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Everything posted by azyeoman

  1. A WWI photographic postcard of British PoWs beging trucked away by their German guards.
  2. PoW groups are interesting and there is an enormous amount of information and photographs online. Not only did the PoWs see combat, but were also held captive and so had a entirely different story than the bulk of the troops. I thought it would be interesting to get a group for each of the large British surrenders. The first here is for Hong Kong on Christmas Day 1941, which consists of a group of 5: 1939-1945 Star; Pacific Star; Defence Medal; War Medal; Regular Army Long Service and Good Conduct Medal, GVI 2nd type; (4685565 SJT. A. COOKE. M.P.S.C.), mounted loose style as worn. A fine and interesting Second World War Fall of Hong Kong 25 December 1941 Prisoner of War of the Japanese long service group awarded to Sergeant A. Cook, Military Provost Staff Corps, late Military Foot Police, Coldstream Guards, and one time 5th Battalion, King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, Territorial Army, who having been taken prisoner of war, was incarcerated at Omine in Japan and worked forced labour as a miner. Together with the following quantity of original documentation: Soldier's Service Record and Pay Book, dated 1952; Regular Army Certificate of Service, dated 12 March 1952; Discharge Certificate after his first period of engagement, dated 4 May 1931; Certificate of Proficiency from the School of Instruction Corps of Military Police - as awarded for his attendance on a course from 16 October 1933 to 7 January 1934 - he came 14th on a list of 16; War Office Letter of Appreciation on his retirement from the British Army after 21 years service, dated 1 May 1952; 4 x News of the World photographs of a group of men; Cooke is one of them; another of a group of soldiers drinking beer, taken circa 1920's to 1930's; and individual portrait photograph of recipient; another of soldiers relaxing; and an older photograph, also of a group of soldier's, this annotated but not clearly readable, possibly 1920's; a booklet titled 'Chelsea Pensioners Today; and an exceptionally rare - small print run book - titled The Last Phase at Omine, which is an official late 1940's large format printed booklet printed by The Examiner Press for the Omine Prisoner of War Camp in Japan where Cooke was incarcerated. It contains many printed sketches of the PoW camp during the war. Cooke is listed on page 2 of the British PoW list for Omine and was recorded as being in camp 26 169 and L. Cpl Alfred A. Cooke, 4685565 H. 23.1.18. Alfred Cooke was born in 1907, and originally enlisted as a Private (No.4685565) into the 5th Battalion, King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, Territorial Army, at Denaby, Yorkshire, on 11th June 1925, but was then discharged at York on 4th May 1931 'in consequence of having joined the Regular Army', as he had joined the Coldstream Guards as a Guardsman. Cooke then saw home service, but pursued a career with the Military Foot Police and attend the School of Instruction for the Corps of Military Foot Police. While attached to this unit, he attended a course from 16 October 1933 to 7 January 1934. It is noted that he represented the Depot Corps of Military Police at Football. Later, he officially transferred into the Corps of Military Foot Police from 4 June 1934, he was then posted overseas to Shanghai and Hong Kong from 14 December 1938, and was still out in the Far East at the outbreak of the Second World War, and on the Japanese declaration of war. He was taken prisoner at the fall of Hong Kong on 25th December 1941, and spent the remainder of the war as a prisoner of war of the Japanese, being incarcerated at Omine Prisoner Camp, and employed on forced labour as a miner, before being liberated on 17 November 1945 after the Japanese surrender, and then posted home from 18 November 1945. Opting to continue in the service, he transferred as a Sergeant to the Military Provost Staff Corps, being awarded the Regular Army Long Service and Good Conduct Medal, and then being discharged after 21 years service on 16 April 1952. For more information on the mine look at: http://www.us-japandialogueonpows.org/Ominememorial.htm and more with Cooke listed under the British PoWs in http://www.mansell.com/pow_resources/camplists/fukuoka/fuku_5_omine/fuku_5_omine.html
  3. An seemingly common pair, but in reality, one that is quiet scarce to rare. A WWI pair named to G-11496 Pte. F. Hughes. The Queen's R. He was a PoW and after the war received the watch fob that was given to those who returned. It's scarce alone, to say the least, to find the fob, but to find it with the pair is rare. Frank Hughes is confirmed on page 41, line 22 of the Queen's PoW registry. He was from Camberwell, London. See the link for the Pdf below the photographs. In 1919, a reception was held in for 270 repatriated other rank PoWs from the Queen's Royal West Surrey Regiment in Guildford. A small commemorative medal, which could be worn on a watch-chain was given to each man. The Surrey Advertiser printed a list of the men of which most came from places within the regimental recruitment district or from within Surrey. There was a total of about 2,100 other ranks of the Queen's Regiment who were PoWs. Queens-Royal-West-Surrey-Regiment-Prisoners-of-War-1918.pdf
  4. 1914/15 Star, British War & Victory Medals, Long Service & Good Conduct Medal Royal Navy GV Third Type with a quantity of original documentation and copy photo to Private Edward White, Royal Marine Light Infantry a former Labourer born in Warblington, Emsworth, Hampshire in 1876. Attesting for the Royal Marines at Eastney in June 1894 he joined Portsmouth Division in February 1895. Serving ashore and afloat when War broke out he was serving at the Navigation School at Dryad as base security staff. Returning to Portsmouth Division in October 1915 he joined HMS Queen in October 1915 and the Submarine B11 in January 1916. Returning to Portsmouth Division in November 1916 he joined Defensively Armed Merchant Ships as a Gunner and was aboard the SS Corso when she was sunk by the German Submarine U-64 commanded by the U-Boat Ace Robert Morhat on 19th February 1917 in the Mediterranean 100 miles SW off Malta. Taken prisoner of war along with the Master and Chief Engineer he remained in captivity until December 1918. Demobilized in March 1919 he attested for HM Coastguard and served for 5 years. White slipped through the LSGC Medal net and was only awarded the LSGC Medal in 1935 when he applied for it. 1914/15 Star PO.7504 E White Pte RMLI British War & Victory Medals PO.7504 Cpl E White RMLI Long Service & Good Conduct Medal GV Royal Navy third type PO.7504 E White Pte RM The original documentation consists of: a copy photo (original given to the museum in 1986), two original parchment service certificates; one a continuation, and another original letter from the Admiralty dated 12 September 1935, which states, “Dear Mr White, I have to inform you that you have been awarded the Long Service & Good Conduct Medal as from 1st January 1918. Consequent upon this award your pension has been increased to £62 7s a year for life, as indicated in the accompanying documents. The arrears due, calculated to the end of the current quarter and including £1 Good Conduct Gratuity amount to £51 7s 11d. Payment will be issued on you returning, in the enclosed envelope. The accompanying Life Certificate, duly completed, together with your old identity certificate. The medal will be issued to you in due course. Your certificates are returned herewith.” Addressed to Mr. E. White, No 5 Cottage, Lyneham near Chippenham, Wiltshire. Another original letter is thanking Mr. and Mrs. White for donating photographs to the RM Museum dated 27 June 1986, Protection and Identity Certificate dated 26 February 1919, two letters from the Admiralty to his wife Mrs. Marry Ann White, 253 Fawcett Road, Southsea one dated 1st March 1917 which states, “Madam, I regret to inform you that Edward White, Lance Corporal, RMLI, Divisional Number PO.7504, was serving in the SS Corso when that vessel was sunk by an enemy submarine on the 19th February and is reported to have been taken on board the submarine as prisoner of war. Any further information concerning him received will be communicated to you”. A second letter to his wife from the Admiralty dated 3rd December 1918 states, “Madam, with reference to previous correspondence from this Department respecting Edward White Lance Corporal RMLI official number PO.7504 late prisoner of war in Germany, I have to inform you that he has been released from captivity. He arrived in England on or about the 29th instant and has now proceeded on two months leave”. Most interesting are: White’s original German PoW identity certificate Brandenburg (Havel) Camp; HM Coastguard certificate of service listing his Stations; a receipt for legal costs when he submitted a malicious injury claim dated 14th June 1921 whilst serving at Sligo, Ireland; an application letter dated 29th April 1919 to join HM Coastguard; Trade Certificate, four German PoW postcards, and one letter whilst PoW, one letter posted from Venice, Italy and censored by SNO Venice whilst serving aboard HM Submarine B11. Edward White was born in Warblington, Emswoth, Hampshire. As an 18 year 2 month old Labourer, he attested for the Royal Marines at Eastney on12 June 1894 and joined the Recruit Depot at Walmer the very same day. On the outbreak of war White was serving at the Navigation School at Dryad, he subsequently joined HMS Queen on 23 October 1915, HM Submarine B11 on 1 January 1916, Portsmouth Division on 5 November 1916, President III for Defensively Armed Merchant Ships (as Gunner) on12th January 1917. On 19 February 1917 White was aboard the SS Corso transporting a general cargo from Bombay to Hull when she was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U-64 commanded by the U-Boat Ace Robert Moraht. Moraht was awarded personally the PLM by the Kaiser and in total sank 45 ships, damaged three, took one as a prize and sunk one warship. White was taken prisoner aboard the U-Boat along with the ship’s Master, Chief Engineer and a second Gunner, and was held at PoW camps in Germany until released in December 1919. White was demobilized 26 March 1919, and later joined HM Coastguard on 8 May 1919 and served five years. In 1935 he applied for his Long Service & Good Conduct Medal, which should have been awarded in 1918, but slipped through the net. He was in possession of Five Good Conduct Badges in 1917. For more information on the wreck site, see: http://www.wrecksite.eu/wreck.aspx?141830 For more information on the U-64, see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SM_U-64_(Germany) and also, http://uboat.net/wwi/men/commanders/213.html
  5. Wow, Rob! That is wonderful! Thank you for posting this great find! :-D.
  6. Finally, I have found one of these rare medals. Finally, I have found a rare original General Service Medal 1918 with clasp 'IRAQ' to a PoW captured at Hillah on 24 July 1920. Officially named to: 59425 Pte. O. MCCue. Manch R. Sadly his BWM and Victory are missing. Please contact if you know their whereabouts. Owen McCUE was born in 1899 at 20 Rose Street, Hutchestown, Glasgow, Scotland. He served in the Great War as Private 57425 of the 2nd Battalion The Manchester Regiment, serving in France and earning the British War Medal and Allied Victory Medal. He married Ann Graham Harris in Glasgow on 12.11.1918. He was discharged, but re-enlisted at Bonn, Germany on 23.2.1919 as Private 3512935 and re-joined the 2nd Bn. the Manchester Regiment. He went to Mesoptamia on 13.2.1920. His son, Joseph was born three days later. The 2nd Bn. were attacked near Hillah, Mesopotamia (Iraq) on 24.7.1920 and several Companies were decimated with multiple fatalities and about 76 men taken prisoner by the Arab attackers. Owen McCue was one of these POW's. During the action Captain George Stuart Henderson DSO, MC of the 2nd Bn. was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross. The POW's were released later in the year and McCue was discharged on 31.2.1922 at Preston residing at 39 Tobago Street, Glasgow. Civilian life clearly did not suit him as on 11.7.1923 he enlisted in the Kings Own Scottish Borderers. This medal was awarded to him in 1925 when his marital address was given as 137 Drygatt, Agnes Terrace, Glasgow. He has no WW2 service noted. Much of his personal facts have been taken from his entry in the Manchester Regiment Enlistment Books. For an account of the battle, see: http://www.kaiserscross.com/304501/315743.html or: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iraqi_revolt_against_the_British Photos forthcoming. captured at hillah3513167 Edward harvey 3513113 e.fenton 17 dale st,miles platting3512230 charles,william mutters3512939 t.waddington,126 south st,openshaw3512492 albert giles3513394 a.jackson,161 tamworth st,brooks bar,manchester3513701 elijah millett,46 philip st,waterhead3513624 t.rogers,88 salisbury st,liverpool3513505 b.thomson3514116 james arnfield,lane head,lees,oldham3513841 g.ashton,26 higher duke st,miles platting3513049 h.baguley,jullulpore,india3513688 samuel,s banks,jullulpore,india3513716 joseph baron3513849 l beard3512810 henry blair3513069 j.blair 147 clifton st,brooks bar,manchester3514015 a.j brady,74 platt lane,scholes,wigan3513415 albert.jack brandreth,21 buckley rd,gorton3513466 george bromley,133 whiteacre rd,hurst3513074 george brown,12 boundary lane,notting hill,london3513619 ronald,r burgess,111 radnor st,hulme3513633 r.e buxton,15 herbert st,bradford,manchester3513798 w.cann,94 chatsworth st,edge hill,liverpoolt.charles[unknown]3513160 william clark 4 st.marys gate,preston3514074 m.collins,correct name Daniel Collins,wasnt capturedh.collinham[unknown]3512868 walter crooks,15 factory square,great yarmouth3512500 john,william currie,jullulpore,india3513625 j.e davies,499 grey mare lane,gorton3513258 t.davies or 3513253 t.davies3513956 a.c deakin,jullulpore3513952 r.devine,jullulpore3512415 joseph flynn,34 phoenix st,hulme3513693 william gallagher,65 miry lane,wigan3512969 h.gallimore,10 crook lane,wharton,winsford3513432 w.j grundy,106 towson st,everton3513847 william hallworth3513173 william harper,35 mona st,hulme3514064 charles,w hurley,91 king edward st,macclesfield3513839 c.j jennings,"shamrocks"hewell rd,barton green,birmingham3513300 e.johnson3512801 w.johnson,178 husband st,miles platting3513795 a.kershaw,113 garforth st,chadderton or 3512577 albert kershaw3513283 m.kinane3513796 f.lawrence,lanes farm,huxley,chester3513857 bob leigh,128 high st,pendleton3512935 owen mccue,39 tobago st,glasgow3513717 w.macdonald,68 artizan dwellings,salford3513263 r.mansfield3513642 john,t maudsley,ashleydene,whalley old rd,blackburn3513204 joseph morley,47 lees st,gorton3513932 j murphy3512909 thomas,h mylchreest,20 dalkeith st,liverpool3513828 w.oliver,51 stanley grove,longsight3513191 d.w owen,11 higham square,tyldesley3513392 charles.arthur phillips,33 larksville st,cherry orchard,shrewsbury3513155 p.pinder,6 bold st,st.helens3513206 james povey,71 ogden lane,openshaw3513720 edward rudd,19 sovereign rd,wigan3512747 william rushton,15 newport st,burnley3514379 e.russell3513790 w.smith 15 whittle st,kirkdale,liverpoolg.w schofield[unknown]3513131 t.spence,6 dyehouses,royton3513150 bob sutton,high st,bottesford,nottingham3513683 charles thomas,8 amhurst st,cardiff3512815 james tucker,32 pownall st,hulme3513564 a.walker,bank house,kirby in furness or 3513115 a.e walker,76 mytton st,hulme3513116 a.walmsley,11 ridgefield st,failsworth3512681 joseph,p welsh,11 george st,hulme3514032 e.wheatcroft,34 garibaldi st.ardwick3514339 francis[frank] white,32 forbes st,edge hill,liverpool[died on 6th oct 1920]3513870 john winspear3514069 f.yates,9 walker st,thornby on tees,yorkshire
  7. 1914/15 Star, named to: R.M.A. 7837 F.BAILEY GR. R.V.A. and unfortunately separated from its BWM and Victory.Gnr. Frank Bailey was born in 1880 in Leicester.He joined the Royal Marine Artillery in 1898 and qualified as a Master Gunner. He served for 12 years until 1910 when he was transferred to the Royal Fleet Reserve. He was remobilised in August 1914, and served on the SS Carmania from 13 August 1914 until 31 Dec 1916. It is noted in the wounds and hurts column that he was aboard the Carmania during the action with the German Armed Cruiser the RMS Cap Trafalgar, which had taken on the appearance of the Carmania. This was a famous action between two former luxury Liners in which the Carmania sunk the Cap Trafalgar, suffering much damage and many casualties. This incident was the subject of a book: "The Ship that Hunted Itself" by Colin Simpson (Penguin 1977). Bailey then served on H.M.S. Revenge from 24 August 1916 until the 31 December 1916. He was then demobilised for Defensibly Equipped Merchant Ships (DEMS), and served on the SS Cheltonian. On 8 June 1917, while en route from Genoa to Oran in ballast, Cheltonian was captured in the Mediterranean by a German U-Boat U72 and was sunk by gunfire. At the time, the steamer of 4,426 tonnes was 54 miles W by S from Planier Lighthouse. The Master and Gunner Bailey were taken PoW, and the rest of the crew survived also. Papers include a letter from the Accountant General to The Adjutant General Royal Marines stating that Bailey was a prisoner of War and interned at Brandenburg, Germany, and that his Wife had been informed. For more information on the wreck see: http://www.wrecksite.eu/wreck.aspx?149503 and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_shipwrecks_in_June_1917 For information on U72 see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SM_U-72
  8. 1939/45 Star, War Medal Unnamed as issued General Service Medal GVI clasp Malaya 22276128 Sgt R G Loadman RA Confirmed as PoW on Royal Artillery attestation leger entries and also confirming change in number upon re-enlistment. A copy newspaper article from The Sunderland Echo and Shipping Gazette dated 20 August 1940, reports him as POW with picture The copy War Office casualty list entries verify his PoW status. Ralph Gowland Loadman was born in Sunderland in 1918, he attested for the Royal Artillery in 1935 and serving as a Gunner and Driver with 68th Field Regiment (No 853755) was taken Prisoner of War in May/June 1940, no specific date is recorded on the War Office casualty return; although he was initially reported missing on 24.6.1040. He was held at Kanua Kz Sprottau/Sagan POW camp (POW number 18541) he was repatriated in 1945 and discharged. Re-enlisting 29th April 1949 (No 22276128) he served in Malaya as a Sergeant. He died in Wokingham, Berkshire in 1998.
  9. You don't often see mounted pairs like this with a tailor tag. What a well mounted group, but then it's a Godet! ;-)
  10. Here are a few things I've gathered over the years. Not the best photos, but there are photos of the individual Riker mounts below. Hope you find this interesting and informative.
  11. Over the years, I've seen various different types of tailor labels and would like to see all the variations and the different ones that collectors have. Fellow collectors have said that only 1/10 of bars have maker's labels on them; I suspect it could be lower than that. Here are a few I've come across. Please feel free to add more. F. Sedlatzek Berlin W8 Lieprigerstr. 108 Gold letters on black 1.2 x 3. cm stitched left and right sides
  12. A nice trio with the Hamburg Hanseatic Cross.
  13. A nice trio with a Hamburg Hanseatic cross - court mounted and with tailor's tag is the latest acquisition.
  14. An older pre WWI Godet. An exceptionally nice officer's WWI bar by J H Werner.
  15. Chipping away at acquiring all the clasps; just found a "Belfort".
  16. Congratulations on such a great find, and thank you for the excellent and interesting article from your excellent research. This man's good deeds will love on because of your work!

    • FOR SALE

    Rare Irish Free State Model 1927 Helmet For Sale History: At first glance most people would assume that this helmet is a German helmet. On closer inspection though it becomes much more interesting, with a unique history and is very scarce. This helmet is an Irish Free State Model 1927 helmet. It is based on a German design but interestingly contracted and made by Vickers, the eminent machine gun manufacturer. The Irish were looking for a helmet for their troops and were loath to use a British design, eventually the German M16 design was chosen after a trial of the classic French Adrian. The Free State had to turn to manufacturers outside of Germany because of the Versailles Treaty and Vickers, Ltd. was contracted to machine the helmet. For an army of 10,000 men 10,021 helmets were produced. The helmets were used from 1927 to 1939, when a British style helmet was adopted. After this change a significant number of helmets were repainted white for the Civil Authorities during the Second World War. This helmet though has the original paint on it and has never been painted making it even rarer than its already rare counterparts. In the 1970s more than half of the helmets were lost after they were used as landfill for a new Irish Army barrack. In theory, only a few original helmets survive today and the majority of those have been painted white leaving original and unmolested helmets very scarce indeed. HELMET MARKINGS: Shell Stamps: The shell and liner each have a single set of markings. The shell is stamped on the inside back edge, and it consists of two lines. The upper line is stamped “V.LTD H7102” while the second line is “9R/ ‘27”. The first line can be read as “V” for Vickers, “LTD” for Limited, and the “H7102” for “Helmet and serial number, or production number.” This helmet is number 7,102 out of the 10,021 production run. Liner Stamps: While the helmet shells were made by Vickers, the liners were made in Ireland, from very high quality leather. The manufacturer was “T. Smith and Sons, of Dublin.” Their stamp is found on the liner band, by lifting up the front pillow of the helmet. This is documented with a two-line stamp, consisting of the name, location and again the 1927 date followed by the size indicator, S, M, or L for the obvious small, medium or large size liners. Helmet Pads: In addition to being able to identifying the serial number of the helmet this piece also shows who was issued the helmet. “D. Oconnell 69026”. On Findmypast.com there are less than 40 D. Oconnell’s on record if you are inclined to find out who 69026 is; a great little mystery to solve for any collector. The pads are not attached to the helmet but are in very good condition with the inside padding being intact. Other Components: The chinstrap is very thick hard leather. The attachment that the straps is on are aluminum. The Bolts are the same as you would find on a traditional German M16 helmet. You cannot remove the chin strap. One side has come off but the piece of leather that it attaches to is still with the helmet. Crest: The crest is similar to the 1924 Officer’s cap badge. However, unlike the cap badge the helmet crest has a different prong set on the back which was specifically designed for the helmet. It is very rare to find an original crest as most of the badges that are on the market today are modified cap badges. Price: $1100 or best offer +P&P, to b calculated with buyer based on their shipping needs.


  18. A scarce FEPOW Glasgow pinback lapel badge. Nicely stamped in bronze with red and green enamel. Three Australian pinback PoW lapel badges. The middle rectangular one numbered 10871 is a deep mid-night blue rather than black and was made by "AMDR / Sydney"
  19. Another commonwealth medal to a PoW in the British Indian Army. Sadly this is missing seven other decorations and medals, which make up the remainder of the group. An India General Service Medal 1908 with clasp North-West Frontier 1930-31 awarded to a long service NCO. Correctly impressed: Jemdr Painda Khan 2-13 FFR Painda Khan served during the First World War with the 87th Punjabis as an OR and left the army after the war. In 1929 he returned to the army and was commissioned and served on probation with the 2-13th FFR on the North West Frontier of British India where he earned his IGS 1908 and clasp. He transferred to the 5/2nd Punjab Regiment where he remained until the late 1930s when he retired with the rank of Subadar. Following the outbreak of the Second World War, he returned to the 5/2nd Punjab Regiment and was appointed Subadar-Major on the day he rejoined. Subadar-Major Painde Khan served during the Malayan Campaign was taken PoW following the surrender of Singapore. While a PoW, he was made an Honorary Lieutenant. After his release, he was appointed Honorary Captain and awarded an Order of British India (OBI) and MBE (mentioned the Golden Galley) for his services during captivity. See: https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/iss ... ement/1950
  20. This is one of the best items in your collection. What an excellent job of research too. Thank you for posting this rare group!
  21. Boer War stereocard photos of PoWs and guards. B.W. Kilburn 1900 - 13817 "Tommy Atkins" South African Home, Nootgedacht Prison, S.A. B.W. Kilburn 1900 - 13821 Some of England's Nobility in Nooitgedacht Prison. Showing Mr. Goshcen (central figure) Nephew of first Lord of Admirality, S.A. B.W. Kilburn 1900 - 13818 The Boer Guards at Nooitgedacht Prison, S.A. B.W. Kilburn 1900 - 14133 Boers on Guard at Nooitgecacht Prison, S.A. Underwood 1900 - "Mud Hall" Prison, where the British Officer Prisoners were kept by the Boers, S.A. Underwood 1900 - Interior of "Mud Hall" the last prison occupied by the British Officers at Pretoria, S.A. Underwood 1901 - British Prisoners released by Boers, marching into Pretoria after its Capture, to be re-armed, S. Africa
  22. Another Commonwealth PoW pair to a South African. 11097 Pte. V.G. Wright, 4th S. African Infantry. Died while a PoW on 24 April 1918 and buried in Plot 8, Row C, grave 13 in Cologne Southern Cemetery. Cologne Southern Cemetery (from the CWGC) More than 1,000 Allied prisoners and dozens of German servicemen were buried in Cologne Southern Cemetery during the First World War. Commonwealth forces entered Cologne on 6 December 1918, less than a month after the Armistice, and the city was occupied under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles until January 1926. During this period the cemetery was used by the occupying garrison. In 1922 it was decided that the graves of Commonwealth servicemen who had died all over Germany should be brought together into four permanent cemeteries at Kassel, Berlin, Hamburg and Cologne. Over the course of the following year, graves were transferred to Cologne Southern Cemetery from over 180 different burial grounds in Hanover, Hessen, the Rhine and Westphalia. There are now almost 2,500 First World War servicemen buried or commemorated in the Commonwealth plots at Cologne. The Cologne Memorial, located inside the shelter building at the entrance to the Commonwealth plots, commemorates 25 British and Irish servicemen who died in Germany and who have no known grave. Of these, 19 are known to have died as prisoners but their places of burial are not recorded. The remaining six died after the Armistice by drowning and their bodies were not recovered. The Commonwealth section of the cemetery also contains over 130 Second World War graves, mostly those of servicemen who died with the occupying forces. There are, in addition, 676 non-war graves and 29 burials of other nationalities. Commonwealth Prisoners of War in Germany during the First World War Between the outbreak of war in August 1914 and the Armistice of November 1918, the German forces captured almost 300,000 Commonwealth servicemen on the Western Front. Approximately one third of these prisoners were held in German occupied territory in France and Belgium, but most were transported to camps located throughout Germany. In common with the other belligerent states, Germany was poorly equipped to house, feed and clothe large numbers of enemy troops, but prisoners of war had been granted certain rights under international agreements established at Geneva in 1864 and at The Hague in 1899 and 1907. The Red Cross also monitored conditions in the camps and ensured that food, clothing, and personal correspondence sent from Britain was safely delivered to prisoners. In June 1917, and again in July 1918, the British and German governments agreed to exchange prisoners who were too badly wounded to fight again, and hundreds of prisoners were repatriated through the Netherlands. Finally, the fear that the thousands of German prisoners in Britain and France would be mistreated in retaliation meant that Allied POWs often enjoyed quite humane treatment. This was especially the case for officer prisoners, who were segregated into separate camps and not forced to work. Despite these various checks on the mistreatment of prisoners, conditions in German camps varied widely and as many as 12,000 Commonwealth servicemen died in captivity. Some of these men were badly wounded when taken prisoner and died shortly after arriving in Germany. Some prisoners also died as a result of violence perpetrated by their captors, but although violence was common, particularly during the first year of the war, the killing of prisoners was rare. Non-commissioned officers and privates were often forced to work and some died of exhaustion or accidents while labouring in coalmines, stone quarries or steel works. Yet by far the most common cause of prisoner death in wartime Germany was disease. Prisoners weakened by wounds, poor diet, or fatigue were particularly susceptible to the effects of disease and an outbreak of typhus in 1915 and the influenza epidemic of 1918 had a devastating effect on the Allied prisoner population. The Cologne Memorial The memorial takes the form of panels set inside the north shelter building at the entrance to the Commonweatlh plots in Cologne Southern Cemetery. It commemorates 25 servicemen of the United Kingdom who died in Germany and who have no known grave. Of these, 19 are known to have died as prisoners and their places of burial are not recorded. The other six died after the Armistice by drowning and their bodies were not recovered. *The following cemeteries are among those from which graves were brought to Cologne: AACHEN MILITARY CEMETERY, 197 burials of sailors 1914-1919. BONN (POPPELSDORF) CEMETERY, 133 service and one civilian burial, all of 1919. The 47th General Hospital and the 21st Casualty Clearing Station were posted at Bonn. BUDERICH (FORT BLUCHER) PRISONERS OF WAR CEMETERY, 39 burials of 1914-1919. COBLENZ FRENCH MILITARY CEMETERY, KARTHAUSE, 59 burials of 1915-1918. Coblenz was occupied by United States troops in December 1918. DORTMUND SOUTH-WESTERN CEMETERY, 53 burials of 1914-1918. DUISBURG TOWN CEMETERY, 35 burials of 1914-1919. DULMEN PRISONERS OF WAR CEMETERY, 96 burials of 1915-1918. DUREN NEW TOWN CEMETERY, 79 burials, mostly of 1919. The 11th Stationary Hospital and the 17th Casualty Clearing Station were posted at Duren. DUSSELDORF NORTH CEMETERY, 24 burials of 1915-1918. ESSEN SOUTH-WESTERN CEMETERY, 21 burials of 1917-1918. EUSKIRCHEN NEW TOWN CEMETERY, 75 service and one civilian burials of 1918-1919. The 42nd Stationary Hospital and the 47th Casualty Clearing Station were posted at Euskirchen. FRIEDRICHSFELD PRISONERS OF WAR CEMETERY, 70 burials of 1916-1918. FRIEMERSHEIM CEMETERY, 20 burials of 1918. GELSENKIRCHEN WEST CEMETERY, 21 burials of 1917-1918. GEROLSTEIN MILITARY CEMETERY, 25 burials of 1918. JULICH MILITARY, 39 burials of 1915-1918. MULHEIM-AM-RUHR OLD TOWN CEMETERY, 49 burials of 1915-1918. MUNSTER (HAUSPITAL) PRISONERS OF WAR CEMETERY, 161 burials of 1914-1918. RECKLINGHAUSEN PROTESTANT, CATHOLIC AND SOUTH CEMETERIES, 26 burials of 1916-1918. TRIER TOWN CEMETERY, 48 burials of 1917-1918.
  23. Three more lapel pins for helping PoWs. The two rectangular ones are WWII and I believe the Red Cross one is WWI.
  24. A king's crown brass and enamel Ex-Prisoners of War lapel badge with brooch-pin fitting with makers details for Parkes Brisbane on the reverse. A crowned section of barbed wire with the letters "NSW" above the title scroll,"Ex-Prisoners of War Assn." For more information on this PoW Association, please see: http://www.rhkrnsw.org/ https://static1.squarespace.com/static/531286c0e4b04bcb37e6c5c5/t/53213ea2e4b0a9d8ad053aca/1394687650695/HK+Vol+%26+ex+PoW+Assn+NSW.+OP4+Veteran+members.pdf