ColinRF

Reference Topic
Autographs of the German Resistance & July 20 plot

205 posts in this topic

Colin, here is a very interesting interview with Philipp von Boeselager.

He gave the interview to the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung three weeks before his death in 2008.

http://www.faz.net/s/RubCF3AEB154CE6496082...n~Scontent.html

Thanks Naxos - I just finished his book. Although he is not the last survivor of the bomb plot as billed on the cover and within - that would be Ewald Heinrich von Kleist. I believe Freya von Moltke of Kriesau fame is also still with us.

Returning the favour, here is a link to an MP3 1/2 hour interview with Claus' eldest son Berthold - fascinating.

http://images.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http...%3Doff%26sa%3DN

Colin

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ID: 105   Posted (edited)

Freya von Moltke (nee Deichmann) was the wife of resister Helmuth James von Moltke and at this date is one of the few survivors. While many of the women of the resistance provided support to their husbands without being directly involved, Freya was actually a member of the Kreisau Circle, a group of intellectuals who planned for the post-Hitler period. The circle was named for the von Moltke estate that was located near Kreisau in East Prussia. Helmuth James von Moltke was a Rhodes Scholar and his mother was English. She was the daughter of the ex-Chief Justice of South Africa.

Freya moved with Helmuth to Berlin in 1932 and obtained her doctorate in law in 1935. Helmuth too was a lawyer. He founded a practice in international law in 1035 and began to train as an English barrister, qualifying in 1938. He provide legal aid to Jews and other Nazi victims and like many opponents of the Party, he was taken into Abwehr in 1939 at the beginning of the war. His role within the Abwehr was to act as technical expert on the laws of war.

In 1940, Helmuth and Freya met Peter Yorck von Wartenburg. Together with Yorck, the von Moltke?s gathered a group of friends to plan for post-war government. Meetings were held at the Kreisau estate in 1942 and 1943. The core of the group amounted for about 20 people. Starting 1941, links were forged with the civilian and military arms of the resistance. Moltke was initially opposed to assassination but Freya noted that he later came around to supporting the coup.

Helmuth was arrested in early 1944 after he was implicated by another who was tortured after arrest. He remained in jail until the Gestapo learned about the Kreisau Circle after July 20. He was condemned to death by the People?s Court on January 11, 1945 and he was condemned to death 12 days later.

Freya survived the war. She was never arrested or held in family custody. Before the end of the war she returned to Kreisau where she rescued her children and all of Helmuth's letters, many of which had been smuggled out of prison and hidden in a bee hive. These letters were published as "Letters to Freya." They form a very compelling history or the civilian side of the resistance.

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Edited by ColinRF

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Colin,

Generalmajor Wolfgang von Holwede was dicharged from the Wehrmacht in Dec. 1944 and Generalmajor Norbert Holm was arrested and degraded in Oct. 1944. Do you know if they were both related to the July 20th plot?

Thank you,

________

Robert

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Hi Robert - I do not reacll ever seeing a specific reference to either of these officers being implicated in the bomb plot but I would be happy to look through my library of > 100 volumes over the next few days. Neither is mentioned in the index to Hoffmann's monumental "History of the German Resistance" but that index does not cover his detailed notes.

Also, keep in mind that while ~200 people lost their lives as a result of the plot, the numbers of arrested were many more, perhaps thousands. You did not have to wind up in front of the People's Court to lose your career after July 20 1944.

I will let you know what I find out.

Regards

Colin

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ID: 108   Posted (edited)

Colin,

I was doing some research on Holwede and I stumbled on this web site;http://www.lot-tissimo.com/de/cmd/d/o/222.21001-462/auk/21/, it seems that Himmler forced him to retire from the Wehrmacht.

"20. Juli 1944". Nachlass des General Wolfgang von Holwede.

Silberner Erinnerungsbecher des Offiziers-Corps des III. Bataillons 7./(Preuss.) Infanterie-Regiment an den Hptm. v. Holwede 1921 - 1927 mit schauseitiger Widmungsgravur und Chiffre des ehemaligen Grenadier-Regiments K?nig Friedrich III. (2.Schlesisches) Nr.11 Breslau. Im Boden Hersteller- und Silberpunze, Gewicht 227 g, H. 14 cm; Silberner Erinnerungsteller des Infanterie-Regiments 448 an den Anschluss ?sterreichs 1938. Geschwungener, leicht hochgestellter Rand, im Spiegel graviertes Einheitswappen und Einsatzr?ume der einzelnen Kompanien in der Region Stift Zwettl, der Rand mit Hersteller- und Silberpunze, ? 23 cm, Gewicht 262 g. Dazu Mappe mit vielen Dokumenten aus seiner Dienstzeit bis 1945: Annahmeschein als Fahnenjunker 1910, Zeugnis der Reife zum F?hnrich, Patent als Leutnant 1913, Befehle, amtliche Schreiben, Feldpostbriefe, Fotos, z.T. beschriftet, viele Visitenkarten von Offizieren mit Einheitsangaben, Belobigungsschreiben der Rgts.-Chefin Charlotte Herzogin von Sachsen-Meiningen 1916. Urkunden wie Besitzzeugnis und Schreiben zum Verwundetenabzeichen 1918 in Schwarz und Besitzzeugnisse zum Schlesischen Adler 1. und 2. Stufe 1920. Schallplatte mit dem Parademarsch des GR 11 aus dem Jahre 1959. Schreiben der Wehrmachtsfestungshaftanstalt K?strin vom 10. April 1945 ?ber die Inhaftierung und Aussto?ung des Generals von Holwede aus dem Heer am 31.12.1944 im Zusammenhang mit den Ereignissen des 20. Juli 1944 auf Befehl Reichsf?hrer SS Himmler. Stich des Kadettenhauses zu Wahlstatt mit Beschriftung "Generalleutnant von Holwede. Kommandant der Kadettenanstalt in Potsdam 1879 - 1884"

Thank you very much for your time.

Kind regards,

_______

Robert

Edited by robert39

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Hi Robert - I do not reacll ever seeing a specific reference to either of these officers being implicated in the bomb plot but I would be happy to look through my library of > 100 volumes over the next few days. Neither is mentioned in the index to Hoffmann's monumental "History of the German Resistance" but that index does not cover his detailed notes.

Also, keep in mind that while ~200 people lost their lives as a result of the plot, the numbers of arrested were many more, perhaps thousands. You did not have to wind up in front of the People's Court to lose your career after July 20 1944.

I will let you know what I find out.

Regards

Colin

Robert - here's a ref to von Holwede in Sippenhaft custody with many other family members of July 20 conspirators. He may have been held as a relation (many of the officers were related to multiple conspirators) or he may have been held as a soft suspect with the family members.

Colin

http://www.moz.de/index.php/Moz/Article/ca...eelow/id/186793

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Robert - here's a ref to von Holwede in Sippenhaft custody with many other family members of July 20 conspirators. He may have been held as a relation (many of the officers were related to multiple conspirators) or he may have been held as a soft suspect with the family members.

Colin

http://www.moz.de/index.php/Moz/Article/ca...eelow/id/186793

Colin,

Thank you very much for the link. :cheers:

Here is von Holwede's autograph;

Cheers,

_______

Robert

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Allied propaganda leaflet dropped soon after the July 20 plot.

Colin

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ID: 113   Posted (edited)

Oberstleutnant Friedrich Wlihelm Heinz led a parallel life to his friend Werner Schrader (profiled earlier in this string). Like Schrader, Heinz is often overlooked or marginalized in studies of the anti-Hitler resistance movement in favour of the big hitters like Stauffenberg and Tresckow. Both men served as senior leaders in the nationalist ex-soldiers' organisation, Stahlhelm, both fled to serve in Admiral Canaris' Abwehr to avoid the attentions of the Gestapo. Most importantly, both friends were closely involved in several of the plots against Hitler. Heinz perhaps came closest to pre-empting Hitler's war in the plot that is generally recognised as having the best chance of avoiding WWII.

Like many of the resisters, Heinz served in WWI, in the trenches where he was well decorated. Post-war, he served in various Nationalist groups including the Freikorps Ehrhardt where he took part in the Kapp Putsch. He was heavily involved in politics as a right-wing monarchist throughout the inter-war years. He was also a poet and author, skills he directed to use in the political arena. He was an early NS party member but he soon balked at Hitler's dictatorial style and he aligned himself closely with the Strasserite wing of the party. There is some evidence that Heinz was on the elimination list for the Night of the Long Knives.

By 1938, Heinz was working actively against Hitler as part of Oster's group in the Abwehr. Heinz was a key planner in the "Oster Conspiracy" that was planned for September 1938. With Beck, Wiztleben, Gisevius, Goerdeler and several others, Heinz planned to arrest Hitler before he could trigger what was considered to be an apocalyptic world war over the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia. In preparation for arresting Hitler, Heinz recruited a band of approximately sixty men from the Abwehr, the Stahlhelm, universities and socialist organisations. All were issued machine pistols and hand grenades at the HQ of Witzleben's Wehrkreiss III (Berlin). The raiding party, or Stosstruppe, was positioned across the road from the Reichs Chancellory. Diplomat Erich Kordt volunteered to open the Chancellory doors to allow the raiders access to Hitler. Minimal resistance was expected as only a few guards from 1 SS were posted to protect the Fuehrer at this time.

The official plan was for Hitler to be arrested and put on trial as most of the conspirators had not yet reached a stage of despair where they were willing to adopt gangster methods to fight the ultimate gangster. Hans von Dohnanyi's archive chronicling SS and Gestapo crimes was to be introduced as evidence. A professional opinion on Hitler's state of mental health was to be provided by eminent psychiatrist Karl Bonhoeffer, Dietrich Bonhoeffer's father. This was high risk as taking time for a trial gave time for the SS and party to stage a counter-coup. However, it must be remembered that Hitler was far less popular in 1938 than he had become a year later after the Munich accords.

Nevertheless, Heinz and Oster thought the risk to be unacceptable. After the last planning session was done and the senior plot leaders has departed, Heinz asked to speak to Oster alone. He forcefully made the case that just arresting Hitler would not do and that he must be killed. Although a Christina, Oster agreed. A plot within a plot was designed. Without telling the others, Heinz and Oster agreed that Hitler's death would be engineered during his arrest.

History tells us that this raid was never launched. Instead, against all expectations, Neville Chamberlain flew to Munich and gave Hitler everything he requested, thus ensuring a war in the future. He also pulled the rug out form under the plotters who could hardly expect public support for eliminating a leader who had just won such a resounding bloodless victory. The best opportunity to remove Hitler before the outbreak of war disappeared.

During the war, Heinz commanded the first battalion of the Abwehr's Brandenburg commandos and later the fourth regiment of the Brandenburg division. He was wounded multiple times and was eventually invalided home to take command of a heavy police battalion in Berlin. On July 20, he was at the Bendlerstrasse for the coup but left empty handed as orders to the various police units were slow in coming. He survived the coup without more than a Gestapo interrogation.

After Werner Schrader's suicide, the Gestapo found Dohnanyi's detailed archive of NS crimes as well as prior coup plans. In addition, the Gestapo learned that the archive had been kept in Heinz's brother-in-law's bank vault until Schrader and Heinz moved it to Zossen. The archive detailed Heinz's involvement in the 1938 Oster plot and a warrant was issued. Heinz went to ground in Berlin and unlike many of the conspirators who went into hiding, he managed to stay hidden until war's end.

Post-war, Heinz emerged as leader of the Friedrich Wilhelm Heinz Service, a West German intelligence service directly reporting to the West German government, technically in breach of the surrender protocols but tolerated by the western allies who were already realigning to counter the eastern threat. Heinz can be considered one of the fathers of the German secret service.

Below is a signature block for Heinz.heinz.jpg

Edited by ColinRF

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Phots of Friedrich Wilhelm Heinz from his son MIchael's excellent web bio - http://www.friedrich-wilhelm-heinz.de/

The officer leaning on the car is Oster.

Colin

Hi Colin

Thought you might like to see a wartime TLS of Heinz to another Brandenburger, I have a feeling that I read somewhere that Herzner was a member of the 1938 plot but I haven't been able to find the original reference that I think I saw. Maybe someone on the forum can help. If someone can confirm that he was I'll post a document by him and provide his CV.

Best

Ian

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ID: 116   Posted (edited)

Ian - You are correct! See this preview page from Peter Hoffmann's "History of the German Resistance" as confirmation.

http://books.google....%201938&f=false

Also Michael Heinz' page on his father includes a ref to the leaders of the raiding party - Here's an excerpt -

"HEINZ , Franz Liedig (Brigade Ehrhardt), Hans-Jürgen Graf Blumenthal (Offizier), Jürgen von Buttlar (Stahlhelm), Major Döhring (Abwehr II), Haubold Graf Einsiedel, Wolf und Konrad Graf Finckenstein (Stahlhelm), Dr. Fitzner, Grosscurth (Abwehr II), Herbert Hoffmann, Junker (Stahlhelm), Hans-Wolfgang Knaack (Abwehroffizier), Graf von der Recke, Arnold Bistrick, Albrecht Erich Günther (Journalist und Weltkriegsteilnehmer), Ludwig Gehre (Brigade Ehrhardt) und Hans-Albrecht Herzner (Reserveoffizier im IR 9).|

Colin

Hi Colin

Thought you might like to see a wartime TLS of Heinz to another Brandenburger, I have a feeling that I read somewhere that Herzner was a member of the 1938 plot but I haven't been able to find the original reference that I think I saw. Maybe someone on the forum can help. If someone can confirm that he was I'll post a document by him and provide his CV.

Best

Ian

Edited by ColinRF

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Ian - You are correct! See this preview page from Peter Hoffmann's "History of the German Resistance" as confirmation.

http://books.google....%201938&f=false

Also Michael Heinz' page on his father includes a ref to the leaders of the raiding party - Here's an excerpt -

"HEINZ , Franz Liedig (Brigade Ehrhardt), Hans-Jürgen Graf Blumenthal (Offizier), Jürgen von Buttlar (Stahlhelm), Major Döhring (Abwehr II), Haubold Graf Einsiedel, Wolf und Konrad Graf Finckenstein (Stahlhelm), Dr. Fitzner, Grosscurth (Abwehr II), Herbert Hoffmann, Junker (Stahlhelm), Hans-Wolfgang Knaack (Abwehroffizier), Graf von der Recke, Arnold Bistrick, Albrecht Erich Günther (Journalist und Weltkriegsteilnehmer), Ludwig Gehre (Brigade Ehrhardt) und Hans-Albrecht Herzner (Reserveoffizier im IR 9).|

Colin

Hi Colin

Well thanks very much for that. Herzner is an interesting character. Hitler previously authorised the war to commence on the 26th August 1939. As a result of the ever changing political situation Hitler stepped back from the brink and cancelled the attack on Poland. Unfortunatley it was too late to stop Herzner who was leading an Abwehr K Group to capture the stategic railway tunnels which ran through the Polish Jablunka Pass. Just after midnight on the 25th August he sat down and pencilled what would become the first operational order of World War II. " Crossing Polish frontier 0030 hours with J(ablunka) C (Commando) at point 627 north north west of Cadca'. Then he signed it.

There is more about the operation here:

http://en.wikipedia....C3%B3w_Incident

Here is that message

Regards

Ian

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ID: 118   Posted (edited)

Probably one of the most astonishing pieces I have seen from your world-class collection Ian! Absolutely amazing piece. Imagine that Herzner came within day or two of being in the raiding party that would have killed Hitler. Then he basically triggered WWII through his own actions. First he tries to stop it and then he sets it off. Any idea what ultimatey happened to Dr Herzner?

Colin

Edited by ColinRF

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Probably one of the most astonishing pieces I have seen from your world-class collection Ian! Absolutely amazing piece. Imagine that Herzner came within day or two of being in the raiding party that would have killed Hitler. Then he basically triggered WWII through his own actions. First he tries to stop it and then he sets it off. Any idea what ultimatey happened to Dr Herzner?

Colin

Thanks Colin. Unbelievably Herzner was honoured for this incident by the award of the Iron Cross 2nd Class. This therefore became the first medal, awarded for valour, of World War 2. Here it is and you will note that ,unusually ,it is signed by Keitel.

Regards

Ian

Herzner also led a special Wehrmacht/Ukranian nationalist battalion during the invasion of Russia. In 1942 he was wounded in action and sent to a military sanitorium to recuperate. On the 3rd September 1942 he was last seen laying on a float in the middle of a lake. Suddenly he disappeared. His body was found 2o hours later. An investigation was held but his death was deemed to be a simple accident.

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ID: 120   Posted (edited)

Attached is a nice signature of General der Artillerie Fritz Lindemann I purchased as part of a group. Lindemann was shot by the Gestapo during his arrest and was wounded mortally. He died in surgery.

Edited by ColinRF

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ID: 121   Posted (edited)

No time to write a bio on Lindemann. Here is a summary from the excellent GDW site:

Fritz Lindemann (April 11, 1894 - September 22, 1944)Fritz Lindemann fought in the First World War and was a temporary member of the German peace delegation in Versailles in 1919. After 1922 he completed an illegal general staff training course in the Reich Army, and started training officers himself at the end of the 1920s. He was married to Lina von Friedeburg, with whom he had a daughter and two sons. In the Second World War he fought in Poland, France and the Soviet Union, and increasingly used his travel opportunities for contact with the military conspirators, some of whom, including Hellmuth Stieff, were among his close friends. After the unsuccessful assassination attempt of July 20, 1944, Fritz Lindemann managed at first to hide with relatives in Dresden. When his involvement in the plot was discovered, he was given shelter in Berlin by Erich and Elisabeth Gloeden, who helped persecuted Jews as well. The Gloedens were sentenced to death with other helpers in November 1944. Following a denunciation, the Gestapo arrested Fritz Lindemann on September 3, 1944, seriously injuring him. He died in hospital shortly afterwards.

10501.jpgfritz_lindemann.jpglindemannf.jpg

Edited by ColinRF

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ID: 123   Posted (edited)

Here is an extraordinary Stauffenberg currently on offer from a dealer. Not in my collection but it fits the theme. Its the shaky three fingered left hand signature shown in Hamilton, signed ostensibly 2 days before July 20. I have a lot of reservations about its originality but its an interesting piece anyway.

Here's the catalogue entry -

STAUFFENBERG, Claus Graf Schenk von. Oberst im Generalstab des Heeres, 1944 Chef des Stabes des Befehlshabers des Ersatzheeres, führte das Attentat auf Hitler am 20. Juli 1944 in der Wolfsschanze durch (1907-20.Juli 1944 standrechtlich erschossen). Gedicht-Typoskript mit eigh. Unterschrift "Claus Stauffenberg", Berlin 18. VII. 1944, zwei Tage vor dem Attentat auf Hitler geschrieben.

Das erste Gedicht der "Sprüche / An die Toten" aus der Gedichtsammlung "Das Neue Reich" von Stefan George

"Wenn einst dies geschlecht sich gereinigt von schande

Vom Nacken geschleudert die fesseln des fröners

Nur spürt im geweide den hunger nach ehre:

Dann wird auf der Walstatt voll endloser gräber

Aufzucken der blutschein.... dann jagen auf wolken

Lautdröhnende heere dann braust durchs gefilde

Der schrecklichste schrecken der dritte der stürme:

Der toten zurückkunft!

Wenn je dieses volk sich aus feigem erschlaffen

Sein selbst erinnert der kür und der sende:

Wird sich ihm eröffnen die göttliche deutung

Unsagbaren grauens..... dann heben sich hände

Und münder ertönen zum preise der würde

Dann flattern im frühwind mit wahrhaften zeichen

Die königsstandarte und grüsst sich verneigend

Die Helden - die Helden!"

1 Seite mit Briefkopf "Oberkommando des Heeres - Befehlshaber des Ersatzheeres", zwei kleinere Läsuren. Der Namenszug ist unsicher mit der verstümmelten linken Hand geschrieben. Mit der Widmung "Der hochgeschätzten Margarethe zur Erinnerung". Bei der Empfängerin dieser "Erinnerung" handelt es sich vermutlich um Margarethe von Oven (spätere verh. Gräfin Hardenberg 1904-1991), die als Sekretärin im Kommando der Heeresgruppe Mitte arbeitete und für Stauffenberg und Tresckow u.a. die Tagesberichte für die Operation "Walküre" geschrieben hat.

Colin

52310.jpg

52310_1.jpg

Edited by ColinRF

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ID: 124   Posted (edited)

A known authentic left hand Stauffenberg (I believe that this is the actual signature included in Charles Hamilton's book). Sold in June by stargardt in Berlin for an astonishing 22,000 Euros.

The catalogue listing was as follows:

1193 — STAUFFENBERG, Claus Schenk Graf von, Oberst im Generalstab; 1944 Stabschef

des Befehlshabers des Ersatzheeres, führte das Attentat vom 20. Juli auf Hitler durch,

1907–1944 (standrechtlich erschossen). Feldpostkarte m.U. „Claus Stauffenberg." München

14.V.1943. Leicht fleckig. (1.200. min bid)

An Elisabeth Freiin Geyr von Schweppenburg, Leiterin der Heim- und Heilstätte für Kinder und

Jugendliche „Die Waldwiese" in München-Solln, mit dem Dank für ihr Gedenken anläßlich seiner

Verwundung.

„... Obwohl, wie ich glaube, meine Mutter Ihnen bereits meinen Dank für Ihre gütigen Zeilen und

herrlichen Tulpen übermittelt hat, muß ich Ihnen doch noch einmal selbst meinen ergebensten Dank

sagen. Ich finde es rührend, daß Sie ... in so teilnehmender Weise meiner gedacht haben ..."

Stauffenberg unterschreibt mit der unsicheren linken Hand. Anfang April war er schwer verwundet

worden, so daß ihm die rechte Hand amputiert werden mußte. Zur Geneseung befand er sich

damals im Reservelazarett 1 in München. – Der Text der Karte stammt von der Hand seiner Frau

Elisabeth Magdalena (Nina) geb. Freiin von Lerchenfeld.

S e h r s e l t e n .

Colin

Edited by ColinRF

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ID: 125   Posted (edited)

AMAZING COLLECTION!love.gif BEST IN THE WORLD!

I hope you are putting all this in a book, I love to buy a copy. Thank you for all your hard work on this topic we most Honor themcheers.gif

Lorenzo

Edited by Iraqi Militaria

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