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This is a very interesting letter from Northampton Special Constabulary from WW11.

A few things spring to mind.

Firstly, that a mobile section of the spcial constabualry was operating in the town.

Secondly, that the special constabulary appeared to have some administrative responsibility for the Police Auxilliary Messenger Service.

And lastly, that it is a reminder of the sterling service rendered by the youngsters serving with the PAMS. I wonder what happened to this young man during his military service?

Kevin

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Recent Ebay activity :-

This badge was recently sold for £75 on Ebay.

From the description given by the seller, it was a lapel badge issued in 1939 shortly before the outbreak of war to the parishioners of the village of St Ouens who volunteered as Special Constables to supplement the Police Honorifique de St Ouen. The badge ceased to be worn after the german invasion of 1940. I have never seen an example before and I cannot recall seeing it listed anywhere. Given the size of the settlement and the circumstances, this must be extremely rare. Taking that into consideration it probably brought a very resonable selling price.

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Recent Ebay activity :-

This is another little cracker from the Channel Islands that was recently sold on Ebay for £336.96p.

This one is from Vale on Guernsey and hails from the Great War. Again, I have never seen one of these before nor seen it listed.

The amount realised, however, was quite staggering for a lapel badge.

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Both very interesting and rare - the Vale one is most unusual. From what I can read it does say War period - however, the Crown is Queen Victoria. Does it pin-it to WW1 - perhaps it was given to returning men who had served in the Boer War ? Many Towns in 1902 presented what were called Tribute medals - these did include badges.

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Brian - I want to congratulate you on starting this thread - which has just exceeded 9000 posts. For that many on a Forum such as Police must be exceptional and, I am pleased to see, that the majority have covered subjects of interest to us all.

Strangely enough I have always found that our Specials have more interest in Police History than the Regulars. Perhaps it is because many Specials have never been able to actually join and for the older Regulars it has become just a job ? When my book was first published back in 1985 it was the Specials who got excited about our history.

I feel that this subForum will become a standard reference for the history on Specials and their equipment - and with Kevin adding so many good Orders and Regs. - I for one, know a lot more about their progressive history. Mervyn

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I have recently been reviewing another interesting little book entitled 'Special Constables' (And Kindred Corps) Drill and Duties' written by Philip Stephens Clay and published in 1915 by Moore & Co., Castle Boulevard, Nottingham.

Mr Clay was the Chief Constable of Nottingham City Police.

The book sold for ninepence and, although very small, contains a wealth of historical information. It is not my intention to reproduce every section here, but to copy those parts that I feel should be preserved. The sections on drill, for instance, are probaly of limited interest to readers. I have, however, reproduced below the contents page which helps to place in perspective those sections that I intend to share.

CONTENTS.

Title Page Page 1

Preface Page 2

INSERT. Metropolitan Police. Instructions for Guidance

of Special Constables.

Special Constables Order Page 3

Areas and Authorities Page 7

Observations Page 8

Squad Drill Page 12

Resume Page 41

Officers Page 43

Definitions Page 44

Section and Platoon Drill Page 46

Company Drill Page 54

Duties Page 66

The first section comes from the Metropolitan Police insert :-

(Copy)

METROPOLITAN POLICE.

INSTRUCTIONS AND GUIDANCE FOR SPECIAL CONSTABLES.

1. When the necessity for the employment of Special Constables arises, a "Duty Notice" will be forwarded, either by post or other rapid means, requiring them to attend at the place named thereon.

2. On the receipt of the notice, it is expected that each Special Constable will attend punctually at the Police Station indicated, for attestation and for detailed instructions as to the duties they will be required to perform.

If for any reason he cannot attend, an explanation should be sent to the Station from which the "Duty Notice" was received.

3. It is necessary that any person who has been enrolled as a Special Constable should immediately notify any change of address at the Station at which he is enrolled, so that the "Duty" or other notice may reach him without delay.

If, in consequence of a change of address from one district to another in the Metropolis, a Special Constable desires to have his name enrolled at a more convenient Police Staion, this can be arranged when he gives notice of his change of address.

4. Each Specail Constable will be provided after attestation with a warrant card, armlet, truncheon, and whistle.

5. The warrant card is his authority to act, and should be carried at all times when on duty.

6. The armlet is the visible badge of office and will be worn on the left upper arm only when actually on duty.

7. The truncheon is the only authorised weapon, and no description of firearm, stick, or other weapon is to be carried, except under special authorisation. The regular Police find it most convenient to carry the truncheon in the trousers pocket, as it is out of view and readily available when required. The display of a truncheon might be deemed provocative and therefore it is advisable not to display it.

8. The warrant card, armlet, truncheon and whistle are to be returned to the Police Authorities upon the termination of the duty for which the Special Constables were attested. Great care should be taken of these articles, and in the event of loss the fact is to be immediately reported.

9. Every Constable is called upon by the common law to do all that in him lies for the preservation of the peace and the prevention of felony, and each has the authority to command all other subjects of the King to assist him in that undertaking.

10. In cases of breaches of the peace committed within his view, he should immediately interfere (first giving notice of his office), and if the offenders do not at once desist, he should endeavour to take them into custody and to restore order. In the case of actual riot, he will only interfere in aid of the regular Police; if , however, none of the latter are present and serious injury to persons and property is likely to result, immediate action may be taken. In such circumstances, however, he should endeavour without delay to secure assistance of the regular Police by sending to the nearst Police Station or Reserve. In cases of felony he should act immediately and endeavour to arrest the offender or offenders and convey them to the nearest Police Station.

11. Each Special Constable has the same powers, authority, advantages and immunity, and is liable to be called on to perform the same duties and to accept the same responsibilitiy as a Police Constable; he may arrest anyone assaulting or opposing him in the execution of his duty. If a Special Constable receives an injury in the execution of duty, the facts are to be immediately reported.

12. If a Special Constable is called upon to act, he must do so with energy, promptness and determination; if he wavers or doubts the person may escape. He should, however, remember that a conciliatory demeanour often smooths away difficulties and that many cases may, by means of an exchange of names and addresses between the person concerned with a view to process, be more satisfactorily dealt with than by resort to the extreme action of arrest.

13. He should report to his Sergeant and Sub-inspector and have his pocket book initialled by them, when he has made a note of any incident on duty, at the time of his relinquishing his duty.

In the event of an incident resulting in Police Court proceedings the Sub-Inspector will give directions when he is to attend there and report himself to the Sub-inspector on duty at the Court.

14. As it is of the first importance that the continuity of protection duty should be assured and that no interval occur during relief, a Token will be held by the Special Constable on his duty and passed on by him to the Special Constable relieving him on the post, whether such relief is temporary or permanent.

Under no circumstances whatever may the token leave the post.

15. A Special Constable guilty of misconduct may be suspended from duty, and if so suspended, shall forwith give up his warrant card, truncheon, armlet, and whistle to the Police Officer suspending him.

16. Special Constables called out for duty are recommended to carry some food in their pockets.

17. Orders will be issued from time to time to every Metropolitan Police Station, but before being permitted to peruse them Special Constables will be required to produce their warrant cards to the officer in charge.

18. Every Special Constable is expected to make himself acquainted with the foregoing instructions.

(signed) E. W. D. Ward, Col.,

Chief Staff Officer,

Special Constabulary,

New Scotland Yard.

6th August 1914.

(approved) E. R. Henry,

The Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis

Edited by SCcollector

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Brian - I want to congratulate you on starting this thread - which has just exceeded 9000 posts. For that many on a Forum such as Police must be exceptional and, I am pleased to see, that the majority have covered subjects of interest to us all.

Strangely enough I have always found that our Specials have more interest in Police History than the Regulars. Perhaps it is because many Specials have never been able to actually join and for the older Regulars it has become just a job ? When my book was first published back in 1985 it was the Specials who got excited about our history.

I feel that this subForum will become a standard reference for the history on Specials and their equipment - and with Kevin adding so many good Orders and Regs. - I for one, know a lot more about their progressive history. Mervyn

Thank you Mervyn,

When I started this thread I had no idea it would catch on as it has. A while back I asked Nick to change the title from a personal collection thread to a generic title as the members soon made it theirs, and I could not be happier. Many thanks to all of the members who have made this what it is today.

Regards to all,

Brian

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Special Constables' (And Kindred Corps) Driils and Duties 1915... continued....

STATUTORY RULES AND ORDERS, 1914.

No. 1375.

CONSTABLE, ENGLAND.

The Special Constables Order, 1914.

At the Court of Buckingham Palace, 9th day of September 1914.

Present,

The King Most Excellent Majesty in Council.

Whereas by the Special Constables Act, 1914, power is conffered on His Majesty to make regulations with respect to the appointmet and position of Special Constables appointed during the present war under the Special Constables Act, 1831, or under section one hundred and ninety-six of the Municipal Corporations Act, 1882, and be those regulation to make such provisions as are in the said Act mentioned.

Now, therefore, His Majesty is pleased, by and with the advice of His Privy Council, to order, and it is hereby ordered, as follows :-

1. The power to nominate and appoint Special Constables under the Special Constables Act, 1831, may, during the present war, be exercised although a tumult, riot, or felony has not taken place or is not immediately apprehended.

2. Any Special Constable so appointed shall be appointed for the preservation of the public peace, and for the protection of the inhabitants, and the security of property in the police area for which, or for any part of which, the justices making the appointment act.

3. The declaration to be made by a Special Constable shall be made in the following form :-

I of do solemnly and sincerely declare and affirm that I will well and truly serve Our Sovereign Lord the King in the office of Special Constable, without favour or affection, malice or ill-will; and that I will to the best of my power cause the peace to be kept and preserved, and prevent all offences against the persons and properties of His Majesty's subjects; and that while I continue to hold the said office I will to the best of my skill and knowledge discharge all the duties thereof faithfully according to law.

4. A Special constable shal lthroughout the police area for which he is appointed, also in any adjoining police area, have all the powers, privileges, and duties which any Constable duly appointed has within his constablewick by virtue of the common law or of any statute for the time being in force.

5. All Special Constables shall in the execution of their duty act under the direction and control of the chief officer of the police of the police area for which they are appointed, except that in exceptional circumstances they shall, if the Secretary of State so directs, act under the direction and control of such other authority as the Secretary of State may designate.

6. A Special Constable may, with the consent of the chief officer of police or other authority under whose direction and control he acts, resign his office, and the chief officer of police or other such authority may at his pleasure determine the service of, or suspend or dismiss any Special constable.

7. Any person who puts on the dress or accoutrements, or takes the name, designation, or character of a Special Constable for any unlawful purpose shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding ten pounds.

8. Any expenses incurred in respect of Special Constables may, if the police authority so directs, be paid out of the police fund.

9. If any Special Constable is incapacitated for the performance of his duty by infirmity of mind or body occasioned by an injury received in the execution of his duty without his own default, or if he dies from the effect of any injury received in the execution of his duty without his own default, the police authority may grant him or his widow and children a pension or pensions and allowances at the same rates as under the Police Act, 1890, are payable in the case of police constables who have completed not more than five years' service, and all such pensions and allowances shall be paid out of the police fund.

10. For the purposes of the Order the expression "police area" means one of the areas set forth in the first column to the schedule hereto, and the expressions "police authority", "chief officer of police", and "police fund" mean, as respects each police area the authority, officer, and fund respectfully mentioned opposite the area in the second columns of that schedule.

11. Subject to the provisions of this Order the Special Constables Act, 1831, as amended by any subsequent enactment, or as the case may require, section one hundred and ninety-six of the Muunicipal Corporations Act, 1882, shall apply to the Special Constables appointed under those enactments respectively.

12. The order shall apply as regards Special Constables appointed since the commencement of the present war whether before or after the date of the making of this Order, and the appointments of Special Constables made before that date are hereby confirmed; but nothing therein contained shall be contstrued as requiring Special Constables appointend before that date to make a new declaration under this Order.

13. This Order may be cited as the Special Constables Order, 1914.

Almeric FitzRoy.

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This is another extract from "Special Constables' (And Kindred Corps) Drills and Duties", written and compiled by Philip S Clay (Late Chief Constable of Nottingham), in 1915. It is entitled "Observations".

This section is fascinating, revealing the thinking and attitudes of a very senior (albeit recently retired) Police Officer, and, as such, a very important historical document in its own right.

OBSERVATIONS.

Although Special Constables are now for the first time in our history appointed in large numbers, and, during the war at any rate, with greater powers and wider responsibility than heretofore, it will be gathered from the foregoing that Special Constables have been appointed, and by some authorities pretty regularly, since the Special Constables Act of 1831.

It is my firm opinion that out of the present emeregency a regular and most reliable body of Special Constables could be evolved and maintained at very trifling cost by the various important bodies concerned. During my many years as a Chief Constable I should have been delighted, and indeed relieved of many anxious hours, had I been able to have at hand anything like a corps of "Specials", such as are now in existence everywhere.

This is not the place to go into the questions of organisation, a neat inexpensive uniform, possibly small out-of-pocket expenses, regular drills, parades, etc, ; but these things are well worth consideration, and are not difficult of accomplishment.

2. DRILL.

The drill of the Special Constable is, so far as my experience goes, not elaborate. The simpler the drill the better, providing always that "Specials" are taught what is necessary.

The drill in this little manual is adapted from the 1914 edition of "Infantry Training" and is therefore, to use a familiar expression, quite up-to-date.

There is much excellent material in the War Office book, and I do not hesitate to commend it, not only to Special Constables, but to all persons who take an interest in the physical and mental development of our generation.

"The object to be aimed at in the training of the infantry soldier is to make him, mentally and physically, a better man than his adversiary on the field of battle".

After "infantry soldier" to individual, and for "on the field of battle" read, in the battle of life, and we have a reasonable military training, as applied to civil life, in a nutshell.

"Infantry Training" goes on to say that the objects in view in developing a soldierly sprit are :-

To help the soldier to bear fatigue, privation, and danger cheerfully;

To Imbue him with a sense of honour;

To give him confidence in his superiors and comrades;

To increase his powers of initiative, of self-confidence, and self-restraint;

To train him to obey orders, or to act in the absence of orders for the advantage of his regiment under all conditions;

To produce a high degree of courage;

To impress upon him that, so long as he is physically capable of doing his bit, to throw up the sponge would be disgraceful act. (This is a very free rendering of the original.)

The above maxims may savour of the youthful copy-book, but they are fine for all that.

We could enlarge upon the greatness and glory of the Empire, of which it is our privelige to be citizens. From ancient times to the present day, through all the tremendous difficulties and trials, the fact remains that we have held our own - and better - that we have not fought for selfish ends; that we have, as a people, as I honestly believe, been a true factor in the betterment of very many of the races who inhabit this wonderful world, of which we are no insignificant part.

3. LENGTH OF DRILLS &c.

The drills for Special Constables should not, in my opinion, be unduly long. It must be remembered that most, if not all of the "Specials" are fully occupied during the day ( I am presuming that the drills take place in the evening), and are, therefore, not up to long and severe drills. Besides, long and heavy drills are not really necessary.

Drill is good, very good, for everybody. For the Police, Special and Regular, it is of course essential.

A man who has gone through the course of drill is a better man than he was before, and he knows it - he feels it.

As one result,

He looks the whole world in the face,

For he fears not any man.

4. INSTRUCTORS.

Instructors should be most carefully selected. They must be intelligent, energetic, smart in their bearing, and thoroughly well trained in the art of instruction. Instructions must be given in a clear, firm and concise manner.

Nothing is lost by the Instructor giving fair and proper consideration to those who may be somewhat backward in matters appertaining to drill.

5. WORDS OF COMMAND.

Every command must be distinctly pronounced, and sufficiently loud to be heard by all concerned.

Care should, however, be taken not to overdo it.

Every command that consists of one word must be preceded by a caution.

The cautionary part of the command must be given deliberately and distinctly; the last part, which as a rule consists of one word or syllable, shorter and sharper.

As the last sound of the order leaves the lips of the Instructor or Officer the whole, whether five men or fifty, will act as one man, promptly and smartly.

NOTE, - I am not changing the term "soldier" but am allowing it to stand as in the original, leaving it to the Instructor to substitute "police", "special police", "civil guard", "constable", etc., according to circumstances.

I am including some portions of drill that really only apply to the army, my reason for doing so is that the information is useful to all. The same remark applies to references to sword, rifle, bayonet, etc.

(End of Extract).

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This is a continuance of the extractions from 'Special Constables' (And Kindred Corps) Drill & Duties' , Published 1915, By Philip S Clay (Late Chief Consyable of Nottingham). This section, following a lenghty explanation of drilling which I am not reporting on, is simply headed 'Duties' :-

DUTIES.

OBSERVATIONS.

It is quite impossible in a manual of this character, which is intended for general use, to do more than indicate in a very restricted manner what a constable's duties are.

Each locality has its own responsibilities and methods. To the "Special" under these circumstances the shortest and probably the best advice is - do as you are told.

The "Special" will, however, in all probability want to know something of the why and wherefore, and to that end I have written and compiled the following, most of which is from my own "Police Instructions", already published.

The first thing that I would impress upon a "Special" is the absolute necessity of being physically fit to perform the duties he has undertaken to carry out. By this I do not mean fit in a general sense, but fit at the moment he parades for duty.

In writing this I have in my mind several cases where exposure necessitated by the duties required of the "Specials" have led, during the last winter, 1914-15, to very grave consequences. In some cases I feel practically certain the results would have been less serious, and possibly obviated altogether, if more care had been taken in ther important matter of being fit.

Away back in the years that have gone it was an understood thing that every man on night duty, no matter what rest he had had earlier in the day, should have a couple of hours rest (and sleep if possible), not in an armchair, nor a sofa, but right in bed, and as quiet as may be, before going on duty at 10 p.m.

I hardly think that all the "Specials" who have so readily given their services during this last winter have quite grasped the necessity of rest, etc., before reporting themselves for night duty.

Warm under and outer clothing and strong boots are very necessary to enable anyone to withstand the rigours of a bitter winter's night, particularly when the beat is in exposed and draughty places. Few men, however strong, can follow their ordinary profession or occupation during the day and be physically fit to do special police duty during the night without special rest and preparation.

One must also remeber that the work naturally allotted to "Specials", such as guarding water-works, gas-works, and important public buildings, is very monotonous and tiring.

INSTRUCTIONS.

The police is established for the preservation of rights, order, cleanliness, health, &c. : for the enforcement of the laws, and prevention of crime. It must be clearly understood that it is the duty of the police to prevent the commission of any unawful act if possible.

Briefly, the following is the history of the police in this country :- The present system of Borough Police was established in 1835, and the County Police four years afterwards. The Metropolitan Police, however, was established by Sir Robert Peel in 1829.

Previous to the above periods, constables were appointed in towns and villages to set a nightly watch from sunset to sunrise.

In Anglo-Saxon and Norman times, the Sheriff was the chief officer responsible fro the preservation of the peace.

THE SPECIAL CONSTABLES ORDER, 1914, provides that a Special Constable :-

Is appointed for the preservation of the public peace, and for the protection of the inhabitants and the security of property.

That he shall have all the powers, privileges, and duties which any duly appointed constable has within his constablewick.

That he shall in the execution of his duty, act under the control and direction of the Chief of Police.

That he may, with the consent of the Chief of Police, resign his office.

That the Chief of Police (or other recognised authority) may determine his services, or suspend or dismiss him.

GRATUITIES PAYABLE IN CASES OF DEATH.

Orders in Council, under the Special Constables Orders, were published in last night's Gazette (May 29, 1915), directing that if any special constable dies from any illness contracted in the execution of his duty the police authority may grant gratuities to his widow and children at the same rates as are payable in the case of police constables, who have completed not more than five years' service and are drawing pay at the rate of 5s. per day. One of the Orders applies to Scotland.

KIT.

A "Special" is supplied with a truncheon, whistle, armlet, note-book, and badge. In some instances a cape also is provided. (The Town of Leicester suplies its "Specials" with a cape each).

ADDRESS.

He must give immediate notice of any change of address, and when away from his residence should leave such particulars as would enable him to be found at once if specially required.

OFFENCES.

When a person commits an offence there are two methods of procedure : one is arrest, and the other to poceed by means of a warrant or summons.

BEATS.

A particular portion of his section, termed as a beat, is committed to his care; he is held responsible for the security of life and property therein during his tour of duty, and for the preservation of peace and general good order.

In working his beat during the night he shall try all doors, windows, gratings, and all places through which a thief might enter, and ascertain by every means in his power that property is secure.

It is absolutely necessary that he should make himself thoroughly acquainted with all parts of his beat.

He should mark places likely to be attempted by thieves; he should frequently examine the marks, and if he finds them disturbed, should ascertain the cause.

He should endeavour to obtain a good knowledge of the persons residing on his beat, and their manner of living and general character.

The beat will be worked according to instructions given.

He should not quit his beat without being reieved except under very special circumstances.

If his duty compels him to be absent from his beat, he should, if possible, inform the nearest constable, so that it may not be wholly unprotected; he must also report the cause of his being called away.

When obliged to leave his beat through illness, he should go or send to the nearest police station.

If at any time in want of assistance he should blow his whistle, or call upon any person to assist him.

If unable to arrest a prisoner alone, he may call upon a bystander, "In the King's Name," to assist him, and if the person so called upon refuse, without lawful excuse, to render assistance, such person is liable to punishment.

CLOTHING AND ACCOUTREMENTS.

He must keep his clothing and accoutrements clean and in good order, and if he should happen to lose or have any of them injured, he must report the particulars to a superior officer as soon as practicable.

EVIDENCE.

He must give his evidence with the strictest accuracy.

If notes are made of the particulars of a case, they should be made at the time if possible, if not, immediately after; the original notes should be carefully kept and produced in the witness box if necessary.

Notes must be carefully and correctly written, and if they contain statements, or conversations, the actual words must be written down.

He must be careful to state all he knows upon this first occasion, as any addition to evidence given in the first instance may cause doubts to be raised as to the accuracy of his whole staement. At the same time, if he really forgets to state anything that is materail to the case, he must immediately on remembering it communicate the particualrs to his Superintendant or Inspector, who will advise him on the matter. He must never allow feeling of any kind to influence his conduct of a case; but should bring the plain unvarnished facts before the Magistrate, on whom rests the responsibility of deciding the case.

When giving evidence he must stand upright, respectful in manner, speak calmly and explicitly in a clear, distinct, and audible tone, so that he may be easily heard.

When cross-examined by counsel for the prisoner, he is to answer with the same readiness and civility as when giving evidence in support of the charge.

He must not enter into conversation, or make statements when before a magistrate, upon any matters except such as the charge under investigation makes it his duty to mention.

If the police give improper or unsatisfactory evidence, or any remarks are made, respecting the evidence of the police, by a Judge, Magistrate or Jury, the officer in charge of the court will report through his Superintendant full particualrs to the Chief Constable.

Any peson requiring a constable to give evidence on his behalf must make an application in writing to the Chief constable.

WARRANT CARD.

He must invariably have his warrant card in his possession when on duty, and produce the same when necessary.

A warrant card is only to be used or shown in matters connected with Police duty.

OBSTRUCTION.

He will see that there are no obstructions to vehicular or other traffic on his beat, and will report anything he may observe likely to produce danger, inconvenience, injury to health, etc.

ACCIDENTS.

In the case of accident to persons, or collisions between vehicles, he must obtain the names and addresses of the parties, as well as of those who may have been witensses thereto, and report the same.

In all cases of accident or illness in the streets, he is to render all assistance in his power by sending for medical aid, in the loosening the necktie and collar, raising the head, by which breathing is made easier. Where necessary he should send to the nearst police station for the ambulance or stretcher, to remove the sufferer to the nerarest hospital, unless there be some special reason for taking him elsewhere.

WARRANTS.

Warrants may be executed at any time of the night or day. They may also be executed on Sunday if for treason, felony, or breach of the peace; but a warrant to commit for non-payment of a penalty must not be executed on a Sunday.

An arrest under a warrant is not lawful unless the officer have actual possession of the warrant at the time. The officer should read over the warrant, or show it, but is not to part with it. In order to execute a warrent to arrest, the officer may, if necessary, break open the door of the house of the peson to be arrested, or the door of any other person's house if the defendant be actually there. But in either case the officer should first demand admission, stating his office and object. Generally, doors are not to be broken open in cases other than treason, felony, and breach of the peace. Warrants may be granted on Sunday.

POLICE ASSISTANCE.

It is the duty of every police officer, whether he be on or off duty, to render assistance to all parties who may be in especial want of his aid.

REMOVAL OF GOODS BY NIGHT.

When the police notice the removal of goods by night, they should report the name of the proprietor, and number of his van. If they have reason to believe the removal is for the purpose of evading the payment of rent, the destination should also be noted.

FOUND PROPERTY.

Property found by the police or other persons should be reported at the nearest police station as soon as possible.

(to be continued......)

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'Special Constables' (And Kindred Corps) Drill and Duties. 1915. continued.....

PRISONERS.

Methods of effecting apprehensions.

1. In apprehending a person, and making him or her a prisoner, no more violence is to be used than is absolutely necessary for the safe custody of the prisoner. The usual plan is to seize and keep hold of the arm until ther prisoner is in the station, to prevent the possibility of escape. When a prisoner is once in custody he is not to be released except by the direction of a Magistrate, or on the responsibility of an officer in charge of a police station. If a prisoner resists, the constable is bound to struggle with and overpower him, but he is to be careful not to injure him unnecessarily.

2. If necessary, the constable will blow his whistle for assistance. If the constable is likely to be overpowered he may draw his truncheon, and use it, taking care to avoid striking anyone on the head. To disbale a prisoner, the legs and arms should be aimed at, as parts of the frame least likely to suffer serious injury. But these extreme measures are not to be resorted to except in extreme cases where all other attempts have failed, and a prisoner is likely to escape through the constable being ill-used and overpowered.

3. prisoners, except females and old and infirm persons, who are very violent, or who are charged with very serious offences, are, if necessary, to be handcuffed. Handcuffs must be kept in good working order, and care should be taken not ot pinch the prisoner's wrists in putting them on.

Whenever it is necessary to convey to the station persons drunk or disorderly, and who are unable or refuse to walk, the practice known as the "Frog's March" is not to be adopted except in cases of absolute necessity, when a special report of the circumstances is to be submitted the following day. The ambulance kept at the nearest station is to be sent for, and the person required to be conveyed is to be firmly strapped thereon.

Treatment.

4. If a prisoners are insensible, from drink or any other cause, or appear to be ill, or injured in any way, although they do not complain, the Police Surgeon is to be sent for immediately.

Questioning Suspected Persons.

5. If an officer has made up his mind to arrest a suspected person, he has no right to question him on the subject of the charge about to be preferred.

Searching.

6. Any prisoner may be searched if it be suspected that he has upon his person any deadly weapon, or any article which has been stolen or unlawfully obtained.

FIRES.

1. It is impossible to lay down any precise rule as to the special manner in which the police who first arrive at a fire may be most usefully employed; but the great and principal object to be attained is the saving of life which may be in danger through the fire, and to effect this objective the constable is to give immediate alarm by blowing his whistle and arousing the inmates and neighbours.

2. The next steps to be taken are to give or send notice of the fire to the nearest Fire Escape and Fire Brigade Stations, to the Turncocks, and to the Police Station.

3. Until the arrival of the firemen, the police are to exert themselves in every possible way for the rescue of persons in danger; he removal of property, conformably with the wishes of the proprietors

FALSE ALARMS OF FIRE.

Any person knowingly giving or causing to be given a false alarm of fire to the Fire Brigade is liable to a penalty of £20.

CHARGES.

1. When prisoners are brought to a Police Station, and charged with any offence, the statements of persons charging, or witnesses and of the police, are to be made to the officer on duty in the presence and heaing of the prisoners

2. If there be more than one police witness in a case, each constable is to make his statement out of the hewaring of the other, whenever it is so desired by the person charged.

3. A statement made by a prisoner when charged at the station is to be accuratley written down at the time by the officer on duty, and reported to the Magistrate who hears the case.

RIOT ACT.

THE PROCLAMATION.

(Silence having been commanded) -

"Or Sovereign Lord the King chargeth and commandeth all persons being assembled, immediately to disperse themselves, and peaceably to depart to their habitation, or their lawful business, upon the pains cntained in the Act, made in the first year of King George, for preventing tumult and riotous assemblies".

"God save the King".

( The proclamation is read aloud, in the presence of the rioters, by a Justice of the Peace, the Mayor, or Sheriff).

CONFERENCE POINTS.

Conference poiunts are arranged by the responsible officers, and in most cases frequently changed.

The police shoulsd be most careful to attend such points at the time appointed, and if not met by the other constable, or constables, report the matter in the usual way.

NIGHT-TIME.

Night time in Game Act is between the expiration of the first hour after sunset and the commencement of the last hour before sunrise; in Larceny Act between 9 o'clock at night and 6 o'clock in the morning.

(to be continued...)

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This is the final instalment of the extracts from "Special Constables' (And Kindred Corps) Drills and Duties. Written by Philip S Clay (Late Chief Constable of Nottingham), and published by Moore & Co., Castle Boulevard. 1915. It was priced at nine pence. An interesting little book....

POACHERS.

A constable may search any person whom he may have good cause to suspect of coming from any land where he shall have been unlawfully in search or pursuit of game, or any person aiding and abetting such a person, and also stop and search any cart. Guns, game, or nets found under such circumstances should be seized by the police, and if a case, the offender summoned. Poachers found night poaching may be arrested. The game, etc., seized, in case of conviction, to be sold, and amount paid to County or Borough Treasurer; or games, etc., may be destroyed by order of Justices.

MEDALS.

1. The police shall not wear any medal, ribbon, or decoration on their uniform except such as have been given for public services or allowed by the King.

2. War and Jubilee medals are to be worn on the left breast; and medals awarded by a Society for bravery in saving human life on the right breast.

3. Medals are to be worn on tunics only, and not on great coats.

4. Medals are not generally worn on ordinary duty, but should always be worn at the Annual Inspection and important ceremonies.

5. Medal ribbons may be worn on tunics and serges, but not on great coats. - Clay's police Instruction.

RAILWAYS.

The police will assist the officers of a Railway Company in carrying out the law in regards arresting persons travelling in a railway carriage without having paid their fare, and with intent to avoid payment, etc.

RUNAWAY HORSES.

To attempt to stop a runaway horse, particularly if attached to vehicles, by getting in front of them is, in nine cases out of ten, to simply court disaster, and fail in the object aimed at. By far the better way is to run beside the animal's head or shoulders, and catching hold of the reins put all possible weight into the effort, and pull the runaway up. If this cannot be done at once, hold on, keeping as clear of the horse's hoofs and the steps and wheels of the vehicle as practicable.

DESERTERS.

Soldiers and sailors who desert from the army or navy must be apprehended by a constable without warrant.

FOOTWAYS.

The police should not allow persons to carry iron bars or rods, or other dangerous or cumbrous articles upon the footways in crowded neighbourhoods, to the danger of passengers.

RIGHT OF ENTRY TO LICENSED PREMISES.

A constable has the right, at ant time, for the purposes of preventiung or detecting the violation of the law, to enter licensed premises.

RELIEFS.

"Reliefs will be marched in single rank; the leading man will lead on that side of the footpath nearer the road; the officer in charge will march on the footpath, in line with the rear man" - Police Drill.

COMMON ASSAULTS.

The police are not to interfere between a man and his wife who are quarrelling, unless to prevent violence to either party, or public disrurbance.

The police are not authorised to arrest, or assist in arresting, a person charged by another with a common assault, when the assault was not committed in the presence or within view of the police. The person complaining is to be referred to a Magistrate.

CATTLE STRAYING.

Cattle found straying should be taken to a greenyard or pound, and a description of them circulated. The owners may be summoned.

CHILDREN.

"Child" means a person who in the opinion of the Court is under 12 years of age.

A child under seven is not punishable.

ACTIONS AGAINST THE POLICE.

An action against the police must be commenced within six months of the cause of action, and a month's notice must be given to the police of an intention to take proceedings.

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Hello all,

This postcard was recently purchased via Ebay. It appears to be a family group. The gentleman seated is wearing what is undoubtedly a Buckinghamshire Special Constabulary Lapel Badge. If all the persons are indeed from the same family the photograph represents the efforts and sacrifices that our people offered to the country during times of war. A very interesting record.

Kevin

post-8433-025749500 1288379318_thumb.jpg

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Hello Everyone,

Once you have pretty well a complete "type set" of the Special Constabulary Long Service medals, plus the different clasps, what do you collect? Well, for me it was groups which included the SCLSM. One such interesting group is the one I offer for your enjoyment today. As may be seen in the photo the group includes the Defence, SC Long Service and a St. John Ambulance Brigade Medal (S.J.A.B.). Along with the medals came a literal chain of annual membership bars to the St. John Ambulance Association badge. He was a member, according to the "chain" from 1939 (1940 probably marks the first full year of service) until 1961.

An interesting feature of this chain is that it shows the change in design of the membership bars occured with the 1950 bar, which predates the reign of Elizabeth II. I would have thought any change in design to coincide with a change of monarch but I guess the plans were in place before Geo. VI passed away.

This group is named to William C. Holley with the S.J.A.B. medal named to Sgt. W.C. Holley, Hants. From what I can find out "Hants" stands for Hampshire. If this is incorrect perhaps one of the members can set me straight.

I hope you like this intersting little grouping. I left them in their drawer for the photos as the robbons are very fragile.

Regards

Brian

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Last, but not least, the membership bars showing the two dates where the new design came into use.

I think this is an interesting grouping and it's one of the jewels of my SC collection.

Regards

Brian

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A superb set of medals Brian.. Once you have got the set you can only go for bars or for different ranks. Ian

Hello Everyone,

Once you have pretty well a complete "type set" of the Special Constabulary Long Service medals, plus the different clasps, what do you collect? Well, for me it was groups which included the SCLSM. One such interesting group is the one I offer for your enjoyment today. As may be seen in the photo the group includes the Defence, SC Long Service and a St. John Ambulance Brigade Medal (S.J.A.B.). Along with the medals came a literal chain of annual membership bars to the St. John Ambulance Association badge. He was a member, according to the "chain" from 1939 (1940 probably marks the first full year of service) until 1961.

An interesting feature of this chain is that it shows the change in design of the membership bars occured with the 1950 bar, which predates the reign of Elizabeth II. I would have thought any change in design to coincide with a change of monarch but I guess the plans were in place before Geo. VI passed away.

This group is named to William C. Holley with the S.J.A.B. medal named to Sgt. W.C. Holley, Hants. From what I can find out "Hants" stands for Hampshire. If this is incorrect perhaps one of the members can set me straight.

I hope you like this intersting little grouping. I left them in their drawer for the photos as the robbons are very fragile.

Regards

Brian

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Brian - I'm so pleased that you have revived this post. The year bars are quite exceptional and I don't think I've seen so many before - he didn't need a truncheon - he could have 'flogged them to death' with the chain....

I was wondering if his rank of Sgt. applied to his Police or St. John's? Was the rank specific to both - or, earned separately ? Never really thought about it before.

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Brian - I'm so pleased that you have revived this post. The year bars are quite exceptional and I don't think I've seen so many before - he didn't need a truncheon - he could have 'flogged them to death' with the chain....

I was wondering if his rank of Sgt. applied to his Police or St. John's? Was the rank specific to both - or, earned separately ? Never really thought about it before.

The rank of Sgt. was on the St. John medal only so I am thinking it was not a police rank he had at the time the SC medal was awarded.

Brian

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Hello everyone,

I hope I haven't jumped in at the wrong place, but his new member asks: Can anyone please tell me between what years was the Special Constabulary LS Medal with George V Coinage head issued? I have looked at the 2011 Medal Yearbook but can't tell.

Thanks. Freckles.

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Sometimes research can pay off. When I see a Special Constabulary Medal with a fairly unusual name, I check the Great War MICs, and sometimes Google it.

This one paid off in spades. Only one Cecil E Watts: RE, R.N. Division, and commissioned into the South Staffordshire Regiment. Invalided with a Silver War Badge.

Google turned up that he was a phonograph inventor, and well-known in audio circles for the "Dust Bug" for cleaning dust off phonograph records.

Even better, after his death his wife wrote his biography - I got a copy, and found a photograph of him in uniform, references to his military career (although she says he was a dispatch rider with the R.N.A.S.), serving originally in Greece. Back in France he was wounded by a grenade that cost him several toes, and almost his leg. It even mentions his joining the Special Constabulary in the Second War, serving as a Fire Watcher alternate nights.

So his full complement would appear to be BWM, Victory, Defence Medal, Special Costabulary Long Service.

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