and commit atrocities ( )................................................................................................................................................................................... NOTES : 1. Medals to the Bushveld Carbineers and Pietersburg Light Horse. With the change in unit name, some confusion arose as to how the medals should be named. QSA Medals can be found named to both units. As many of the Busheld Carbineers and Pietersburg Light Horse had served in other units, medals to these two units are rare. Only 57 QSA Medals were issued named to the “Bush Veldt. Carbs.” (sic), “B.V. Carbs.” or “Pietersburg L.H.”. A total of 660 names appear on the BVC/PLH Nominal Roll between the dates of February 1901-June 1902.The writer sold in 1982, a medal and documentation of a man in the BVC who had made a formal statement re the torture and murder of a Boer by Morant and his clique, for which they not charged. QSA Medal clasps CC, OFS, Tr, SA01, SA02, (325 Tpr J Kleinschmidt, Piet'bg L.H.), last seen sold Spinks Auctions, London, October, 1999, £3,000. 2. Pietersburg renamed Polokwane 2001. 3. ‘Bushveld’ originates from the Afrikaans ‘bosveld’; ‘bos’ meaning ‘bush’, and ‘veld’ ‘field’. It pronounced “bushfelt”, commonly spelt as Bushveld.. Today a generic term meaning the wild, open and unpopulated spaces of Sub-Saharan Africa. Its shortened form just ‘bush’, and which is a common term describing such areas in Australia, Canada and NZ. 4. In the 1980's the US Army in its officer and SNCO training of law in the field of battle, gave the Bushveld Carbineers case as one of the examples used in dealing with how such units lose control. A further case study, being their own My Lai Massacre in South Viet Nam 1968. 5. The writers paternal grandfather, a sergeant in The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders had acted as one of the courts orderlies, during the court-martial, he recovering from wounds received whilst on column. A very bright, intelligent and competent man who after the Great War, retiring as a lieutenant colonel having been a Provost Marshal and involved in the investigation by The Army of the Black Sea into war crimes committed upon British Commonwealth servicemen by the Turks; he was Chief Constable of a number of very minor police forces in the North West of Scotland in the interwar years, and set up the UKs Transport Police for the private rail companies system throughout Scotland during the 1939-45 War (he also sat on the Provost's Bench), he had extremely vivid memories of the court martial, and had at the time had recorded his impressions and the evidence given during it. He considered that the trial was conducted correctly in accordance to the Regulations of the time, and that all the accused were given equally correct legal service. With his personal opinion being that the correct decision was given by the court, and that the correct sentence was given. There was no need to detail men for the firing party, many volunteered. The only problem that he had, was why had not the numerous other offences (for which there strong evidence) not been given as charges for the court-martial, a number of which were also capital offences. He had asked the Judge Advocate General as to why. The response being that charges laid and their evidence were strong, in time of war the need to charge every offence in court would take too many for far too long from their military duties, and would have caused further problems with the Boer. 6. This grave site was desecrated in the 1980's, and all human remains within removed. The South African Police carried out a comprehensive investigation, and their result being that the bones of these executed men had been taken for use in Muti, as they even more potent than the bones of men killed by violence (see Note 3 to No Albany Mounted Sharpshooters). In the 1990's the Australian Commonwealth Government paid for the site to have grave markers and covering, even though it known the site was empty. TEXTS : BLESZYNSKI Nick. Shoot Straight You Bastards! The truth behind the killing of 'Breaker Morant'. Random House, Sydney, Australia, 2002. Illustrated card cover, xliii, 386p., photos, maps, index. A spirited defence of Morant, with its author having used all secondary sources for the defence with no attempt to research primary sources. CARNEGIE Margaret and SHIELDS Frank. In Search of Breaker Morant, Balladist and Bushveldt Carbineer. Published by authors, Armidale, Australia, 1979. Hard cover with dustjacket,, 227p., photos, map, index. The story seen through “rose tinted” glasses. DAVEY Arthur, Editor. Breaker Morant and the Bushveld Carbineers. Van Reibeeck Society, Second Series No 18, Cape Town, 1987. Hard cover with dustjacket, lxv, 238pp., photos, maps, index. A authoritative, well researched text, that lays the whole story out in a non-biased manner, showing the guild of the accused, the correct manner that court martial held in accordance with the Court Martial Manual. DENTON Kit. The Breaker. Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1973. Hard cover, dustjacket, 268p. A historical novel based on the events, reprinted a number of times as “The Breaker”, and “Breaker Morant”. The 1982 film 'Breaker Morant' is “not” based on this novel, but on the 1978 Australian play “Breaker Morant: A Play in Two Acts”, written by Kenneth G. Ross who admitted he had used the novel as inspiration, the films director Bruce Beresford co-wrote the screenplay with him, he in subsequent years stated that was ashamed to have depicted war criminals as heroes. DENTON Kit. Closed File. The true story behind the execution of Breaker Morant and Peter Handcock. Rigby, Adelaide, Australia, 1983. Hard cover, dustjacket, 160p., photos, maps, index. An attempt to clear up the confusion given in his The Breaker, for which he had employed a British woman as a researcher for the affair using The Public Records Office in London. She found little, but, informed that there a “closed file” held by the former War Office (retitled Ministry of Defence (Army)). In fact, this file, which was not closed, gave reference to the complete records on the Court Martial, and events and investigations relating to it which held in the Cape Archives in Cape Town, as the Carbineers a Cape Colony corps the officers holders of the Cape Governors SAMIF Commission. It also linked to other War Officer files, pertaining to the court martial, but, not its content. LEACH Charles. The Legend of Breaker Morant is DEAD and Buried. A South African version of the Bushveld Carbineers in the Zoutpansberg May 1901-April 1902. Author, Louis Trichart, SA, 2012. Illustrated card cover, xxv, 220pp., photographs, maps, drawings, index. A competent, well researched and illustrated text, he using certain documents from the Cape Archives file. And, for a Afrikaaner in a none judgemental manner. MEREDITH John, Editor. Breaker's Mate : Will Ogilvie in Australia. Kangaroo Press, Sydney, 1996. Illustrated card cover, 276p., photos, index. Deals with a Scot, he a close friend of Morant in the colony of South Australia. Gives a good idea of the depravity and viciousness of the man, and makes a very strong case for his involvement in murder and homosexual rape in South West Queensland in the immediate period before his departure for South Africa. Ogilvie's very comprehensive papers, which relate to his experience of Morant in South Australia, and Bourke in New South Wales, are held in Edinburgh, Scotland. SCHOEMAN Chris. Brothers in Arms. Hollanders in the Anglo-Boer War. Zebra Press, Cape Town, 2011. Hard cover, dustjacket, xiii, 243pp., photographs, index. In part deals in a factual and cool manner with the murder and torture of citizens of the Kingdom of the Netherlands by Morant and his cohorts. WITTON George Ramsdale. Scapegoats of the Empire. D. W. Paterson Pty Ltd, Melbourne, 1907. Reprinted Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1982. it is claimed by the supporters of Morant that only seven copies of the book survived in various Australian state libraries and in the possession of Witton's family. Although unsubstantiated, it has long been claimed that the book was suppressed by the Australian Commonwealth Government at the request of the Colonial Office in London and most copies were destroyed; another explanation given why so few, is that most of the copies were destroyed by an accidental fire at the publisher's warehouse. This writer had pre-1982 over the years purchased three copies of the original print, and physically seen a further 11 in private possession, and that a further 23 copies were known held in public access outside of Australia, so at least 44 were extant pre-1982! This reprinting was inspired by the success of Bruce Beresford's film. WILCOX Craig. Australia's Boer War : The War in South Africa 1899-1902. Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 2002. Hard cover, xviii, 541p., photos, drawings, maps, index. In it the author gives a good description of the whole sorry business. This is further amplified by him in his article “Breaker Morant : The Murderer as Martyr” pp.29-49, in STOCKINGS Craig A.J., editor. Zombie Myths of Australian History : The Ten Myths that will not Die. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, 2010. WOOLMORE William. The Bushveldt Carbineers and the Pietersburg Light Horse. Slouch Hat Publications, McCrae, Melbourne, Australia, 2002. Hard cover with dustjacket, 320p., photos, drawings, maps, index. A nicely produced text with good photographs, unfortunately it follows the Morant was unjustly executed line, and that those with him were misunderstood, having believed illegal orders given! o (was 42) BEDDY'S SCOUTS, mispelt in a number of records as "Beddies", and on QSA Medals named " Beddies. Scts.". A small corps (with a number of surrendered Burghers) raised by Captain W.Beddy at Haenertsburg, North Transvaal, for patrol service in the extreme north of the Transvaal, the same wild district in which No Bushveld Carbineers (1) had worked until disbanded (which it did far more effectively, and excited no similar controversies). They made a number of captures of small parties of Boers between January-April, 1902. At Spelonkin on 23rd March 1902 their post was attacked by a very large Boer force, but held out; Captain Beddy and several men were wounded. On 16th April they had fighting at Haenertsburg, and suffered some losses. On 23 red April, 1902, serving with Lieutenant Colonel H.C.Denny's Column (2), it was ambushed near Vliegenpan farm by Commandant Beyer's Commando, Beddy was killed. Captain Beddy received a Mention, in Lord Kitchener's final despatch, under the heading, "Intelligence Department". NOTES : 1. A number of the Carbineers fled to Beddy for protection from Morant and his cohorts, with Beddy's commissioned to investigate and deliver a report on the criminal activities of the Corps and with collected statements of witnesses, the copy then held in The Cape Archives, seen and examined in 1997. 2. Denny had been the President of the Bushveld Carbineers court-martial, the column consisted of some 200 British mounted infantry, a mounted infantry company of his 2nd Battalion, The Northamptonshire Regiment, one of the 2nd Battalion, The Wiltshire Regiment; Beddy's Scouts 120; Pietersburg Light Horse 100; Steinaecker's Horse 115; 30 men of the National Scouts, in total some 600 with two guns. Yours, Mackinlay New South Wales No MAFEKING RAILWAY VOLUNTEERS........................................................................................................................ NOTE : The writer had in his possession until sold in the early 1980's, a medal pair to Alfred Henry Royal, QSA Medal five clasps DoM, OFS, Tvl, SA01, SA02 named “Mafeking Town Gd” , and British War Medal named “Railway Regt”. Recorded as Engine Driver on the Railway Volunteer's QSA Roll, and also on the Mafeking Town Guard Roll and the QSA recorded as issued off that Roll. Subsequently enlisted Bushveld Carbineers, Cape Town, 6th April, 1901, No. 233, Squadron Quarter Master Sergeant, with former service in Railway Volunteers. He one of those who had fled for his life, and his comprehensive report of atrocities committed by the corps recorded in Captain Beddy's report (see No ). He subsequently served to the war's end as a well respected No.32773 Quarter Master Sergeant, Pietersburg Light Horse. Railway Regiment Great War service in the Union and South West Africa only. No (was 11) ALBANY MOUNTED SHARPSHOOTERS, Albany Sharpshooters, Albany Local Volunteers also used. ........................................... NOTES : 3. ALBANY LOCAL VOLUNTEERS............................................................................................................................... In 1945, the great grandson of Edward Driver, W.I.S.Driver, Magistrate at Elliotdale, re-discovered Major White's lost for nearly 100 years grave. Being taken by natives to a ford over the Bashee River and shown a grave on the east bank, which native tradition declared to be made at the time of Chief Hintza's death, which owing to native superstition, had been left undisturbed. Most unusual, as the majority of graves of Europeans killed violently in the bush, were dug by tribal sorcerers to obtain their bones for use in Muti ceremonies v
  6. Ladies and Gentlemen, Last year, I offered free to all interested parties a book, being a "A Moment In Time : The British Army", an electronic copy revised from the original hardcover. Due to a glitch, I became unable to get back onto the thread, and a number of people who received it stated the same. Having offered it up on other discussion groups as well, by this October, some 7,500 copies have now been sent out, and it is up on a number of websites as a permanent download item. And many people have subsequently sent copies on - one gentleman in South Korea informed me with great glee that he had sent 107 copies off to fellow enthusiasts! Due to a great deal of feedback, I have decided to revamp the text and enhance it with events/actions that have occurred over the past year. The bulk of the original text is still of course current and correct. The chapters will be changed around, for examples all UK Special Forces will be in one chapter, as will military music. And such as the regiments of infantry, will have individual chapters, this to include a comprehensive historical entry for their origins - rather than the simple listing of the original regiments of foot from which they originated. Other historical items will also be enhanced. Therefore I request that anyone has any ideas for such to enhance the text, I would be most appreciative. Having written to the publishers and given them hard/disc copies of the book, I was very disappointed to see when I received a copy of "The Armed Forces of the United Kingdom 2010-2011" a certain amount of incorrect information. And I hope that the next edition of my text will correct this. Due to copyright reasons, I had removed from the electronic text the 124 photos and 70 drawings that had been in the hardcover. For those interested, a website jam packed full of good quality photos of British vehicles : Whilst for those persons who prefer a hard copy, the following profusely illustrated, but quite cheap books are available from Tankograd Publishing, Am Weichselgarten, Germany REME : Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers : Vehicles of 2 Battalion REME - Equipment Support to 7th Armoured Brigade. Royal Armoured Engineers. British Next Generation Armour : Types and Details of Modern British Vehicle Armour. British Army Training Unit Suffield : Types and Details of Modern British Vehicle Armour. The company will deal directly with mail order purchasers, and these books (in German and English) I cannot recommend more highly. For those persons who wish to see enhancements made to the text, please contact me at my home address : gam47 @ I hope to put out the 2nd Edition (solely as a electronic text - no hardcover this time) in December/January. And of course if anyone wants a copy of the original, just ask - it is FREE! Yours, G/. G.A.MACKINLAY
  7. Gentlemen, having looked at this message that I quickly did between patients yesterday, I think that possibily the following is open to misinterpretation : "These being given the titles of the 'Western Aden Protectorate' and the 'Eastern Aden Protectorate' which had the geographical title of Hadhramaut. The first had 20 different rulers, and the second over the period of 127 years of British influence at varying times between 22 and 36. " The meaning I meant was that the two Protectorates each had; 20 different 'states' with their own rulers, and the second over the period of 127 years of British influence at varying times between 22 and 36 different 'states' again each with their own rulers. My apologies Yours, G/. G.A.MACKINLAY
  8. Gentlemen, " Surely personnel seconded to such a unit would have been from Indian cavalry or similar units, and would have been Sowars?" Whilst in the British Army there was a tradition of camel mounted infantry sub-units raised from cavalry (and Foot Guards, Infantry and Royal Marines), in the Armies of the Presidencies of India this was unheard of. At that period of time (and up to the 1930's) the Regiments of Indian Cavalry were raised on the 'Silladar' system, in which the cavalry recruit (the 'sowar'(trooper)) brought his own horse into service, and was paid for its upkeep and service, with a replacement paid for if it lost on military service. There were no formally raised regiments of camel mounted troops in the various (British) Indian Armies, although in the 1854 Persian War (John Company's Last War) elements of infantry were mounted on camels. And during the Mutiny infantry again so mounted, in both ad hoc deployments. The various supply and transport corps though did have camel corps as pack animals, and also seen in photos drawing field artillery, and four wheeled wagons, or two wheeled carts. A number of 'armies' of The Princely States had 'camel corps' that were fighting units, those that were eligible for ''Imperial Service' - outside of British India, were organised, armed and trained as mounted infantry to fight on foot ? their private soldiers, 'Sepoys'. It is very difficult to train troops to fight with the lance on camel back (swords to swords pointless), and they were (and are) ceremonial items. All so called 'camel charges' in a cavalry fashion during the Great War (and before) were just advances to contact using the camel as the mode of rapid transport, with the fighting on foot with rifle and bayonet. Although in Somaliland and in the Sudan, it well recorded that over the years the various camel corps formed square using the camels as a defensive wall. Camel troops in the Princely Armies mainly vanished during the 1930's, and with the integration into the post-Independence India Army vanished (the Sultanate of Muscat's (now Oman) dependency of Bulchistan retained a Camel Corps until the Province handed over to Pakistan in 1958). The last battalion sized corps of the Princely Armies, the Bikaner Camel Corps (that also served in Somaliland) (merged with the Jaisalmer camel troops) became 13th battalion The Grenadiers, as a camel mounted battalion operating in the Western Deserts of India. The role was in 1975 passed to the Border Security Force, which unit (a reduced very light infantry battalion) when seen in 2005, they using the title 'Bikaner Camel Corps', and their Constables using the honorific 'Sowars'. Sowar(s) is now used in India to describe all soldiers, the army using 'Jawans'. "The princely state of Hyderabad did recruit Arab mercenaries." Following the Mutiny and the take over of Indian areas ruled by the Honourable East India Company, the British India Government forbad the enlistment of troops into the Princely Armies from outside of the now Indian Empire. Those Arabs serving at the time remained, whilst of course there were various types of ethnic Arabs domiciled within the area (and still are). Hyderabad had only one actual involvement in British East African possession when the commander of the Indian raised force in the Nyasaland Protectorate in 1891, a Captain C.M.Macquire (a Imperial Service officer with the 2nd Hyderabad Lancers), took 30 Muslims from the 2 Regiments of Lancers, and 40 Sikhs from the 23rd and 32nd Pioneers (Indian Army) there. They quickly involved in four expeditions against the slave trade in the Protectorate. "I feel that the H is for Hadhramout which was one of the Aden Trucial states (a sheikhdom under Indian control) don't forget that Aden and it's dependencies were controlled by India until independence and it would make sense of the Indian name and rank." Aden was captured in January 1839 (and Perim Island, the key to the Red Sea entrance) by British troops from India, and subsequently garrisoned by Indian troops, in a remarkably similar situation today's conflict with Somali pirates. Aden was administered until 1936 by India when it became a colony. Its actual area was only legalised following the Aden Boundary Commission of 1903-04 that saw some very heavy fighting by British regiments. This then saw British influence and Protection given to the various fiefdoms (probably the best description) that existed in the region. These being given the titles of the 'Western Aden Protectorate' and the 'Eastern Aden Protectorate' which had the geographical title of Hadhramaut. The first had 20 different rulers, and the second over the period of 127 years of British influence at varying times between 22 and 36. These two never had any control from India, always British Colonial Office. The Socotra archipelago became a British Protectorate following a Royal Navy expedition in 1885, following piracy incidents, and to stop the German Empire occupying it. It a strategic position for the movement of shipping to India and the Far East/Australasia. As a British Protectorate was administered from Aden(!), and is now part of The Yemen. There was only ever enlistment of men from the Western Protectorate was at the time of The Great War (the 1st Yemen Infantry) which existed until 1928, then the RAF Levies (Aden) were raised (they had a camel section). There was no enlistments from the Eastern Protectorate, a Hadhrami Bedouin Legion was raised there in 1940. And when the Federal Regular Army of South Arabia Army was raised in 1961, again no recruits from the East. Today as part of The Yemen, the Hadhramaut is still a totally lawless area, with little control (apart from the coast) by the Government in Sana. Having looked at it, I consider that the lack of a regimental number on the medal is of significance. Looking back at the AGS Medals of the era in my possession in the past, apart from those of bearers, or British civilian employee's all had such. Yours, G/. G.A.MACKINLAY
  9. Sir, at that period of time it was the norm for the Colonial Office to use LSL to represent 'Local Service List', signifying persons recruited/loaned for a specific purpose in a colony. Not just for military activity, but, for such as survey operations, police brought in from another colony or India for a multitude of reasons. It had all to do with the actual funding of their pay and allowances, ie. the Army Bearer Corps from India that supported the Aden Boundary Commission were paid from The Aden Government Vote, not the Army of India. In Chapter 7 'Campaigns Against the Mad Mullah of Somaliland' pp.160-194 of : MOYSE-BARTLETT Lt Col H., MBE, MA, PhD. The King's African Rifles A Study in the Military History of East and Central Africa, 1890-1945. Gale & Polden, Aldershot, 1956. HB, xix, 721p., photos, maps, index. the fate of the Somali Levy, that had become a 'Militia' by 1902, and disintegrated that year. The use of the rank 'Sepoy' is evidence that the man concerned belonged to a unit enlisted in British India or its dependencies. Remember that the King's African Rifles had a substantial component in its various battalions at that period of time enlisted in India. The term 'Arab' is seen in Indian Army and police records relating to those units drawn from Western India (now Pakistan), and the then Sultan of Muscat's territory of Baluchistan (also part of Pakistan now), with Gulf Arabs being enlisted. One would expect though that there would be a 'Regimental Number' shown before the rank. In regard to Indian units in the 02-04 Somaliland Campaign, a comprehensive listing is contained within Frontier and Overseas Expeditions from India, Volume 7. Government Printing Press, Calcutta, 1911. Copies held by the National Army Museum and The Prince Consort's Library in Aldershot. Which include such oddities as Survey of India, Punjab Police, 15 Pack Mule Corps, 54 and 55 Silladar Camel Corps, and 56 Camel Corps of the (Indian Army) Supply and Transport Corps. My relevant file shows two units that I have never found anything about, Arab Police Corps and Coast Camel Corps. Although they are frequently mentioned! Which could be a clue to the medal In regard to comments re Gordon's British Battles and Medals. In a lecture he gave to the Society for Army Historical Research, he stressed the fact that the Colonial Office (now part of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office), had had a policy for many years not to allow access to medal rolls and ancillary related information (such as soldiers records) on colonial military operations. This being the reason why Colonial unit information (not Dominion or Government of India) was so weak in his book. The last volume Gordon was actually associated with (and the best in my opinion of all those under his name) was the 4th (1971) even though it had a appalling dust jacket, as is the one (with many notes) that is one I personally use. He did use information from a variety of 'Odd Man Rolls'. He helped me prove the providence of a AGS Medal clasp Uganda 1900 to a 317 Trooper Mohamad Shan, Aden Troop, sold in the 1980's in the UK. He one of 52 "Rifles" of the Aden Camel Corps who served in this campaign in Eastern Uganda, and a Indian recruit. In relation to military information relating to the former Colonies; all records held by the Governance was handed over directly to the new Governments, while the Colonial Office itself sent the majority of the records that they held to them (copying those of relevance, military records were in the main not considered worthy of the expense). A elder brother now deceased, served as a subaltern/captain for four years with the Somaliland Scouts, until the enforced 'unification' of British Somaliland with the Italian Somali in 1960 by American political pressure. Those Somalis of the former British Administration (except the lower levels) were either executed or forced to flee the country, and those Somalis from the South disposed of the records of the former administration. A visit this year to the functioning Nation of Somaliland, which broke from the Somali Republic some 17 years following a genocide campaign against them, revealed that they are constantly attempting to retrieve records of the former British Administration. Even though they are a function nation, the American Government has continually blocked attempts for them to be recognised as a independent nation, very odd. My brother was in the process of completing a military history of British Somaliland (1888-1960), using records held in the National Army Museum on the Camel Corps and the subsequent Scouts, as well as the variety of other odd units in the early days. He had also received a quite huge volume of personal records and records of their service from a large number of former members (British and Somali). He unfortunately had a stroke, and when his wife left South Africa after his death, the box (amongst others) containing the very nearly completed text as well as all of the research resources (including a large number of audio and video tapes) was stolen! Yours, G/. G.A.MACKINLAY Yours, G/.
  10. Ladies and Gentlemen, In August I self Published "A Moment in Time" "The British Army 2008", a 250 hardback print run, this with 124 photos and 70 badge drawings. This was completely sold out, and I will not print any more. This was a ZERO profit making exercise. I am offering FREE to anyone who requires it, the text of the book only, in a electronic file copy. This is in 10point, 456 pages,paginated ready to print. In 28 Chapters, 27 annexes to them, and seven appendicies, I wrote what would have been once called a 'handbook', the content of which is what I would want buy in a handbook. All regiments and corps of the army are discussed (including a chapter on the Royal Marines and Royal Air Force Regiment), unit organisation and equipment tables, ceremonial, air operations and parachuting, amphibious landing support and security of nuclear weapons, the Royal Bodyguards to the Masons, training including that of overseas armies, a through description of the weapons currently in use, AFVs including the wheeled fighting vehicles (even tells what happened to the 40 missing Challenger-2 MBTs) artillery/engineer/logistical/ signals equipment, honours and awards to dress, ration packs to pace stick, and the ongoing saga of the Bearskin Cap. With lots of trivia and historical items. All the information is taken from the public domain, and only reputable sources used, NOTHING from the internet such as Wikepedia and discussion groups-much of what is written is in total variance with such. And from the nearly 4,000 copies sent out (hard and electronic) only one factual error has been found, that pointed out by Bob Griffin (the author of the superb books on the Chieftain and Conquerer tanks) this dealing with CR-2 dozer blades, which was corrected. This is a totally genuine FREE offer, see for one example the British Army Rumour Service entry at : this has some positive reports on it, you will see at the start some very negative posts from people who did and have not, actually obtained copies of the text, make up your own mind about it. Or;goto=newpost If you wish a copy please send a email to my home address. TYPE IN do not cut and paste,, and within the BODY OF THE TEXT place your email address for ease of response. My software does NOT ACCEPT CUT AND PASTE, and will reject SUCH MESSAGES. Yours, G/. G.A.MACKINLAY