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Bradford Bye Laws 1848...continued.

26. LEAVING CARRIAGES IN STREETS FOR AN UNNECESSARY TIME.

That if any person shall leave, or suffer to remain, stand, or continue, any carriage, either with or without a horse or other cattle, in any street within the said city, for any longer time than may be necessary or reasonable for taking up or setting down passengers, or other persons, or for loading or unloading thereof;

Or shall not proceed to make way or drive on, after being ordered or requested so to do by any constable of the said city;

Each person so respectively offending shall, for any such offence, forfeit and pay the fine or sum of two shillings and sixpence; and for a second offence, alleged and proved as such, and not committed on the same day as such first offence, shall forfeit and pay the fine or sum of five shillings,; and for every offence being subsequent to a second offence, and alleged and proved as such, and not committed on the same day as any prior offence, shall forfeit and pay the fine or sum of ten shillings.

Provided that this Bye Law shall not extend to any hackney coach or cart standing on or at any public stand or place appointed, or to be appointed, by the Council of the said city for that purpose.

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27. DRAWING TIMBER, &c., IN STREETS WITHOUT A PROPER CARRIAGE AND ATTENDANT.

That if any person shall, in any street within the said city, draw any timber, stone, or other weighty atricle, without the same being placed upon, or suspended from, a wheeled carriage proper for that purpose;

Or shall cause any treee, or timber, to be drawn in or upon any timber carriage, without having to guide and direct the hind wheels of such carriage, a person who shall not be under the age of eighteen years, and who shall be of sufficient strength to guide and direct the same by means of a rope, or chain, attached to the steerer thereof;

Every person so respectively offending shall, for any such offence, pay the fine or sum of five shillings; and for a second offence, alleged and proved as such, and not committed on the same day as such first offence, shall forfeit and pay the fine or sum of ten shillings; and for every offence being subsequent to a second offence, and alleged and proved as such, and not committed on the same day as any prior offence, shall forfeit and pay the fine or sum of twenty shillings.

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28. LEAVING CARTS, &c., IN THE STREET AT NIGHT.

That if any owner or driver of any cart, timber carriage, dray, waggon, or other vehicle, shall leave or suffer the same to stand and remain in any street within the said city in the night time; the person so offending shall for such offence forfeit and pay the fine or sum of five shillings; and for a second offence, alleged and proved as such, and not committed on the same day as such first offence, shall forfeit and pay the fine or sum of ten shillings; and for every offence being subsequent to a second offence, and alleged and proved as such, and not committed on the same day as any prior offence, shall forfeit and pay the fine or sum of twenty shillings.

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I picked up this tankard the other day. The inscription reads :-

BRADFORD CITY POLICE

C.I.D.

MARCH 1974

JACK MITCHELL

I am posting it on the off chance that someone out their might know something about Jack Mitchell. Bradford City Police was, of course, wiped off the face of the earth during 1974 and I was wonding if this was part of a set given to individual officers to 'celebrate' the demise of their force or on a separate occasion i.e. retirement, leaving etc..?

Edited by SCcollector

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I recently acquired three original copes of The Times newspaper dated 14, 15 & 16 April 1891 as part of my ongoing interests which include the history of the Bradford Police and of the early history of Special Constables. These particular copies were of interest to me as they contain details of Strike Riots at Bradford. I have copied the details of the first article below for the interest of members.

Several things come to mind.

Bradford had a long history of violent disorder and would be recognised at the time as a potential flash point for trouble.

The insertion into what was essentially a local industrial dispute of elements from outside the town with different agendas is evident; the reported comments at the meeting in Dockers Square being unwise to say the very least and quite possibly an attempt to incite violence and disorder.

The tactics of the gentleman from Rotherham (what he was doing in Bradford is open to debate) to use the legal system to establish wider precedents via the pursuit of the officers who arrested him is worthy of note.

The scale of the disorder and the violence used is indicative of the times, as is the use of military support. The following days saw a continuation of the disorder and the use of large numbers of special constables to assist the police in restoring order.

Here is the first installment :-

BRADFORD RIOTS

THE TIMES. TUESDAY APRIL 14. 1891.

Strike Riots at Bradford.

After about 10.30 on Sunday night all was quiet in Bradford in connexion (sic) with the Manningham Mills strike. The people went to their homes, and the police were sent on their ordinary beeats. Councillor Saunders, of Rotherham, who was arrested for addressing a meeting in the Dockers-square, after the authorities had refused to grant permission, declined to leave the Town Hall after his name and address had been taken. He insisted on being locked up and brought before the justices, in order that the right of the public to hold meetings in the square might be contested. The police declined to gratify him on this point, and accordingly he remained in the charge office all through the night. Even yesterday morning he did not leave the office until the white-washers commenced operations therein, and then he ramained in the area of the Town Hall untill 11 o'clock, when the court opened. Meanwhile, he and his friends had obtained legal advice, and, after the stipendary magistrate (Mr Skidmore) took his seat, Mr Waugh, barrister, applied for a summons for assault on Mr Saunders. He detailed the incidents leading up to the arrest of that gentleman, and said that until the action of the two constables who took Mr Saunders into custody was justified, there was an assault in law. He therefore applied for summonses for assault against the two officers, and that would raise the question of the right of the public to hold meetings in the Dock-square, and whether the officers were acting within the scope of their duty and according to the law in doing what they did. The stipendary magistrate granted the summonses, and made them returnable to-morrow.

All was quiet yesterday until about 2.30 in the afternoon, when the square, in the absence of the police, was again taken possession of by some persons calling themselves Social Democrats, from Leeds. A large crowd soon assembled, and the speakers defended the right of the public to hold meetings in the disputed sqaure. The people were requested to remember what the Socialists had done in Trafalgar Square, London, against troops and police; but on the appearance of the chief constable, Mr Withers, and a small body of policemen, the meeting was brought to an end and the square cleared. Those assembled were evidently in bad humour, however, and lingered in considerable numbers about the place. They declined to attend a meeting in another part of the town, and repeatdly called on the speakers to again mount a platform constructed of a couple of boxes. The Socialists did not attempt to do so during the afternoon, but the behaviour of the crowd was such that other arrests had to be made. Ther promoters of this meeting were in no way connected with the strike. The directors of Messrs. Lister and Co., had a meeting yesterday morning, to consider the proposal of arbitrating made by the hands. Up to last night the results of their deliberations had not been made public; but it was understood that the directors would decline to submit the dispute to arbitration.

A later telegram states that, as feared, the disturbances which commenced yesterday afternoon became serious during the evening, so much so that throughout the whole of the night the town was one scene of disorder and uproar. The military had to be called out, and the Riot Act read by the Mayor, Mr E. W. Hammond. The beginning was an attack on a constable, about 7 o'clock, after which the mob assailed half-a-dozen officers. Stone throwing followed this, and the the large plate glass windows of an adjacent clothier's shop were broken. Repeated attempts were made to clear the space around the Town Hall, but the people came up again as fast as the police retired. At five minutes past 9 o'clock 106 rank and file of the Durham Light Infantry, under command of Major Woodhead, with Captain Robb and Lieutenant Platt, arrived at the Town Hall from Bradford Moor Barracks, each having 40 rounds of ball cartridge.

They were at once quartered in the spacious area, and the authorities set about preparing for finally clearing the square and the adjoining streets. The Mayor, Alderman E. W. Hammond, attended by the chief constable and several members of the council, crossed the surging crowds at the New Inn, at Thornton-road corner, and there he read the Riot Act. Soon after this the military paraded the streets, and charged the people in various directions. The mob soon got used to this, and grew bolder. Eventually a baton charge by the police was was found necessary. Many slight injuries were inflicted, but only one man was so seriously hurt as to necessitate his removal to the Town Hall, where he was medically attended. His name was Maloney. He sustained an ugly wound on the left side of his head, and bled profusely. The chief constable and other officers sustained injuries about the head and body. Detective Martindale was knocked off his horse with a brick, and Superintendent Scott's horse was stabbed in the breast, and had to be taken to a vetinery surgeon. Open knives were thrown at the police at times. Up to midnight the streets were crowded, and the military were making charges with fixed bayonets, the the stone-throwing then ceased.

(End of Article)

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Bradford Strike Riots.

Below are details of the second article appearing the The Times.

I am absolutely fascinated by the arrest of the special constable for stone throwing. Unfortunately, the outcome of his case was not reported.

Here is the second article :-

BRADFORD RIOTS

The Times. Wednesday. April 15. 1891.

The Strike Riots at Bradford.

At 12 o'clock o Monday night all was quiet in the centre of the town of Bradford, and when the crowd had dispersed the military were withdrawn to the barracks. Throughout the whole of yesterday large numbers of people loitered about Dockers-square, but there were no further attempts to hold meetings, and consequently, up to 6 o'clock there was no disturbance. Arrangements were made, however, for calling out the special constables to assist in keeping order in necessary. At the police-court yesterday morning a number of persons were charged with assaulting the police, penalties ranging from 5/- to £5 being imposed on them. The directors have definitely declined to submit the disopute to arbitration on the ground that the adoption of such course would be all together impractical.

A later telegram states that the trouble last night was not so bad as on Monday evening, but, for all that, the town was in a state of great excitement, and about 200 men and officers of the Durham Regiment and a strong body of police wewre necessary. The serious part of the business commenced about 8 o'clock, at which time a great crowd gathered around the Town Hall. The policemen were called outside to clear a number of youths who were getting a supply of stones on an open space of ground near to the Town-hall. When darkness came on the gas in the street lamps was turned out, and as stone-throwing was commenced the police and military filed out into the street. No serious resistance was offered, but there was a heavy discharge of stones at the men. Several of the soldiers and policemen sustained injuries, and Police constable Lee, one of the mounted officers, was struck on the nose with a stone. A great number of windows were broken during the night, but, on the whole, matters were from being so serious as on the previous evening, and the injuries sustained were not so bad. Of the public nearly a dozen persons were taken to the Town-hall and had their injuries attended to by Dr Sam Lodge. During the evening about half-a-dozen persons were arrested for stone throwing, amongst them one of the special constables who had been called out for duty. Two of the ordinary policemen stated that they saw him not only neglecting his duty by watching men throw stones, but also take offensive action and throw stones himself. He, it is said, had a missile in his hand when arrested. He was not kept in custody, but it is understood he will be summoned. By 9.30 the disorder was practically at an end. At 10 o'clock the military were withdrawn. Afterwards the special constables and extra policemen were called in. No attempts were made to hold meetings during the night. By 10.30 all was quiet again.

(End of Article)

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The third article relating to the Bradford Strike Riots as it appeared in The Times appears below.

The outcome of the case brought by Mr Saunders is of note, also the use of only 32 officers against the Manchester road mob was more than suifficent to the restoration of order.

An interesting look at a time long passed buit which bears striking similarities with more recent events in this country.

Here is the final article :-

Bradford Riots.

The Times. Thursday April 16. 1891.

At the Bradford Borough Police-court, yesterday morning, the test case brought by Councillor Saunders, of Rotherham, was heard by the Stipendary. Mr Waugh prosecuted, and Mr T.R.D. Wright defended the police officers against whom summons for assault had been granted. The assault complained of was the arrest of Councillor Saunders. Mr Waugh contended that the public had a right to use the place known as Dockers-square for the holding of public meetings. He also contended that, if the ground were private, the police had no right to arrest Mr Saunder, but were only entitled to ake his name and address. For the defence, Mr Wright produced a notice which had, up to two or three years ago, been posted in the square, stating that the Corporation reserved all rights in connexion (sic) with the piece of ground. As to the alleged illegal arrest of Mr Saunders, he called a constable to prove that the gentleman had requested the policemen to lock him up, as he desired to have a trst case. The proceeding occupied all day, and, after a lengthened consideration of the arguments adduced and the facts narrated, the Stipendary gave the decision of the Bench as follows :- "We do not think that the right of public meetings is involved in this case. We do not think it necessary to decide whether the piece of ground referred to is, or is not a highway. It is undoubtedly a place of public resort. We find that the complainant was causing an obstruction, not only upon the plot of ground, but also on the adjacent highways and footpatths. The defendants were acting in the execution of their duty in requiring the defendant to move on in order to remove the obstruction. We find that the complainant obstructed the defendants in the execution of their duty as constables, and they were justified in arresting him. We therefore dismiss the summons." Several persons were fined at the Borough Court yesterday for assaults on the police and stone-throwing.

During the day all was quiet in the centre of the town, and the police, instead of allowing people to assemble in crowds, kept them moving about. The Mayor issued a warning to all respectable people to keep away from the scene of the distrubances on pain of being treated as a riotous persons. There was yesterday no alteration in the position of the strike at Manningham Mills.

The people of the town were for the most part, says a letter of despatch,, peacably disposed last night, and only one arrerst was made, that of a man who refused to move on when requested. Shortly after 9 o'clock there was some disturbance in Manchester-road, occasioned by the throwing of stones and glass bottles by abot 200 roughs. A body of 32 constables, however, speedily dispersed them, and soon the neighbourhood was quiet again. The special constables were held in readiness, and also 200 of the Durham Regiment, but they were not called out, nor were the whole of the police sent into the street. No further disturbance is expected.

(End of Article)

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Another news report which gives the lie to the folk memory of "traditional British policing". The authorities in 1891 were far more willing to use force to quell civil disorder than their modern counterparts.

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Hello Nick,

Absolutely! Out of interest, I remember the exchange of opinions on the Special Constabulary Forum on the arming of special Constables which took place a few months ago. I did a little reading and came across the decision by the Home Office to encourage the arming of special constables and militias etc.. during the chartist disturbances. I also found a reference to a special constable firing on a rioter and killing him (shot to the face). He was subsequently tried for murder and acquitted. I seem to remember that the incident took place in the north of england. Unfortunately I can't find my notes but will contiunue to search. I also found references to the attempted rising by Chartists at Bradford . Two groups of Special Constables from neighbouring villages, when out on night patrol, mistook each other for insurgents and engaged in an exchange of fire. Luckily, nobody was injured. Another exanple of our violent past that the society of today appears to ignore or, worse, attempts to sanitise.

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This is all incredibly interesting.

I wonder if you've ever come across anything about my Great Grandfather?

His name was Samuel Briggs and I believe he rose to the rank of Chief Inspector. I have photos of him - one at least during WW1. He looks younger on others but is still wearing officer uniform (he has the boars head within a wreath badge on page 1). On the WW1 photo, he appears to wear the (then pretty new) Kings Police Medal.

I've searched the net to no avail, I wonder if you've come across anything mentioning him?

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Hello,

I have not come across anything but will certainly have a look to see if I can finds a reference.

I'd be really grateful - thanks. Others of his family were involved with Bradford Police - so any mention of a Briggs may well be of interest (I know George and Eric both served)

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I recently received an original copy of the General Order issued for HM Coronation (from an old friend who took part) and have replicated it below. It is an important document for a variety of reasons.

CITY OF BRADFORD POLICE

CHIEF CONSTABLE'S OFFICE

TOWN HALL

22 May 1953.

G.O. 6-53

GENERAL ORDER

CORONATION, 1953.

A detachment of members of this force, who have already been detailed, will perform duty in London in connection with the Coronation of H.M. the Queen on the 2nd June 1953. The uniformed members of the party will wear best day uniform, as follows :-

Open neck serge jacket

Serge trousers

Helmets (Sergeant and Constables)

Boots

Capes (rolled) (Sergeants and Constables)

White cotton gloves

Medals

Cape straps, a pair of white cotton gloves and two distinctive luggage labels will be issued on application to the Storekeeper, to each person concerned. A small First Aid kit will be supplied to each Sergeant.

It is desirable that the kit carried shall be kept to a minimum, but if it is desired, civilian clothes may be taken. Cases, however, must be clearly labelled on the outside with a duplicate label inside, bearing the rank, number and name, together with the Force of the oficer concerned. The cases should be capable of being locked, as there will be no facilities for the safe custody of valuables or personal property.

The following personal equipment must be taken :-

Knife, fork and spoon (Sergeants and Constables)

Toilet equipment

Towel and soap

Shaving kit and mirror

Cleaning equipment

N.I. medical card

Coat hanger

The equipment may be deposited at the Town Hall during Saturday, 30th May, 1953, and the Superintendent "A" Division will arrange for its safe custody.

The detachment will travel by rail, leaving Exchange Station at 9.45 a.m. and will, therefore, be required to parade at the Town Hall at 9.0 a.m. Sunday, 31st May, 1953. Arrangements have been made for two special buses to collect those members of the detachment who wish to be picked up at the following points, the vehicles being at the first point on Route No. 1 at 8.15 a.m. and on Route No. 2 at 8.5 a.m.

Route No. 1

Legrams Lane - Horton Grange Road

Legrams Lane - Beckside Road

Clayton Road - Hollingwood Lane

St Enoch's Road - Southfield Lane

Manchester Road - Smiddles Lane

Odsal Top

Bierley Church

Wakefield Road - Rooley Lane

and then to the Town Hall.

Route No. 2

Four Lane Ends

Police Station, 2 Duckworth Lane

Manningham Lane - Oak Lane

Swaine House Road - King's Road

Harrogate Road - New Line

Harrogate Road - Ravenscliffe Avenue

Harrogate Road - Killinghall Road

Killinghall Road - leeds Old Road

and then to the Town Hall.

The vehicles will not wait at the picking up points.

The reserves, PCs. 17, 190, 230, 390, 392 and 421, will parade with the detachment.

During the stay in London the male members of the detachment will be billeted at the Royal Artillery Depot, Woolwich Barracks, London S.E.18 and will be transported there by special 'buses which will meet the train on arrival at King's Cross at 3.0 p.m.

Arrangements have been made for a packed meal to be supplied for the outward journey, and the Metropolitan Police will suplly sandwiches for the return journey. No charge will be made to individuals for accommoidation or main meals, but other refreshments, including those obtained whilst on duty on the 2nd June must be paid for by individual officers, and the appropriate allowances under Regulation 36 of the police Regulations may be claimed.

Refreshments will be available during the period of duty on Coronation Day at the Canteen at the Aliens Registration Office, Piccadilly Place.

The detachment has been divided into two groups which have been posted for duty as follows :-

Sub-Sector 16-A, Serial No. 843 - Haymarket, East side - from Shaver's Place (exclusive) to Orange Street (inclusive), the duty being to keep the line and preserve order.

Chief Inspector 20 G.W. Brooks.

Sgt. 12 Smith

P.C. 130 Tarves

" " 140 Dann

" " 157 Horne

" " 210 Bower

" " 226 Lee

" " 300 Driver

" " 366 Unwin

" " 389 Evans

Sgt. 18 Ainslow

P.C. 55 Holdsworth

" " 68 Tinnion

" " 71 Hyland

" " 106 Horner

" " 112 Robinson

" " 192 Marshall

" " 296 Byram

" " 346 Regan

Sgt. 37 Scaife

P.C. 9 Helliwell

" " 161 Burke

" " 174 Barraclough

" " 233 Jenkins

" " 269 Buck

" " 282 Hey

" " 318 Dale

" " 351 Bogg

Sector 16, Reserve, Serial No. 861, A.R.O., Piccadilly Place.

Inspector 14 J. Frayne.

Sgt. 35 Walker

P.C. 15 Pritchard

" " 19 Randall

" " 26 Lavender

" " 27 Yorke

" " 41 Wallace

" " 48 Grayston

" " 84 Mallinson

" " 87 Arnold

" " 243 Leek

" " 289 Margerison

" " 292 Rimmington

" " 303 Archer

Sgt. 43 Poole

P.C. 57 Young

" " 99 Mawbey

" " 100 Briars

" " 107 Porter

" " 113 Hardaker

" " 176 Peel

" " 186 Wilkinson

" " 200 Marshall

" " 218 Coddington

" " 219 Withers

" " 251 Whitham

" " 291 Corcocan

" " 342 Stott

On Coronation Day all the foregoing personnel will be conveyed in special 'buses which will arrive at Woolwich Barrcks at 2.45 a.m. and depart at 3.0 a.m. The 'buses will set down at Whitcomb Street, and will be numbered 27 to 37. On the return journey, the 'buses will assemble at the picking up point at Long Acre at 4.30 p.m., to which the personnel must make their way as soon as they are dismissed.

The C.I.D. officers, for whom separate instructions will be issued, will be conveyed in 'bus No. 26 at the same time as the foregoing, and will be set down in Parliament Square and picked up for the return journey from Victoria Embankment, east of Hungerford Bridge at 3.30 p.m.

A detachment of provincial Women Police (including the member from this Force, P.W. 2 Bornand) has been posted to Sub-Sector 5-B, Serial 213, Victoria Embankment, west side, from Bartle Fere Statue to Gates of North Extension, New Scotland Yard (exclusive). They will be conveyed in 'bus No. 160 which will arrive at Peto House at 3.10 a.m. and depart at 3.15 a.m. to set down at New Scotland Yard. Refreshments will be obtained at Cannon Row police Station.

H. S. PRICE,

Chief Constable

Edited by SCcollector

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More on the Manningham Mill Strike of 1891.

Further to the earlier copies of The Times coverage, I have revisited Gordon Smith's excellent history of Bradford City Police (1974) (Bradford City Police) and offer below extracts which help to put the scale of the disturbances into context and add to what is known of the police response. The images below show Bradford Town Hall and the area immediately in front of the main entrance which was Town Hall Square. The Town Hall housed not only the administration for the town but also the headquarters of the police and magistrates courts.

"......These cutlasses were purchased as ex-navy stock in 1848 and 1874, being kept in racks at the police sations....The last occasion they were worn other than for ceremonial purposes, was at the Manningham Mills strike of 1891.

Just when the mounted section of the force was formed is somewhat doubtful. Although a contemporary report of the opening of the Town Hall in 1873 speaks of mounted policemen in ranks of four leading the procession, it is clear that at that time and for some decades afterwards there was no regular mounted force. In fact, if a regular mounted police section had been in being in 1891, it might have been possible to have avoided having 'reading the Riot Act' in Town Hall Square twice in one week.

In 1891, trade being very bad, the American market being practically closed and as trade with the continent was very slack, the management of Lister's, Manningham Mills, sought to lower production costs by reducing the the prices paid to weavers for each yard of cloth. At this, the workers came out on strike. It was claimed that over 4,000 workpeople were on strike. The strike appears to have been orderly enough until a meeting was called on Sunday, the 12th April, which was to be addressed by a number of nationally well-known radicals and labour organisers. The meeting was to be held in St George's Hall.

Before the meeting the organisers sought permission to hold an overflow meeting in 'Dockers Square' (later called Town Hall Square). The Mayor and the chairman of the Watch Committee informed the organisers, when they were approached regarding the meeting, that they did not consider 'Dockers Square' to be a suitable place to hold this meeting because of the close proximity of a place of worship and the tram-car routes which passed through the Square. The organisers, who appear to have been looking for an incident to create unrest, chose to take this advice as an attack on the right of free speech. The Mayor's Watch Committee took the rejection of this advice as an attempt to undermine the authority of the Corporation and, thereby, a threat to the town's peace. From this moment on, a head-on collision seemed to have been inevitable.

On Sunday, the 12th April, 150 constables paraded at the Town Hall at 2.0 pm. The were instructed that no violence was to be used and one was to be struck. The meeting was held in St Georg'e Hall. As an act of defiance and in defence of their claim to free speech and assembly, the organisers attempted tried to hold an overflow meeting in Town Hall Square, using a form as a rostrum. Superintendent Paul and a contingent of constables marched out of the Town Hall and kicked over the form and the speakers were told that the meeting could not be held there but could be held in Peckover Walk...."

(to be continued)

post-8433-075020900 1286027323_thumb.jpg

post-8433-071507800 1286027335_thumb.jpg

post-8433-014844200 1286027371_thumb.jpg

Edited by SCcollector

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Manningham Mills Strike 1891 (continuation)

The extracts from 'Bradford Police' by Gordon Smith are concluded here. The differences in reporting on the severity of the distrubances between the account given in the history of Bradford Police and the Times articles are interesting.

"... At this, Hayden Saunders, a radical from Rotherham, and William Byles, a local printer, went to the Town Hall and invited the police to arrest them and to test in court the claim that the Mayor was within his rights in banning the holding of the meeting in Town Hall Square. In the Bradford Oberver account, an intruing picture of the police at bay is drawn. The report speaks of constables taking their ease, jammed tightly in the parade room whilst Superintendent Paul led the men in hymn singing. No doubt the forerunners of the highly successful Bradford Police choirs which were to come in the twentieth century!

Sunders then left the Town Hall, declaring his intention to hold a meeting in Town Hall Square. Chief Constable Withers sent Superintendent Paul after Saunders with orders to arrest him if he tried to hold a meeting. Superintendent Paul was delayed diplomatically or otherwise, with the result that Saunders had tried to hold his meeting before Paul reached the scene. A police constable on the spot arrersted Saunders and brought him to the charge office. Now the authorities were in a dilemma. They did not wish to test their right to ban public meetings in court (This was before the days of Duncan versus Jones).

(Footnote :- Duncan- v- Jones (1936) 1K.b. 218; 99J.P 399. This famous case in 1936 confirmed that it was the duty of the police to prevent an apprehended breach of the peace, and accordingly to prohibit and prevent any meeting which would likely result in a distrubance if held)

Accordingly, the charge was investigated by the Chief Constable and refused. However, to add a tough ofcomedy, Saunders then refused to leave the charge office, saying, " I have been arrested and here I will stay until until I appear in court to put this matter to the test". The Chief Constable, apparently not wishing to aggravate the situation or create further incidents, did not have Saunders treated as a trespasser but allowed him to remain. He was not allowed to eat a supper sent in from the Talbot Hotel, the Chief Constable saying with some heat that no one was allowed to take refreshments in the charge office without his permission.

Saunders stayed there all night and as he was not charged, next morning at court asked for a summons for assault against the constable who had arrested him. Mr Skidmore, the stipendiary magistrate, granted the summons but the newspaper account gives the impression that the stipeniary was a little amused by the whole proceeding.

However, matters took a more serious turn during the afternoon of Monday, the 13th April. Since a large proportion of the police force had been on duty for 16 hours the previous day, as many as possible had been stood-down in the afternoon. However, as the day wore on it was clear that another trial of strength was inevitable. The Chief Constable with about 60 men tried unsuccessfully to clear Town Hall Square, although Detective Officer Martindale on a high-spirited horse did very good work, one reporter writing that the hooves of his mount cleared more ground than all the rest of the police together. Wisely, the Chief Constable withdrew his men inside the Town Hall whilst he telegraphed the out-stations to have all availalble men sent into the Town Hall.

Later, with an increased force and four men mounted on horses, the Chief Constable again attempted to clear Town Hall Square. The crowd pelted the police with stones, dead mice and other rubbish. Some of them brought gloom to the scene by extinguishing all the street gas lamps within their reach. Detective Officer Martindale was injured with a flying stone and knocked off his horse. His horse was pushed on to the ground and also injured. A request was sent to the Bradford Moor Barracks and 160 men of the Durham Light Infantry marched to the Town Hall under the command of Major Woodlands.

By 9.20 p.m. all was ready. The Mayor in his capacity as a magistrate read the prescribed proclamation from the Riot Act outside the Town Hall door and by the New Inn. The Chief Constable held the lantern to enable the Mayor to see the words, as by this time all the street lamps except those immediately adjacent to the Town Hall had been extinguished.

The Durham Light Infantry, carrying their rifles at the ready, then started to clear the streets, pushing the crowds back up the main streets away from the Town Hall whilst policemen staioned at each side entrance prevented the mob sneaking round and getting behind the military. To the credit of the military there was no shooting on their part and possibly because of this there was very little stone throwing by the mob. By 11.0 p.m. all was quiet.

In all, ten persons were arrested for various offences arising out of this riot, mainly for assaulting police and stone throwing. A first-aid post had been set up in the Town Hall and a number of police officers, including the Chief Constable, along with some civilian bystanders who had been struck by wildly thrown missiles.

The next day, Tuesday, the 14th April, crowds of curious bystanders gathered ealy in Town Hall Square, apparently expecting another battle royal. The Chief Constable withdrew his forces, leaving the Square empty of police. The only Corporation employees to be seen were employees of the Team Labour Committee busily engaged in loading the carts and transporting away the rubble from certain raod-works in the vicinity, (in effect, depleting the mob's ammunition supply).

The authorities had laid there plans well. A call had gone out to the 200 special constables, sworn in some two months before, to parade at the Town Hall at 6.0 p.m. Despite the short notice, over 60 men paraded. They were issued with their own badges and asked to stay in reserve at the Borough Court room. At the same time 250 men of the Durham Light Infantry arrived and all available police were present. The Town Hall has probably never been packed tighter.

Eventually, at about 8.0 p.m., it was necessary once more to read the Riot Act just as the mob began throwing stones at the Town Hall windows. Benefiting from the experience gained the previous day, the streets were cleared in double quick time and although the troops and the specials were left in reserve until 10.0 p.pm., at that time they were stood-down and that task of keeping the peace left with the police. Only for persons were arrested on this occasion.

Next day the summons against the police constable for assaulting Saunders was heard and despite very learned arguments, the Stipendiary dismissed the summons, holding that the arrest was lawful to prevent a breach of the peace. This decision, plus a firm show of stength by the authorities, appeared to have made the mob realise that there was no profit in fighting the authorities.

Of the persons arrested, those charged with assaulting the police were dealt with very firmly, the majority being sent to prison, the others being treated quite gently and consequently the mob had no ready-made martyrs to add fuel to the dispute..........".

(end of extract)

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Another interesting document recently came my way from an old friend. It relates to potential recruits to the City of Bradford Police and dates from around the late forties. The Chief Constable at the time of issue was HS Price who served as CC of Bradford from July 1940 until his retirement in November 1957.

Form No. 147.

CITY OF BRADFORD POLICE

THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION IS FOR THE GUIDANCE OF PROSPECTIVE CANDIDATES FOR THE CITY OF BRADFORD POLICE FORCE AND INDICATES THE QUALIFICATIONS WHICH WILL BE REQUIRED.

Part 1. CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT

1. NATIONALITY

Must be British-born and of British parents.

2. AGE.

Should be under 26 years of age. (in exceptional cases older men - providing they are under 30 years of age - will be considered)

3. HEIGHT.

Not less than 5ft. 9 1/2ins. in height. Men slightly below this height will be considered if they possess special qualifications for service in the Police.

4. CHARACTER.

Every candidate must, in due course, produce satisfactory references as to his character. An applicant who has served in any branch of His Majesty's Naval, Military or Air Force, or in the Civil Service, or in any Police Force must produce satisfactory proof of his good conduct while in such Force or Service.

A person dismissed frrom any such Force or Service shall not be elligible for appointment.

5. EDUCATIONAL STANDARD.

A candidate must satisfy the Chief Constable that he is sufficiently educated.

Every candidate must pass an examination in dictation, arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and simple problems based on these principles), reading aloud, and general knowledge.

6. MEDICAL EXAMINATION.

Every applicant must be certified by the Police Surgeon to be in good health, of sound constitution, and fitted both physically and mentally to perform the duties of his office. Teeth must be in good condition, but artificial dentures are not in themselves a disqualification.

7. DISQUALIFICATIONS.

No person shall be elligible for appointment to, or shall be retained in, a police force if :-

(a) He engages directly or indirectly in any trade, office or employment for hire or gain.

(b) He or his wife or any member of his family living with him holds any interest in any licence under the Liquor Licensing Lawsor public entertainment.

© His wife, without the consent of the Chief Constable, keeps any shop or carries on any similar business in the Police District.

8. ATTENDANCE FOR EXAMINATION.

Arrangements will be made for a candidate to attend at the Bradford Police Offices for the educational examination or at a Police Station within the district in which he resides if approved by the Chief Constable of Bradford.

A candidate must attrend when called upon at the Bradford Police Offices for medical examination as to his fitness for the Police Service.

PART 2. CONDITIONS OF SERVICE

9. PAY, etc.

A man appointed as a constable receives 105/- per week during his two-year probationery period. After two years from appointment a Constable will recive an increment of 3/- per weekl per year until he reaches the wage of 132/- weelky. He can subsequently earn two long-service increments, each of 4/- per week, thus bringing his maximum wage up to 140/- per week.

There is also a rent allowance. In addition, a man who is in lodgings and who is unable to find accommodation in the City for his wife and family may receive an extra allowance of 25/- per week. Boots and uniform are provided free.

10. LEAVE.

Constables are allowed a weekly rest day and annual holidays with pay.

11. HOURS OF DUTY.

The normal period of duty for a Constable is 8 hours per day including time for meal. In general the tours of duty are divided into three periods - morning, afternoon and night duties.

12. PROMOTION.

Promotion can be gained the highest ranks of the Police Service.

13. DUTIES.

The duties in the Police Service are interesting and varied. The Force provides great opportunities for service in the public interest with attractive pay and pension. There are many special branches calling for the exercise of skill and knowledge, e.g., motor enigeering, radio, clerical, criminal investigation and traffic control.

PART 3. GENERAL.

14. SPORTING ACTIVITIES.

Almost every form of indoor and outdoor sports and games is provided for in the this Force.

The City of Bradford Police Force has representaive teams for cricket, football, swimming, golf, shooting, billiards, hockey, tennis, table tennis, bowls and all other forms of athletics. If a candidate possesses special qualifications in any form of sport full particulars shoulds be supplied with his application.

15. SOCIAL ACTIVITIES.

The Force has a Military Band, Dance Band and Vocal Union and other social amenities.

16. APPLICATIONS.

All applications, which should give particulars of age, height (in bare feet), and weight, should be addressed to the Chief Constable, City Police Headquarters, Town Hall, Bradford, and the envelope should be marked "Police Candidate".

H.S. PRICE,

Chief Constable.

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Another ancient and interesting document from the 'Constabulary Code' 'City of Bradford' listing the duties to be performed by individual members of the Force.

LIST OF DUTIES.

To be performed in the several Departments by the

HEADQUARTERS STAFF.

CHIEF CLERK.

1. To forward in writing all orders from the Chief Constable, which he may issue from time to time, to the several Divisions.

2. To supply all specimens of Books and Forms etc., required by printers, etc., and to examine all proofs of same.

3. To make out the Government Returns, also the Returns supplied to H.M. Inspector of Constabulary.

4. To answer all correspondence as the Chief Constable may direct.

5. To keep a record of Lincencees of all Alehouses, Beerhouse and Off Licence holders, also a record of misconduct on the part of such Lincencees, together with results of the proceedings before the Justices, as the case demands.

6. To register all transfer of Licences from one person to another, in cases relating to premises licensed for the sale of any Intoxicating Liquors.

7. To keep an account of all moneys received by the Police and to see that the same is banked every week to the City and Pension Funds respectively, and that such accounts are duly entered in the books supplied for that specific purpose.

8. To issue all Pawnbrokers', Game Dealers', Pedlars' and Hawkers' Lincenses when required, and to keep a summary of such issues and payments for same in the books supplied for that object.

9. To see that the Assistant Clerk daily enters all occurences reported during the preceding day, and also that a summary of Apprehensions and Summonses during the week is prepared in the Chief Constable's Report Book together with other matters as the Chief Constable may direct.

10. To keep a detailed account of all Disbursements in connection with the Police, and submit a monthly statement of the same to the City Treasurer.

11. To examine and compare at various periods at his discretion the several books kept in the Charge Office.

WARRANT DEPARTMENT.

The Chief Warrant Officer will be held responsible to the Superintendent for the following duties :-

1. To attend the City court and administer the various Oaths to the Officers and Witnesses, and keep a record of the decisions of the Justices both in cases of Apprehensions and Summonses.

2. To supervise the execution of Warrants, Summonses, and Commitments, also the collection of Court Fees, Reformatory and Industrial School Payments, and School Board Fines.

3. To see that records of the foregoing are duly entered by the clerical staff in the several books supplied for that purpose, and also direct such correspondence as may be required in connection with same.

(to be contuinued...)

Edited by SCcollector

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'Costabulary Code' 'City of Bradford' continued....

Staff at Headquarters.

CHARGE OFFICE.

The Chief Officer in charge of this department will be held responsible to the Superintendent for the following duties :-

1. To make out Charge Sheets for the Chief Constable, the Justices and their Clerk, which must be in readiness by 9-45 a.m. prompt, and the same to be numbered consecutively.

2. To enter all property of every description in the several books set apart for that purpose, as follows :-

(a) Prisoner's personal property :

To see that all property is duly signed for before delivering up the same: in the case of prisoners' property, either the prisoner himself must sign, or the signature obtained from the Warder to whom the prisoner is eventually consigned at H.M. Prison at Leeds.

(b) Stolen property :

Stolen property to be signed for by the Prosecutor or Prosecutrix as the case may be, unless an order to the contrary is made by the Justices.

© Found property.

Found property to be signed for by the owner of same upon satisfactory evidence being given as a proof of ownership.

3. To keep an account and a weekly return of lost and stray Dogs, also the number destroyed and kept in the Shelter, the same to be submitted to the Chief Constable every Friday no later than 3-0 p.m.

4. To keep a list of Council Circulars served by the Police.

5. To enter in rough Report Books a brief account of Occurences (sudden deaths, fires, etc.), which may be reported at the Office during the day, either verbally or in writing, by a Police Officer or Civilian.

6. To supervise his assistants in the performance of the following duties :-

(a) Indexing prisoners.

(b) Preparing previous convictions for Court cases.

© Keeping of the Victualling Book.

(d) Entering of the Prisoners Gaol Receipt Book.

(e) Destruction of Dogs.

(f) Supervision of Prisoners.

(g) Booking of Warehouse, etc. Keys.

(h) To enter in the rough Charge Books all Apprehensions and persons summoned, for which he will be resposible to the Chief Clerk as to correctness, and the same will be checked by that Officer every month.

N.B. - The Officer in charge of the Charge Office will be held responsible for the despatching of the Prisoners to H.M. Prison, Armley, Leeds, and must personally superintend same at all times.

(to be continued..)

Edited by SCcollector

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Kevin - the account of the strike made very interesting reading and one quickly realises that even in the UK the difference between law and order and chaos - is a very thin blue line. This has always been so - I have advocated massed shotguns for years (!) Usually the old reports are dealing with London or, other major centres - this was different being for a County town. What would the population have been at that time ?

When I was in the Met. we used to have to go to special training days - they taught what would happen in serious trouble. I always remember that it would take only 3 atom bombs to wipe out London and that the estimate between food shortages and rioting was 2 to 3 days. I witnessed this in Bournemouth (of all places) in the 70's. We had heavy snow for several days and supplies couldn't get through - by the third day crowds were trying to break into shops and were fighting amongst themselves.

I was particularly interested in mention of Bradford buying redundant navy cutlasses. I have never heard of this for any Force and rather doubt if it is correct - although as we explored once before - the Bradford Watch Committee seemed to be a law unto itself ! Are any still in your local museums ? Mervyn

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Kevin - the account of the strike made very interesting reading and one quickly realises that even in the UK the difference between law and order and chaos - is a very thin blue line. This has always been so - I have advocated massed shotguns for years (!) Usually the old reports are dealing with London or, other major centres - this was different being for a County town. What would the population have been at that time ?

When I was in the Met. we used to have to go to special training days - they taught what would happen in serious trouble. I always remember that it would take only 3 atom bombs to wipe out London and that the estimate between food shortages and rioting was 2 to 3 days. I witnessed this in Bournemouth (of all places) in the 70's. We had heavy snow for several days and supplies couldn't get through - by the third day crowds were trying to break into shops and were fighting amongst themselves.

I was particularly interested in mention of Bradford buying redundant navy cutlasses. I have never heard of this for any Force and rather doubt if it is correct - although as we explored once before - the Bradford Watch Committee seemed to be a law unto itself ! Are any still in your local museums ? Mervyn

Hi, Mervyn. Although I don't have any real detail. I have heard within my family that the Police themselves had a strike somewhere between the wars (but, understandably perhaps, it isn't mentioned in the book.

Also, reference the Cutlasses. This is indeed true - I've a photograph of a parade in Bradford where the Police have them and I've also seen the actual items when I visited the Police HQ Museum many years ago.

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'Constabulary Code' City of Bradford' continued.....

SUPERINTENDENTS

The Superintendents of each Divsion will be held responsible for its discipline and that the Chief Constable's orders and regulations are strictly complied with.

They will also make themselves thoroughly acquainted with the Inspectors and Sergeants, and through them the character of every Constable in the Division, and they will be firm but just, but at the same time kind and considerate in their behaviour towards them on all occasions.

They will give all instructions to the Officers and Men under them, and any case of neglect must be reported to the Chief Constable without delay.

They must take care to avoid any just cause of complaint being made by the inhabitants of the neighbourhood with regard to any nuisances or irregulartity at the Divisional Stations or Out-District Stations.

If a complaint be made to them against any member of their Division, they will report the matter at once to the Chief Constable, and if the nature of the complaint be serious the member may be suspended until further instructions are received from the Chief Constable.

INSPECTORS.

Inspectors are to reside within their respective Divisions and as near as it is possible to the Station at which they parade.

They must obey promptly and strictly all orders in the execution of their duty and the same obedience will be expected and enforced by them from the Sergeants and Constables under their command.

They must be able to instruct the Sergeants and Constables on all matters relating to their duty and will use firm but considerate language towards them. They will be held responsible for the carrying out by their subordinates of all orders issued to them by the Superior Officers.

The Inspectors will be held responsible for the good order and discipline of the Sergeants and Constables under their command, and will, by constant intercourse with them, make themselves thoroughly acquainted with the character and abilities of each man. All cases of neglect of duty are to be immediately reported to the Superintendent of the Division.

The Inspectors on duty will parade at their respective Stations at the appointed hour and will parade the Police, also inspect them and see that every man is clean and fit in all respects to turn out for duty. Orders, etc., must be read out clearly and distinctly so that each man may hear and understand them before turning out from Parade.

Inspectors on Patrol duty are to see as much of their Division as possible, and whenever practicable they must see every part of their Division at least once during their tour of duty.

Inspectors on duty at Police Stations will be held responsible for the good order at the same.

Inspectors are on no account to traffic or have any money transactions with any of their subordinates in rank.

SERGEANTS AND ACTING SERGEANTS.

Sergeants will be held responsible for the general conduct and good order of the Constables under their charge, and will report every case of misconduct on the part of a Constable to their Inspector or Superintendent at the earliest opportunity.

They will not make themselves too familiar with Constables but instruct them in the duties they have to perform, and to conduct themselves at all times in such a manner as to command respect from those over whom they may be placed.

Sergeants and Acting-Sergeants will parade at their respective Station 15 minutes earlier than the Inspectors in order to ascertain that every man who is to parade is in a fit state to turn out for duty, and any case to the contrary they are to report to their Inspectors.

They will form the Constables up for parade in readiness for inspection by the Inspector or Superintendent, and all absentees are to be reported and the cause of same ascertained.

They will post the Constables on their several beats, and to read the Orders etc., aloud to the men unless this duty is performed by the Inspector or Acting-Inspector.

They will march to the Section in which they are doing duty with the Constables and see that each patrols his beat and knows the ground.

They will constantly patrol their Section and enforce the performance of duty by the Constables. When Constables are found absent from thier beats the Sergeants or Acting-Sergeants must report the case and take immediate steps to replace the man or cover the beat as quickly as possible.

If any felony occur or disturbance of a serious nature they must send for asuch assistance as may be necessary.

They must not enter any Licensed House except in the actual execution of their duty, but they may give any constable on their section permission to obtain any necessary refreshment at a Licensed House without entering it, but full particulars must be stated.

They must give particular attention to all houses licensed for the sale of Intoxicating Liquor and be prepared to sate if required whether the same are well conducted or otherwise.

They will be expected to have a thorough knowledge of all Police Regulations and Orders and to aid in the execution of the same.

At Stations where both Sergeants and Acting-Sergeants are on duty the Sergeants are in all cases to take charge of Stations in the absence of the Inspectors, and the Acting-Sergeants are to patrol in charge of Sections.

Sergeants and Acting-Sergeants are not to traffic or have any money transactions of any kind with any of the Constables.

CONSTABLES.

A Constable must obey all orders of his superior officers.

He must be civil and respectful in his manner towards the public and endeavour to give clear answers and directions to all questions which may be put to him.

He is to report to his Sergeant or Inspector the first opportunity he may have, particulars of any accident or occurence which has come under his notice during his tour of duty.

When a Constable is called upon to act, he must do so with energy, alacrity, and determination.

When called upon to take a person into custody he must be guided in a great measure by the circumstances of the case, and if he has any doubt in the matter his best course is to request all persons concerned to accompany him to the Police Station, and there let the Inspector or other superior Officer on duty determine whether such person shall be apprehended and locked up.

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'Constabulary Code' City of Bradford' continued....

FIRES.

No precise rule can be laid down as to the actions of the Plice in the event of a fire, but the chief idea of a Constable or other Police Officer on his arrival at the scene of a fire should be that of saving life, and it is therefore necessary that immediate alarm should be given and every endeavour made to arouse the inmates.

The Fire Brigade should be notified immedialtey and upon the arrival of the Brigade the Police should devote their whole energies in the saving of life and property.

The streets and premises surrounding the fire should be cleared in order that the arrival of the engines may not be unecessarily dealyed, and on no account are any Police Officers of whatever rank to issue orders to any of the Fire Brigade, who are responsible to their own Officers only with regard to their course of action at a fire.

In many cases much loss is sustained through unnecessary removal of furnaiture from houses in close proximity to the fire, and special care should be excercised in this matter, and no furniture should be removed from house unless in the opinion of the Brigade the premises are in danger through the fire spreading to the same.

If desired, valuable property may be removed to the nearest Police Station, until the owners concerned are able to place the same in other quarters.

The Police must use great discretion as to whom they allow to enter the premises on fire, as at times improper persons attempt to gain admittance, whose sole object is to plunder and not to assist in saving life or property.

In the crowds which collect consequent upon a fire it is only to be expected that pickpockets will be in evidence, and it therefore necessary that the Police should give special attention to this matter and endeavour to frustrate as far as possible the nefarious practices of this class.

The superior Officer in command of the Police at a fire must obtain as far as practicable all information relative to the fire, such as cause, damage, owners of property, etc., and also to state time the Police were employed, by whom the Brigade was called, and the nature of the duties actually performed by the Police, and as soon as possible a copy Report is to be forwarded the the Chief Officer of the Fire Brigade.

Every Police Constable must become acquainted with the various Fire Call Boxes, and Inspectors and Sergeants should ascertain from time to time whether men under their command are coversant with the position of the Fire Boxes and with the mode of sending the alarm of fire to the Central Fire Brigade Station.

Edited by SCcollector

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'Constabulary Code' 'City of Bradford' continued.....

PRISONERS.

DRUNKEN PRISONERS. - On the apprehension and detention of druken persons, great care must be taken that no accident or hurt befall them. When put in the Cells their scarves, collars etc., must be loosened and their heads moderately raised so as to promote free respiration and a healthy use of their vital organs.

Every care should also be taken that they cannot fall during their sleep, but to lay them as low as possible and as near sober prisoners as convenient.

Constant visitation to be made by the Superintendent and other Officers in charge, each visit and by whom made to be recorded in the Visiting Book provided for that purpose, the remark column to be filled up whether all correct and well or otherwise, after weach visit.

No Officer or Matron will take charge of prisoners until he or she has examined them in the presence of the Officer or Matron going off duty, and seen that they are properly secured, after which they will be responsible. Any neglect of this important duty will be reported to the Watch Committee.

SICK PRISONERS. - When prisoners are sick, the Doctor must be called immediately.

DOCTOR'S ATTENDANCE ON DRUNKEN PRISONERS. - Prisoners afflicted with apoplexy, sometimes being taken for drunken persons, it is very necessary that all persons apprehended for being drunk should be very carefully examined by the Officer apprehending, also by the Superintendent or other Officer in charge, before being locked up, so as to prevent any mistake being made. If the slightest doubt exists as to the person's state, the Doctor must be called immediately.

VISITS TO PRISONERS. - No persons are to be allowed to see prisoners without the permission of a Magistrate or the Chief Constable, or in his absence the permission of the Superintendent or other Officer in charge of the Police Station, and then only in the presence of a Constable.

SOLICITORS &c, - In cases of felony, or other cases where a prisoner is defended, Solicitors or their clerks (after obtaining permission) may see a prisoner privately, unless specially ordered otherwise.

VIOLENT PRISONERS, - In cases where the prisoners are violent and quarrelsome, such restraint must only be used as is compatible with the safe keeping of the person confined and the protection of Officers and other persons.

CAUTION. - No Officer in charge (save in company with the Matron) should enter the Cells of female prisoners, nor should he permit any Constable to do so.

LUNATICS. - Lunatics brought to the Stations must never be left without some person in charge of them. If for the convenience of private persons they must be charged with the cost of watching.

PRISONER'S MEALS. - Prisoners in custody to have their meals served at 8 a.m., 1 p.m., and 6 p.m., which will be provided by the Curator. No meals to be admitted to prisoners from their friends without the permission of the Chief Constable or in his absence the Officer in charge.

EXERCISE. - Prisoners to be allowed exercise in the corridors every day except cases where orders to the contrary have been given by the Chief Constable or Officer in charge.

Edited by SCcollector

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