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The Order of Rank and Merit: Its Origins, Classes and Recipients

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I've been doing some more research on this Order and wanted to share this and to expand Nick's excellent thread. First, the inspiration for the Order.

Modernisation of the Chinese army began in the late 19th century and continued after the Boxer Rebellion. In 1908, an Imperial Guard Division was established with a new Westernised grey uniform. Similar uniforms in blue (Winter) and light khaki (Summer) were introduced for the Imperial Army in 1910. Prior to that, Chinese soldiers were dressed in baggy blue blouses, pants and turbans while some of the provincial and Banner armies wore even more archaic colourful uniforms - the type you see in old coloured prints of the Sino-Japanese War and the Boxer Rebellion.

The Qing Dynasty had a complicated peerage system based on ancient Chinese tradition with added Manchu influences. Broadly, this fell into two categories: the Imperial Clan (Imperial princes, other members of the Imperial Clan who were direct male descendants of an Emperor, other family members); and the general nobility.

To preserve their Manchu martial traditions and to maintain control over the country (the Manchus comprised less than 2%, ruling 400 million Han Chinese increasingly resentful of their "alien" rulers"), many members of the Imperial family and nobility served in the Imperial army. With the introduction of drab, Western-style uniforms, it was decided that some sort of insignia were needed to allow differentiation in the wearer's noble rank.

On 12 February 1909, Zaitao, Prince of the Second Rank and Minister for Training the Imperial Guard, submitted a Memorial to the Xuantong Emperor. The Memorial proposed the introduction of Nobility Badges (Jue Zhang, 爵章) to be worn with formal uniform and sword. The Emperor (or rather the Regent) approved the Memorial on 9 April and decreed that the badges be issued to members of the imperial family and nobility on joining the army. The badge was to be worn with formal uniform and sword, on the lower left near the waist. Responsibility for manufacturing and distributing the badges was assigned to Zaitao as the Minister for Training the Imperial Guard.

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There were two categories of badges with sub-categories reflecting the complicated Qing peerage system.

The badge featured a centre medallion with four arms. The colours of the arms were red, black, white and green, with the centre in yellow. These colours represented the Five Cardinal Points - north, south, east, west and the centre in yellow for the Emperor. The medallion depicted a cogon grass which was used to filter wine for sacrifices and ritual and was associated with granting noble titles and land.

For the first category (Imperial family), the badge was transposed on a wreath of tung leaves. Tung leaves have a long tradition and were used by Emperor Cheng of the Zhou Dynasty (around 1000 BC) to "canonise" his brother.

For the second category (general nobility as well as the hereditary nobility from the outer region feudatory states like Mongolia), the badge was transposed on a wreath of peony flowers.

The Nobility Badge was NOT an order or decoration as we might understand those terms. It was issued as an emblem of existing noble rank to be worn with uniform, in the same way a policeman might wear a badge.

Here is an illustration of the Qinwang (Prince of the First Rank) badge from the original Decree. Source: www.zgsd.net.

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Manchu princes resign en-masse in 1911.

Princes Zaixun (third left) and Zaitao (fifth left) were brothers of the regent Prince Chun and uncles of Emperor Puyi. Both received Ministerial posts in the reorganised Imperial Cabinet of April 1911 which included eight Manchu princes, one Mongol and just four Han to the fury of the Han Chinese that made up over 90 per cent of the population. Zaixun was appointed China’s first Minister of the Navy in December 1910 and is seen wearing the uniform of an admiral.

Zaixun and Zaitao received the Order of the Double Dragon (First Class, Second Grade) in 1909 and four of the princes are wearing Double Dragon insignia.

Four princes are also wearing the Imperial Nobility Badge introduced in 1909.

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Following the 1911 Revolution, China became a Republic in 1912 with former Qing strong-man Yuan Shikai as President.

Imperial rule would however cast a long shadow over the new Republic. Many of the traditions and symbols of the Empire were adopted by the Republic.

The five colours of the Nobility Badge would feature in the new national flag, with the colours now representing the five races: Han (red), Manchu (yellow), Tibetans (black), Mongols (blue), Hui or Muslims (white).

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One of President Yuan's early acts was to establish a new system of national honours.

On 29 July 1912, President Yuan instituted the Republic's first two orders: the Grand Merit Order (Da Xun Zhang, 大勋章, also known as the “Grand Order”), the Republic’s highest decoration, and the Order of the Golden Grain (Jia He Xun Zhang, 嘉禾勋章, or just Jia He Zhang).

The Grand Merit Order was intended only for Presidents of the Republic and foreign heads of state. The insignia was virtually identical to the Imperial Grand Precious Order (Da Bao Zhang, 大宝章, also known as the “Grand Order of the Throne”) founded by Emperor Puyi in the final year of the Qing Dynasty. The insignia featured the Twelve Symbols of Imperial Authority traditionally associated with the Emperor and which were embroidered on the Emperor’s dragon robes!

http://gmic.co.uk/index.php/topic/54527-the-grand-order-its-origins-design-and-recipients/

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On 8 August 1912, the Republic again resurrected China’s Imperial past in its second highest honor – the Order of Rank and Merit (Xun Wei Zhang, 勋位章, “Merit Rank Badge”). The statutes for the Order comprise regulations issued on 8 August 1912 and 13 January 1913. Most references cite 13 January 1913 as the founding date of the Order. Certainly most of the institutional and practical arrangements for the award, such as the design of the insignia, are contained in the 1913 regulations.

The Order was conferred in six classes for meritorious service to the Republic:

· Grand Class (Da Xun Wei, 大勋位);

· First Class (Xun Yi Wei, 勋一位);

· Second Class (Xun Er Wei, 勋二位);

· Third Class (Xun San Wei, 勋三位);

· Fourth Class (Xun Si Wei, 勋四位); and

· Fifth Class (Xun Wu Wei, 勋五位)

The insignia was virtually identical to the earlier Imperial Nobility Badge with some minor but symbolic differences. The color of the center medallion was changed from yellow (representing the Emperor) to red (representing the majority Han Chinese).

The badge was gilded silver and all the stones pearls. The classes were differentiated by the total number of pearls including the center pearl stone: Grand Cordon (13 pearls), First Class (11 pearls), Second Class (9 pearls), Third Class (7 pearls), Fourth Class (5 pearls) and Fifth Class (3 pearls).

The President could, with the Senate’s approval, grant the recipient a lifetime annuity. This was an extraordinary privilege and the Order of Rank and Merit and the military Order of the White Eagle were the only two orders to accord that privilege. For the Order of Rank and Merit, the annuities were: Grand Class (10,000 yuan), First Class (8,000 yuan), Second Class (6,000 yuan), Third Class (5,000 yuan), Fourth Class (4,000 yuan) and Fifth Class (3,000 yuan).


Note: Only one award of the Order of the White Eagle is known – a Second Class Order that Cao Kun likely awarded himself when President. The Regulations for the White Eagle specified it could only be awarded for extraordinary merits in time of war although the President was automatically entitled to wear the award. While China declared war on the Central Powers in the First World War, her contribution was the 140,000 laborers of the Chinese Labor Force.

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Astoundingly for a Republic, the award was also accompanied by a title of nobility! In doing so, the Republic went beyond its obligation under Articles of Favorable Treatment (agreed with the Qing Court for the abdication of the Emperor) to maintain the privileges of the old nobility. It was now creating new members of nobility.

The titles conferred were:

· Grand Class: Prince – Qinwang (亲王, Prince of the First Rank), Junwang (郡王, Prince of the Second Rank), Beizi (贝子, or Prince of the Third Rank), Beile (贝勒, Prince of the Fourth Rank) or Qin (亲, blood relation);

· First Class: Duke – Yi gong qin (乙公亲) or Gong;

· Second Class: Marquis – Bing hou qin (丙 侯亲) or Hou;

· Third Class: Count – Ding bo qin (丁伯亲) or Bo;

· Fourth Class: Viscount – Wu zi qin (戊子亲) or Zi; and

· Fifth Class: Baron – Yi nan qin (已男亲) or Nan

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Both the peony flower and tung leaf designs of the Imperial Nobility Badge were adopted. The designs were however reversed.

The Grand, First and Second Class badge featured peony flowers in the same style as the junior category of the Imperial Nobility Badge, while the Fifth and Sixth Class feature the tung leaves of the senior category.

We can detect a personal preference by Yuan Shikai and his cronies for the more flamboyant peony flowers for the insignia their rank entitled them to, rather than the “plain” tung leaves.

As for the introduction of ranks of nobility, etc, Yuan began reviving imperial rituals and led sacrifices at the Temple of Heaven that were traditionally performed by the Emperor.

In November 1915, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor with the reign name Hongxian (洪憲) or “Constitutional Abundance” - ironic in the extreme. Yuan's grasp for the Dragon Throne however ignited a firestorm and he was forced to repeatedly delay his accession before abandoning it altogether. He died in humiliation shortly after in June 1916 and his death ushered in the "High Warlord Period".

Autengruber and Tammann report (2008 UBS Tammann Collection auction catalogue) that in 1916, the name of the Order was changed to the Order of Merit and titles of nobility no longer conferred with the award.

I believe, the change was likely instituted by President Li Yuanhong following Yuan Shikai’s death. Li was an earnest and committed Republican who shared the dismay many felt about Yuan’s attempt to install himself Emperor. Ironically, Li would be deposed by a monarchist coup launched by the "Pigtail General" Zhang Xun. This restored the Qing Dynasty for five days before being crushed by Republican troops under the command of the "Christian Warlord" Feng Yuxiang.

Edited by drclaw

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Like the other orders of the Early Republic / Warlord Period, the Order of Rank and Merit was abolished in 1929 by the new Guomindang government in Nanjing. However, awards likely ceased in 1928 following the defeat of the Beiyang warlord government by Chiang Kai-shek in the Northern Expedition.

Most contemporary warlord photographs depict them wearing the Order of Rank and Merit and it appears the award was fairly widely distributed, at least to senior military officers.

However, very few examples have appeared on the international market or in China.

The most recent specimens I'm aware of were a Grand Class in the 2008 UBS Tammann Collection auction and a Third Class in the 2007 Morton & Eden American Numismatics Society Collection auction.

Given the rarity and price of original insignia, reproductions are now being encountered in the Chinese market.

Edited by drclaw

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Here is a photo of Wellington Koo, China's most famous diplomat of the 20th century, wearing the Order of Rank and Merit.

This gorgeous document MIGHT be his award document bearing Presidential seal and signature of Yuan Shikai, dated 25 July 1915. Others with better Mandarin may be able to confirm. Source: www.huisongshu.com

http://gmic.co.uk/uploads/monthly_05_2013/post-11630-0-71499500-1368841962.jpghttp://gmic.co.uk/uploads/monthly_05_2013/post-11630-0-74284200-1368842015.jpg

Edited by drclaw

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A better photo. Clearly visible are the two pearls on each of the four arms of the badge + the centre pearl.

9 pearls in total = Second Class, giving him the rank of Marquis or Hou.

Wellington Koo (1887-1985) was China’s most respected statesman. Educated at Columbia University, Koo served in the League of Nations, the United Nations and the International Court of Justice. He is also wearing the Precious Brilliant Golden Grain and the Golden Grain, both in the First Class. His blue diplomatic court uniform is embroidered with the golden wheat motif of the Republic.

Edited by drclaw

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A better photo. Clearly visible are the two pearls on each of the four arms of the badge + the centre pearl.

Excellent photo and info Gavin! :cheers:

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A Chinese source (http://book.chinaiiss.com/chapter/1908da-jun-fa/2335696.html) gives the recipients of the Order of Rank and Merit as recorded by the Republic’s honors list. Over a four year period from 9 October 1912 to 9 October 1916, 267 awards were conferred. These comprised: six Grand Class; 10 First Class; 51 Second Class; 38 Third Class; 41 Fourth Class; and 121 Fifth Class.

The list reads like a Who’s Who of early Republican China. Unsurprisingly, warlords and generals not Confucian scholars dominate. This reflects the leading role played by soldiers in overthrowing the Qing Dynasty as well as militarization of Chinese politics under Yuan Shikai. We can also see the steady rise of Yuan allies like the Manchurian warlord Zhang Zuolin as he is awarded the Fifth Class, the Fourth Class and finally the Third Class in one of the last two awards of the Rank and Merit conferred by Yuan Shikai before his death.

The first awards (9 October 1912) were to the leading revolutionaries and to Yuan and his Beiyang Army lieutenants: the Grand Class to President Yuan Shikai, Sun Wen (Sun Yat-sen) and Vice-President Li Yuanhong; the First Class to Tang Shaoyi, Wu Tingfang, Huang Xing, Cheng Dequan, Duan Qirui, Feng Guozhang; and the Second Class to Sun Wu.

The last awards listed were a group of 18 conferred by new President Li Yuanhong on 9 October 1916. The awards are dominated by the southern warlords and Guomindang leaders who led the revolt against Yuan Shikai when he proclaimed himself Emperor including Sun Yat-sen (who received another Grand Class), Cai E, Tang Jiyao, Lu Rongting, Huang Xing and Hu Hanmin.

No awards of the Rank and Merit are listed after this date by the Chinese source. Interestingly, Yuan Shikai died on 6 June and the Order of the Precious Brilliant Golden Grain founded by new President Li Yuanhong on 7 October 1916. Li was a staunch Republican and the Rank and Merit was closely associated with Yuan Shikai’s imperial ambitions. This lends support to the suggestion that awards of the Rank and Merit ceased in 1916.

Autengruber and Tammann (UBS 2008 Tammann Auction Catalogue) however report that the name of the Order was changed to the Order of Merit in 1916 and titles of nobility no longer conferred with the award. Yuan Shikai, who had proclaimed himself Emperor the following December, officially abolished his 83-day old monarchy on 22 March. They also write that Duan Qirui received the Grand Class in 1919.

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I've translated the Chinese reference as follows and tallied the numbers of awards.

授勋全名单(按年份排列)

Honours full list (arranged by year)

Order of Rank and Merit

1912年10月09日 (October 9, 1912)

袁世凯、孙文、黎元洪 特授以 大勋位

Yuan Shikai, Sun Wen, Li Yuanhong Grand Class Rank and Merit

唐绍仪、伍廷芳、黄兴、程德全、段祺瑞、冯国璋 特授以 勋一位

Tang Shaoyi, Wu Tingfang, Huang Xing, Cheng Dequan, Duan Qirui, Feng Guozhang First Class Rank and Merit

孙武特 授以 勋二位

Sun Wu Second Class Rank and Merit

1912年10月16日 (16 October 1912)

吴俊升特授以勋五位

Wu Junsheng Fifth Class Rank and Merit

1912年11月20日 (20 November 1912)

徐绍桢陈其美特授以勋二位

Xu Shaozhen, Chen Qimei Second Class Rank and Merit

1912年11月25日 (25 November 1912)

刘公特授以勋二位

Liu Gong Second Class Rank and Merit

1912年12月28日 (28 December 1912)

蒋翊武特授以勋二位_

Jiang Yiwu Second Class Rank and Merit

邓玉麟特授以勋三位

Deng Yulin Third Class Rank and Merit

1912年12月30日 (30 December 1912)

张謇、汪兆铭特授以勋二位

Zhang Jian, Wang Zhaoming Second Class Rank and Merit

1913年01月23日 (23 January 1913)

蔡济民特授以勋二位

Cai Jimin Second Class Rank and Merit

唐牺之、蔡汉卿、季雨霖、吴兆麟、杜锡钧、王安澜特授以勋三位

Tang Xizhi, Cai Hanqing, Ji Yulin, Wu Zhaolin, Du Xijun, Wang Anlan Third Class Rank and Merit

王文锦、徐达明、吴醒汉、李作栋特授以勋四位

Wang Wenjin, Xu Daming, Wu Xinghan, Li Zuodong Fourth Class Rank and Merit

杨玉如、刘英、熊炳坤特授以勋五位

Yang Yuru, Liu Ying, Xing Bingkun Fifth Class Rank and Merit

1913年02月12日 (12 February 1913)

梁士诒、胡惟德、姜桂题、段芝贵特授以勋二位

Liang Shiyi, Hu Weide, Jiang Guiti, Duan Zhigui Second Class

谭学衡、熙彦、王占元、曹锟、陈光远、李纯、倪嗣冲特授以勋三位

Tan Xueheng, Xi Yan, Wang Zhanyuan, Cao Kun, Chen Guangyuan, Li Chun, Ni Sichong Third Class

蔡廷干、刘承恩、靳云鹏、赵倜、卢永祥、周符麟特授以勋四位

Cai Tinggan, Liu Chengen, Jin Yunpeng, Zhao Ti, Lu Yongxiang, Zhou Fulin Fourth Class

徐树铮、吴光新、蒋廷梓、王金镜、李厚基、何丰林、马继增、施从滨、张锡元、程克特授以勋五位

Xu Shuzheng, Wu Guangxin, Jiang Tingzi, Wang Jinjing, Li Houji, He Fenglin, Ma Jizeng, Shi Congbin, Zhang Xiyuan, Cheng Kete Fifth Class

1913年03月10日 (10 March 1913)

王隆中特授以勋四位

Wang Longzhong Fourth Class

1913年03月17日 (17 March 1913)

顾忠深、洪承点特授以勋三位

Gu Zhongshen, Hong Chengdian Third Class

1913年04月01日 (1 April 1913)

吕公望授以勋三位

Lu Gongwen Third Class

叶颂清、顾乃斌特授以勋五位

Ye Songqing, Gu Naibin Fifth Class

1913牛04月02日 (2 April 1913)

王正雅特授以勋四位

Wang Zhengya Fourth Class

1913年04月10日

尹昌衡特授以勋二位

Yin Changheng Second Class

1913年04月20日,

余钦翼特授以勋四位

Yu Qinyi Fourth Class

1913年05月06日

章炳麟特授以勋二位

Zhang Binglin Second Class

1913年07月03日

孟效曾特授以勋五位

Meng Xiaoceng Fifth Class

1913年07月09日

葛应龙特授以勋五位

Ge Yinglong Fifth Class

1913年07月12日

米振标特授以勋五位

Mi Zhenbiao Fifth Class

1913年07月15日

张作霖特授以勋五位

Zhang Zuolin Fifth Class

1913年07月18日

张勋特授以勋二位

Zhang Xunte Second Class

1913年07月21日

张文生特授以勋五位

Zhang Wensheng Fifth Class

1913年07月27日

方玉普特授以勋五位

Fang Yupu Fifth Class

1913年07月31日

马继增特授以勋四位

Ma Jizeng Fourth Class

鲍贵卿、张敬尧特授以勋五位

Bao Guiqing, Zhang Jingyao Fifth Class

1913年08月03日

孟恩远特授以勋五位

Meng Enyuan Fifth Class

1913年08月04日

李鼎新、郑汝成特授以勋三位

Li Dingxin, Zhen Grucheng Third Class

臧致平特授以勋四位

Zang Zhiping Fourth Class

1913年08月06日,

苏慎初特授以勋三位

Su Shenchu Third Class

1913年08月08日

马联甲特授以勋五位

Ma Lianjia Fifth Class

1913年08月31日

殷恭先特授以勋五位

Yin Gongxian Fifth Class

1913年09月01日

陈廷训特授以勋五位

Chen Tingxun Fifth Class

1913年09月03日

张勋晋授勋一位

Zhang Xunjin First Class

刘冠雄特授以勋二位

Liu Guanxiong Second Class

雷震春特授以勋三位

Lei Zhenchun Third Class

施从滨晋授勋三位

Shi Congbin Third Class

1913年09月08日

张文生晋授勋三位

Zhang Wensheng Third Class

殷恭先晋授勋四位

Yin Gongxian Fourth Class

白宝山、陈德修、方更生特授以勋五位

Bai Baoshan, Chen Dexiu, Fang Gengsheng Fifth Class

1913年09月10日

王怀庆、李钦特授以勋五位

Wang Huaiqing, Li Qin Fifth Class

1913年09月11日

李际春特授以勋五位

Li Jichun Fifth Class

1913年09月14日

杨善德特授以勋三位

Yang Shande Third Class

何丰林特授以勋四位

He Fenglin Fourth Class

吴长植、刘起垣、潘鸿钧、张克瑶特授以勋五位

Wu Zhangzhi, Liu Qiyuan, Pan Hongjun Zhang Keyao Fifth Class

1913年09月19日

徐宝珍授以勋五位

Xu Baozhen Fifth Class

1913年09月22日

覃师范特授以勋五位

Tan Shifan Fifth Class

1913年10月02日,

夏炎甲特授以勋五位

Xia Yanjia Fifth Class

1913年10月10日

世续、徐世昌、赵秉钧特授以勋一位

Shi Xu, Xu Shichang, Zhao Bingjun First Class

朱瑞、蔡锷、胡景伊、唐继尧、阎锡山、张凤翙、张锡銮、倪嗣冲、张镇芳、周自齐、陈宦特授以勋二位

Zhu Rui, Cai E, Hu Jingyi, Tang Jiyao, Yan Xishan, Zhang Fenghui, Zhang Xiluan, Ni Sichong, Zhang Zhenfang, Zhou Ziqi, Chen Huan Second Class

汤芗铭晋授勋二位

Tang Xiangming Second Class

蒋尊簋、孙毓筠、庄蕴宽特授以勋三位

Jiang Zun Gui, Sun Yuyun, Zhuang Yunkuan Third Class

张绍曾、陆建章特授以勋四位

Zhang Shaoceng, Lu Jianzhang Fourth Class

屈映光特授以勋五位

Qu Yingguang Fifth Class

1913年10月15日

张殿如特授以勋五位

Zhang Dianru Fifth Class

1913年10月16日

黄士龙特授以勋五位

Huang Shilong Fifth Class

1913年10月20日,

杨增新特授以勋三位

Yang Zengxin Third Class

1913年10月27日

张载阳、徐乐尧特授以勋五位

Zhang Zaiyang, Xu Leyao Fifth Class

1913年10月29日

蒋雁行、马毓宝特授以勋四位

Jiang Yanhang, Ma Yubao Fourth Class

1913年10月31日

周骏特授以勋四位

Zhou Jun Fourth class

张毅、刘存厚、彭光烈、孙兆鸾、陈廷杰特授以勋五位

Zhang Yi, Liu Cunhou, Peng Guanglie, Sun Zhaoluan, Chen Tingjie Fifth Class

1913年11月07日

米振标晋授勋三位

Mi Zhenbiao Third Class

张殿如晋授勋四位

Zhang Dianru Fourth Class

1913年11月10日

陈镇藩、孙发绪特授以勋五位

Chen Zhenfan, Sun Faxu Fifth Class

1913年11月14日

常德盛特授以勋五位

Chang Desheng Fifth Class

1913年11月23日

蒋作宾、史久光特授以勋五位

Jiang Zuobin, Shi Jiuguang Fifth Class

1913年11月29日

吴俊升晋授勋三位

Wu Junsheng Third Class

1913年11月30日

王汝贤、康永胜、尹凤山、赵清衢特授以勋五位

Wang Ruxian, Kang Yongsheng, Yin Fengshan, Zhao Qingqu Fifth Class

1913年12月20日

申保亨、张建功特授以勋五位

Shen Baoheng, Zhang Jiangong Fifth Class

1913年12月23日

赵尔巽特授以勋二位

Zhao Er Xun Second Class

1914年01月01日

阮忠枢特授以勋三位

Ruan Zhongshu Third Class

唐在礼、蓝天蔚特授以勋四位

Tang Zaili, Lan Tianwei Fourth Class

蒋作宾晋授勋四位

Jiang Zuobin Fourth Class

梁士讦、李燮和特授以勋五位

Liang Shijie, Li Xiehe Fifth Class

1914年01月10日

梅馨特授以勋五位

Mei Xin Fifth Class

1914年01月17日,

向瑞琮特授以勋五位

Xiang Ruicong Fifth Class

1914年01月30日

陈文运特授以勋五位

Chen Wenyun Fifth Class

1914年02月08日

谢汝翼特授以勋五位

Xie Ruyi Fifth Class

1914年04月25日

萧良臣特授以勋五位

Xiao Liangchen Fifth Class

1914年06月27日

李绍臣特授以勋五位

Li Shaochen Fifth Class

1914年08月09日

刘镇华特授以勋五位

Liu Zhenhua Fifth Class

1914年08月20日

宝德全特授以勋五位

Bao Dequan Fifth Class

1914年09月04日

韩麟春特授以勋五位

Han Linchun Fifth Class

1914年10月08日

王揖唐、杨度特授以勋四位

Wang Yitang, Yang Du Fourth Class

1914年10月21日

张作霖晋授勋四位

Zhang Zuolin Fourth Class

1914年11月15日

王纯良特授以勋五位

Wang Chunliang Fifth Class

1915年01月02日张弧特授以勋四位

傅良佐、陆锦、章遹骏、袁乃宽特授以勋五位

Fu Liangzuo, Lu Jin, Zhang Yujun, Yuan Naikuan Fifth Class

1915年01月13日

马存发特授以勋五位

Ma Cunfa Fifth Class

1915年01月31日

田作霖特授以勋五位

Tian Zuolin Fifth Class

1915年02月07日

田中玉特授以勋五位

Tian Zhongyu Fifth Class

1915年02月09日

赵倜晋授勋二位

Zhao Ti Second Class

1915年02月11日

周金城特授以勋五位

Zhou Jincheng Fifth Class

1915年02月22日

朱泮藻特授以勋五位

Zhu Panzao Fifth Class

1915年02月23日

龙觐光特授以勋五位

Long Jin Guang Fifth Class

1915年06月25日

徐尚武特授以勋五位

Xu Shangwu Fifth Class

1915年10月05日

陆征祥特授以勋三位

Lu Zhengxiang Third Class

曹汝霖特授以勋四位

Cao Rulin Fourth Class

1915年10月09日

施愚、顾螯、江朝宗、崑源、马龙标特授以勋四位

Shi Yu, Gu Ao, Jiang Chaozong, Kun Yuan, Ma Longbiao Fourth Class

张士钰、吴炳湘、王廷桢、李进才特授以勋五位

Zhang Shiyu, Wu Bingxiang, Wang Tingzhen, Li Jincai Fifth Class

1915年10月13日

荫昌特授以勋三位

Yin Chang Third Class

1915年10月18日

田文烈特授以勋三位

Tian Wenlie Third Class

1915年10月31日

李耀汉特授以勋五位

Li Yaohan Fifth Class

1915年11月10日

日本天皇特授以大勋位

Emperor of Japan Grand Class

1915年11月25日

白宝山特授以勋四位

Bai Baoshan Fourth Class

1915年12月04日

胡令宣特授以勋五位

Hu Lingxuan Fifth Class

1915年12月11日

萧良臣特授以勋四位

Xiao Liangchen Fourth Class

1915年12月15日

杨善德晋授勋二位

Yang Shande Second Class

1915年12月23日

徐国樑、崔振魁、王桂林、邓瑶光特授以勋五位

Xu Guoliang, Cui Zhenkui, Wang Guilin, Deng Yaoguang Fifth Class

1916年01月08日

张.树田、卓特巴扎普、谭庆林特授以勋五位

Zhang Shutian, Zhuo Te Ba Zha Pu (Mongolian general Babu Jabu), Tan Qinglin Fifth Class

1916年01月17日

殷贵特授以勋五位

Yin Gui Fifth Class

1916年01月23日

刘友才特授以勋五位

Liu Youcai Fifth Class

1916年02月15日

博克多哲布尊丹巴呼图克图汗特授以大勋位

Bogd Khan of (Outer) Mongolia Grand Class Rank and Merit

1916年02月24日

周骏特授以勋三位

Zhou Jun Third Class

戴桢、刘虎臣、阎相文特授以勋五位

Dai Zhen, Liu Huchen, Yan Xiangwen Fifth Class

1916年02月25日

杨增新晋授勋二位

Yang Zengxin Second Class

1916年02月27日,

张鹏舞特授以勋五位

Zhang Pengwu Fifth Class

1916年03月07日

李文富特授以勋四位

Li Wenfu Fourth Class

1916年03月09日

张敬尧晋授三位

Zhang Jinyao Third Class

1916年03月11日

杨起元特授以勋五位

Yang Qiyuan Fifth Class

1916年03月13日

刘湘特授以勋五位

Liu Xiang Fifth Class

1916年03月21日

齐燮元特授以勋四位

Qi Xieyuan Fourth Class

1916年03月27日

黄鵠举特授以勋五位

Huang Huju Fifth Class

1916年04月04日

刘一清、杜文泳、张庆云特授以勋五位

Liu Yiqing, Du Wenyong, Zhang Qingyun Fifth Class

1916年04月08日

周文炳特授以勋四位

Zhou Wenbing Fourth Class

卢金山、李福林特授以勋五位

Lu Jinshan, Li Fulin Fifth Class

1916年04月15日

王陵基、吴恒瓒、宫邦铎特授以勋五位

Wang Lingji, Wu Hengzan, Gong Bangduo Fifth Class

1916年04月17日

张中和特授以勋五位

Zhang Zhonghe Fifth Class

1916年04月18日

马福祥特授以勋四位

Ma Fuxiang Fourth Class

1916年04月23日,

黄国樑、赵戴文特授以勋五位

Huang Guoliang, Zhao Daiwen Fifth Class

1916年04月24日

管云臣特授以勋五位

Guan Yunchen Fifth Class

1916年04月29日

熊祥生、吴新田特授以勋五位

Xiong Xiangsheng, Wu Xintian Fifth Class

1916年05月03日,

田树勋、王承斌特授以勋五位

Tian Shuxun, Wang Chengbin Fifth Class

1916年05月05日

萧良臣特授以勋三位

Xiao Liangchen Third Class

1916年05月10日

陆宗與特授以勋四位

Lu Zongyu Fourth Class

1916年05月12日

马鸿宾特授以勋五位

Ma Hongbin Fifth Class

1916年05月14日

马廉溥、姜占元特授以勋五位

Ma Lianpu, Jiang Zhanyuan Fifth Class

1916年05月24日

靳云鹏特授以勋二位

Jin Yunpeng Second Class

王学彦、马良特授以勋五位

Wang Xueyan, Ma Liang Fifth Class

1916年05月30日

张作霖特授以勋三位

Zhang Zuolin Third Class

冯德麟特授以勋四位

Feng Delin Fourth Class

1916年07月06日

李烈钧特授以勋二位

Li Liejun (Jiangxi warlord allied to Guomindang, revolt against Yuan Shikai) Second Class

1916年10月09日

孙文特授以大勋位

Sun Wen Grand Class Rank and Merit

蔡锷、唐继尧、陆荣廷、梁启超、黄兴、岑春煊特授以勋一位

荫昌、曹锟、刘显世、王占元、吕公望、柏文蔚、吴俊陞、张敬尧、胡汉民特授以勋二位

Cai E (led revolt against Yuan), Tang Jiyao (Yunnan warlord allied to Cai E), Lu Rongting (Guangxi Warlord), Liang Qichao, Huang Xing, Cen Chunxuan, Te Shouyi, Xun Yiwei, Yin Chang, Cao Kun, Liu Xianshi, Wang Zhanyuan, Lu Gongwang, Bai Wenwei, Wu Junsheng, Zhang Jingyao, Hu Hanmin (Guomindang) Second Class

TOTAL AWARDS

Grand Class – 6

First Class – 10

Second Class – 51

Third Class – 38

Fourth Class – 41

Fifth Class – 121

TOTAL 267

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So some 267 awards were made between October 1912 and October 1916.

And possibly more may have been conferred - if Autengruber and Tammann are correct - until the defeat of the Beiyang Government by the Guomindang in 1928.

Almost all of the awards were made to Chinese citizens with only a tiny handful of foreign awards (to the Emperor of Japan and Bogd Khan of Outer Mongolia).

This could explain why so few of these have appeared in the West. Yet they are also extremely rare in China.

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So some 267 awards were made between October 1912 and October 1916.

With such small number it's a miracle we see these babies at all. Especially in higher classes ;)

Excellent statistical review! :cheers:

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Zhang Zongchang (the "Dogmeat General") is photographed wearing the Fifth Class Order of Rank and Merit. Zhang rose to prominence in the Second Zhili-Fengtian War (1924) when he helped his sponsor Zhang Zuolin defeat Cao Kun and Wu Beifu.

The 1912-1916 listings don't include Zhang's Rank and Merit so this is evidence that the Order continued to be awarded after 1916 and most likely right up to the defeat of the Beiyang warlords by the Guomintang in 1928.

It's likely that awards tapered off after the 1912-16 period for two reasons. First, 1912-16 would have included a flush of awards to the revolutionary generals and others who helped overthrow the Qing Dynasty. Second, 1912-16 was a period when the central government still retained some authority and good relations with the provincial warlords. This changed once the country fragmented and the southern provinces broke away.

Even if we extrapolate the same rate of awards for 1912-16 out to 1928, we're looking at less than 1000 awards in total. The actual number is likely to have been considerably less.

Edited by drclaw

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Front and reverse of a badge sold on Yahoo Japan for 2.3 million yen which is approx USD 22,000 or GBD 13,600.

Personally, I think it would have easily sold for double that if it had appeared at one of the London auction sales.

It is a Second Class (9 pearls in total including the centre pearl). If awarded between 1912-16, it would have been accompanied by a title of nobility of Marquis - Bing hou qin (丙 侯亲) or Hou

Thanks Rich for spotting this.

http://gmic.co.uk/uploads/monthly_03_2014/post-11630-0-63784600-1395610733.jpghttp://gmic.co.uk/uploads/monthly_03_2014/post-11630-0-69395300-1395610742.jpg

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It is a Second Class (9 pearls in total including the centre pearl). If awarded between 1912-16, it would have been accompanied by a title of nobility of Marquis - Bing hou qin (丙 侯亲) or Hou

Only it is 3rd class ;)

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Nope, it's a Second Class. From post #81.

-----

The Order was conferred in six classes for meritorious service to the Republic:

· Grand Class (Da Xun Wei, 大勋位);

· First Class (Xun Yi Wei, 勋一位);

· Second Class (Xun Er Wei, 勋二位);

· Third Class (Xun San Wei, 勋三位);

· Fourth Class (Xun Si Wei, 勋四位); and

· Fifth Class (Xun Wu Wei, 勋五位)

The insignia was virtually identical to the earlier Imperial Nobility Badge with some minor but symbolic differences. The color of the center medallion was changed from yellow (representing the Emperor) to red (representing the majority Han Chinese).

The badge was gilded silver and all the stones pearls. The classes were differentiated by the total number of pearls including the center pearl stone: Grand Cordon (13 pearls), First Class (11 pearls), Second Class (9 pearls), Third Class (7 pearls), Fourth Class (5 pearls) and Fifth Class (3 pearls).

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Yup, straight from the original Decree. I think the confusion arose in some of the subsequent literature.

The Striped Tiger, Golden Grain, White Eagle, Precious Brilliant Golden Grain follow the usual categories: 1st Class, 2nd Class, 3rd Class, etc, although confusingly the Golden Grain has a 2nd Class Cordon award and 2nd Class without the Cordon.

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