There are certain grades of awards that were awarded to NCOs. For instance, Bavarian privates received the 3rd Class MVK while the higher grades went to the higher enlisted ranks. Officers would get, at least, the enameled 4th Class Order. Also, the presence of an enlisted long service award is another indication. On the Saxony/Reuss group above, there are both the Reuss merit medal, an enlisted award, and the Reuss House Order, 3rd Class, an officer's award. There is also a 15 Year Long Service Cross which was awarded only to enlisted men. This indicates several years of pre-war service. This guy probably started the war as an NCO but received a commission sometime later. A purely officer's bar will often have house orders. The only long service awards on an officer's bars will be those designated for officers such as the Prussian 25 year cross for line officers or the 20 year cross for reserve officers. In the case of an officer who had shorter service and had not been awarded a house order, there is no way to tell. Prussian officers often received only the Iron Cross which was available to all ranks.
A Turkish officer absolutely could be awarded a Prussian order. For example, Enver Pasha received the Pour le Merite in 1915 for his part in the Gallipoli campaign. As i understand it, the Red Eagle Order was the usual peacetime award to foreigners. Early on, there was a special version for non-Christians but, it was short lived and the standard version was awarded in most cases.
I haven't seen enough Jerusalem crosses to have an opinion on that but, the Anhalt piece appears to be silver-gilt, which is a bit of a red flag for me. These are generally bronze-gilt like the Albert the Bear awards.
The Princely Hohenzollern grades were a bit different than the usual setup. The pinback cross, usually an Officer's Cross in many orders, is actually the 1st Class for this Order. It grades below the Grand Cross but above the Commander's Cross. It was awarded 561 times from 1852 to 1965.
Just a comment - The 1870 bar combination is a bit unusual as the large units that were at Orleans were not at Weissenburg. It could be a staff officer or someone in a position that called for him to move around between units but, it is a bit of a red flag.