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Rusty Greaves

Egypt Khedivate Judge's Badge question

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On 03/05/2018 at 13:54, Rusty Greaves said:

Below is an Egyptian medal commemorating the termination of the Mixed Courts in October 1949 (they were initially established in October of 1875), and the unification of the Egyptian Court system. I have a couple questions about signatures & hallmarks on these medals. The first example from Sixbid.com/Stephen Album Rare Coins may be silver, see the hallmarks on the reverse below. All 3 examples have a signature under the R shoulder of the obverse Farouk I bust, and I wonder if anyone knows who this may identify as the medallist? The signature appears to be similar to that on the Egyptian 1955 five pound coin showing Tutankhamun riding in a chariot with a drawn bow (underneath the forequarters of the horse), also on the 3rd & 5th Anniversary of the Revolution 1 pound Egyptian coin, and is a design very similar to that on the Republic of Egypt Military Medal of Courage (lacking this signature on the obverse). The 2 examples from eBay are bronze, they lack the hallmarks seen on the Sixbid.com/Stephen Album Rare Coins medal, and the eBay listing identifies the "STB" signature, seen on all 3 medals on the inferior of the reverse to the R of "MIXTE", as that of Tewfik Bichay. Is that a signature Bichay used? The engraving of this medal seems much less fine than any other Bichay commemorative pieces I have seen.

3944922l.jpg

This 1949 medal from an auction taking place on 18 May, 2018 on Sixbid.com/Stephen Album Rare Coins (lot 1776) shows King Farouk I on the obverse and the inscription of the commemoration of the end of the Mixed Courts and judicial symbols. I am unclear what the symbolism of the R side of the design may be that is overlapping with the scales of justice? The medal is identified as 42 mm in diameter weighting 32.27 g, no material is identified, but note the hallmarks on the inferior margin of the reverse to the L of "MIXTE" suggesting this is a silver medal. (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=4785&category=141394&lot=3944922


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Two of these medals are offered on a current eBay listing by egynotes_74. Both are identified as 43 mm in diameter, variably weighing 27.27 (shown above) and 27.32 g. Both of these eBay medals are identified as bronze and lack any hallmarks seen on the silver example above. The example shown above is supposedly identified as being the work of Tewfik Bichay because of the "STB" hallmark on the inferior portion of the reverse. (https://www.ebay.ie/itm/EGYPT-BRONZE-MEDAL-OF-KING-FAROUK-1949-MIXTE-NE-EXTREMELY-RARE/222926942423?hash=item33e77b30d7:g:X1kAAMXQyY1TV6cB) - this example is shown above & (https://www.ebay.ie/itm/EGYPT-BRONZE-MEDAL-OF-KING-FAROUK-1949-MIXTE-EXTREMELY-RARE/222944960504?hash=item33e88e1ff8:g:afAAAOxyoA1RSx18)

Incidentally, the 4th photo in my April 27 post on this thread showing Youssef Zulficar Pasha talking with Aly Maher Pasha, also is of interest to my research on the Mixed Courts. Zulficar was a judge on the Mixed Courts beginning in 1926 and became vice President of the Alexandria Court of Appeals. In addition to being father of Queen Farida of Egypt (married to King Farouk I), Zulficar married Zainab Sa'id, the daughter of former Prime Minister Muhammad Sa'id Pasha, and she was the sister of the influential modernist artist Mahmud Sa'id (who painted the portrait of the President of the Appeals Court, Jasper Brinton, shown in my post on this thread of 1 December, 2016). As I've noted elsewhere in this thread, Mahmud Sai'd also was a judge on the Mixed Courts. Although Mahmud Sa'id is currently quite well-known for his paintings that can command high auction prices, he was never a professional artist, his work on the Mixed Courts was his profession.  At least one of my posts incorrectly says he only served on the courts for a short time. Sa'id joined the Mixed Courts in 1922 as an Assistant Judge, he then served as a Judge on the District Courts of Mansourah in 1927, and in Alexandria from 1937 until resigning in 1947 at age 50. Youssef Zulficar is controversial for his sympathies with the Axis powers during the early potion of WWII, making several communications with the Germans regarding King Farouk's potential interest in alliance with the Axis, and delivering one communique about the upcoming British & Soviet invasion of Iran, while serving as the Egyptian Ambassador to Iran (1939-41). Zulfikar was initially opposed to his daughter's marriage to Farouk, and later drew Farouk I's ire by discussing the marriage and 1948 divorce following the King's abdication. 

I believe that the signature S.T.B is Sadek Tewfik Bichay, who was the brother of Fahmy Tewfik Bichay. 

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On 03/05/2018 at 13:54, Rusty Greaves said:

Below is an Egyptian medal commemorating the termination of the Mixed Courts in October 1949 (they were initially established in October of 1875), and the unification of the Egyptian Court system. I have a couple questions about signatures & hallmarks on these medals. The first example from Sixbid.com/Stephen Album Rare Coins may be silver, see the hallmarks on the reverse below. All 3 examples have a signature under the R shoulder of the obverse Farouk I bust, and I wonder if anyone knows who this may identify as the medallist? The signature appears to be similar to that on the Egyptian 1955 five pound coin showing Tutankhamun riding in a chariot with a drawn bow (underneath the forequarters of the horse), also on the 3rd & 5th Anniversary of the Revolution 1 pound Egyptian coin, and is a design very similar to that on the Republic of Egypt Military Medal of Courage (lacking this signature on the obverse). The 2 examples from eBay are bronze, they lack the hallmarks seen on the Sixbid.com/Stephen Album Rare Coins medal, and the eBay listing identifies the "STB" signature, seen on all 3 medals on the inferior of the reverse to the R of "MIXTE", as that of Tewfik Bichay. Is that a signature Bichay used? The engraving of this medal seems much less fine than any other Bichay commemorative pieces I have seen.

3944922l.jpg

This 1949 medal from an auction taking place on 18 May, 2018 on Sixbid.com/Stephen Album Rare Coins (lot 1776) shows King Farouk I on the obverse and the inscription of the commemoration of the end of the Mixed Courts and judicial symbols. I am unclear what the symbolism of the R side of the design may be that is overlapping with the scales of justice? The medal is identified as 42 mm in diameter weighting 32.27 g, no material is identified, but note the hallmarks on the inferior margin of the reverse to the L of "MIXTE" suggesting this is a silver medal. (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=4785&category=141394&lot=3944922


s-l1600-1.jpg

s-l1600-2.jpg

Two of these medals are offered on a current eBay listing by egynotes_74. Both are identified as 43 mm in diameter, variably weighing 27.27 (shown above) and 27.32 g. Both of these eBay medals are identified as bronze and lack any hallmarks seen on the silver example above. The example shown above is supposedly identified as being the work of Tewfik Bichay because of the "STB" hallmark on the inferior portion of the reverse. (https://www.ebay.ie/itm/EGYPT-BRONZE-MEDAL-OF-KING-FAROUK-1949-MIXTE-NE-EXTREMELY-RARE/222926942423?hash=item33e77b30d7:g:X1kAAMXQyY1TV6cB) - this example is shown above & (https://www.ebay.ie/itm/EGYPT-BRONZE-MEDAL-OF-KING-FAROUK-1949-MIXTE-EXTREMELY-RARE/222944960504?hash=item33e88e1ff8:g:afAAAOxyoA1RSx18)

Incidentally, the 4th photo in my April 27 post on this thread showing Youssef Zulficar Pasha talking with Aly Maher Pasha, also is of interest to my research on the Mixed Courts. Zulficar was a judge on the Mixed Courts beginning in 1926 and became vice President of the Alexandria Court of Appeals. In addition to being father of Queen Farida of Egypt (married to King Farouk I), Zulficar married Zainab Sa'id, the daughter of former Prime Minister Muhammad Sa'id Pasha, and she was the sister of the influential modernist artist Mahmud Sa'id (who painted the portrait of the President of the Appeals Court, Jasper Brinton, shown in my post on this thread of 1 December, 2016). As I've noted elsewhere in this thread, Mahmud Sai'd also was a judge on the Mixed Courts. Although Mahmud Sa'id is currently quite well-known for his paintings that can command high auction prices, he was never a professional artist, his work on the Mixed Courts was his profession.  At least one of my posts incorrectly says he only served on the courts for a short time. Sa'id joined the Mixed Courts in 1922 as an Assistant Judge, he then served as a Judge on the District Courts of Mansourah in 1927, and in Alexandria from 1937 until resigning in 1947 at age 50. Youssef Zulficar is controversial for his sympathies with the Axis powers during the early potion of WWII, making several communications with the Germans regarding King Farouk's potential interest in alliance with the Axis, and delivering one communique about the upcoming British & Soviet invasion of Iran, while serving as the Egyptian Ambassador to Iran (1939-41). Zulfikar was initially opposed to his daughter's marriage to Farouk, and later drew Farouk I's ire by discussing the marriage and 1948 divorce following the King's abdication. 

 

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S.T.B is Sadek Tewfik Bichay who was the brother of Fahmy Tewfik Bichay.

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Thanks for your input on this! Would that be a reason for the quality difference compared with other Bichay medals? 

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Posted (edited)

The portrait of King Farouk I on the medal commemorating the termination of the mixed courts in 1949 shown above, is the model of for a portrait on another medal issued in 1950 under Fuad I celebrating the 25th anniversary of Fuad I University (1925-1950). The university was founded in 1908 and know as the Egyptian University until 1940. It was named Fuad I University (until 1952) in his honor, since it became a public institution under his reign in 1925. Currently, it is known as Cairo University. This commemorative medal adds a bust portrait of Fuad I behind and to the right of Farouk I. The illustrated example is from current eBay auction (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-KING-FUAD-FAROUK-MEDAL-25TH-ANNIVERSARY-OF-FOUAD-UNIVERSITY-1950-RARE/222970807446?hash=item33ea188496%3Ag%3AQXwAAOSw3ydVyhKg&_pgn=4&_nkw=egypt+medal&rt=nc) that identifies the manufacturer as Bichay and adds the name "M. Farag" as another manufacturer (does that name mean anything to more knowledgable folks or is this a confoundingg of some aspect of the inscription?). An example of this bronze medal on Worthpoint (https://www.worthpoint.com/worthopedia/1925-1950-king-fouad-farouk-bronze-403321281) identifies the manufacturer as solely Maison Bichay, it gives the diameter as 60 mm (same as the eBay listing) and weight of 77.6 g.  No "STB" hallmark is visible on any photos I've seen of this medal.

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Obverse of the King Fuad I and Farouk I medal commemorating the 25 yr jubilee of Fuad I University (now Cairo University) in 1950 showing the same bust portrait of Farouk I as in the 1949 medal commemorating the closing of the Mixed Courts made by Bichay. 

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Reverse of the university anniversary commemorative medial. 

Edited by Rusty Greaves

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Here is another example of the silver Parquet judges' badge from a recent auction on eMedals. This badge is identified as 113 mm high X 85 mm wide, and made by Froment-Meurice of Paris. There is no maker's mark on the reverse of the badge, but the case clearly identifies Froment-Meurice on the inside of the cover.

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The example below with damage to the central legend is from a recent  offering on Lundin Antiques also is silver, measured as 112 X 85 mm, but interestingly is identified as coming from the courts in Alexandria. As a silver badge, it probably derives from the Parquet as well (http://www.lundinantique.com/medals.html) . 

judge_badge_from_alexandria_court_of_justice_326604.jpg.8fa71c674eabe95f00214b051995fa66.jpg

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I have a small amount of information related to the 2 studio portraits of the Egyptian judge that I posted on 27, October 2017 (and re-posted below here). The signature in the lower right of each portrait is that of the studio, Jean Weinberg of Cairo. An image of the reverse of the first portrait is reproduced below that portrait.  https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-JUDGE-WITH-SCARF-AND-MEDAL-JEAN-WEINBRCE-CAIRO/312199905275?_trkparms=aid%3D222007%26algo%3DSIM.MBE%26ao%3D1%26asc%3D52935%26meid%3D00c834136082464b8a1f03494b4e0efc%26pid%3D100010%26rk%3D4%26rkt%3D12%26sd%3D273338376524%26itm%3D312199905275&_trksid=p2047675.c100010.m2109

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I also have seen a few images of judges from the early post-Mixed Courts period (after 1949) that show a range of mixed configurations of the sashes, and the Ottoman crescent & star emblems attached to those sashes. All of these come from the photographic inventory of shebacoin on current eBay auctions. I do not know if these represent formal regalia distinctions associated with different courts, legal roles, experience & rank, or idiosyncratic choices by these judges, or possibly other kinds of court employees. The first image is a portrait of a Republic period judge, possibly taken in the 1950s.

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This is a photo of a Republic of Egypt judge, apparently wearing the sash of the Appeals Court. Although there is no date identified for this photo, it is likely an "early" post-1953 Republic-era portrait. Attached to the sash is the Saladin Eagle and 3 stars as seen in the illustrations of modern Egyptian Judges (see the last, 4th, image in my post of April 27, 2018). The regalia differs only in the placement of 2 stars below the Eagle, as opposed to all 3 appearing above the eagle in photos of current Egyptian judges. Note the similarity of the decorative knot on the sash to that of the Mixed Court or Native Court judge in the Weinberg Studio portrait above (also from shebacoin's eBay inventory), and the modern Egyptian judges shown in my posts of 1 November, 2017, and April 27, 2018. https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-Judge-with-the-scarf/273416587171?hash=item3fa8e607a3:g:dKkAAOSwK6NbebRb

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The sash of the above post-1949 judge is not a configuration I have seen before, only the form is similar to that above. I have not seen such a clear image of a bicolored sash, but it may be similar to the sash of the judge in the following portrait. It is identified as an Egyptian judge. The single star is see only in 1 other judge's portrait I have come across (also the next portrait illustrated below). https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-A-small-judge-wearing-a-scarf/312191646480?hash=item48b0127b10:g:UMcAAOSw0S9bThIn

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This studio portrait is identified  as coming from an Armenian studio, and portraying a post-1949 era Egyptian judge. The sash appears to be bicolored (and may be similar to that of the Judges sash above), and is reminiscent of the sash worn by Judge Apostolo N. Gennaropoulo of the Mixed Court's Parquet that I illustrated on 24 March, 2017. I originally interpreted Judge Gennaropoulo's sash as bicolored, but have changed my mind based on the color image of a sash that I illustrated on 27 April, 2018 and the image of Judge Michael Hansson that I posted on 3 May, 2018. This image, and probably the above image as well, are the only photos I have seen that shows the decorative sash knot for a lower court (below the Appeals Court) sash configuration, suggesting that it may be a component of several lower court regalia, possibly pre-1949 as well. https://www.ebay.com/itm/Old-Armenian-photographer-in-Egypt-Judge-with-the-scarf-PHOTO-VARIJABEDIAN/273203620917?hash=item3f9c346c35:g:zm0AAOSwf95a80zw

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The above portrait shows a man identified as an Egyptian judge wearing a tricolored sash (or bicolored with a differently colored central stripe as shown in the color sash image from my post of 27 April, 2018; possibly in the photo of Judge Gennaropoulo's posted on 24 March, 2017; and in the black & white image of Judge Hansson that I posted on 3 May, 2018) with multiple stars of two different sizes. As seen in the other photos, this is a post-1949 period judge prior to the 1953 establishment of the Republic. The only other portrait of a judge with multiple stars in 2 sizes is shown in the second portrait of my 27 April, 2018 post, showing 3 smaller stars below the crescent, & 1 larger star and 3 smaller stars above the crescent (this judge also wears a pleated, apparently single colored sash with the decorative sash knot that probably also has gold metallic thread decorations). The configuration of 3 stars, usually above the crescent, is the most common insignia in portraits of post-1949 judicial regalia, and is retained in modern Egyptian judicial insignia. This judge wears a turban rather than a Tarboosh, and his traditional "long shirt" (gallebaya) in a dark-color, rather than the western-style coat shown in all other images I have seen of post-1949 Egyptian judges, or the high-necked narrow-collared coat of the Mixed International Courts (and probably the "Native" or National Courts) before 1949. This eBay seller has 2 additional images of this same judge: one working in his office in a turban and a lighter-colored gallebaya without his judge's sash and emblems, & a further image of him outside in that same outfit (native garment-gallebaya, and turban) also without any judicial regalia. https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-Judge-with-the-scarf/273147885787?hash=item3f98e1f8db:g:5lkAAOSw13ZayXDv

 

 

Edited by Rusty Greaves

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I have determined what part of the design on the reverse of the 1949 King Farouk I medal commemorating the closing of the Mixed Courts of Egypt represents. In my post on this thread of 3 May, 2018 I noted what was, at least to me, a puzzling design element on the R side of the reverse of this medal; a "triangle" overlapping with the scales of justice and the portion right of that to the margin of the medal. I am including an image of the reverse of the bronze version of that medal, designed by Sadek Tewfik Bichay, in this post below as a reference. 

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Reverse of the 1949 King Farouk medal commemorating the closure of the Egyptian Mixed Courts. (https://www.ebay.ie/itm/EGYPT-BRONZE-MEDAL-OF-KING-FAROUK-1949-MIXTE-NE-EXTREMELY-RARE/222926942423?hash=item33e77b30d7:g:X1kAAMXQyY1TV6cB)

The "triangle" is a portion of an image used on a commemorative stamp that was issued on 14 October, 1949 to observe the closure of the Mixed International Courts. The "triangle" is simply a representation of a turned-over portion of a page or banner from the stamp's design (shown below) that apparently has been used by Sadek Tewfik Bichay for the motif elements on the reverse of this medal. This is clear in the images of the stamp commemorating the 1949 ending of the Mixed Court system. The stamp's design also makes it apparent that the central element of the scales of justice (the pillar of the balance) represents the double-edged sword symbol, common in western depictions of Lady Justice (and in use in Egypt as the pillar of the scales of justice), that often is identified as a representation of reason,  the power of law, and the double-edged configuration is used to suggest the impartiality of the law. 

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Block of 4 Egyptian stamps from a current eBay auction showing the design adapted for use on the reverse of the Farouk I medal commemorating the termination of the Mixed Courts.From a current eBay auction: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-1949-Abolition-of-Mixed-Courts-Control-Block-MNH/142950418402?ssPageName=STRK%3AMEBIDX%3AIT&_trksid=p2060353.m1438.l2649

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First day cover (14 October, 1949) envelope from Alexandria, Egypt commemorating the end of the Mixed Courts. The dates below the scales of justice identify the date of origin of the Mixed Courts (1875 AD) and their end date (1949 AD). From a current eBay auction: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-1949-Abolition-of-Mixed-Courts-First-Day-Cover-FDC-Alex-CDs-Rare/142957707271?ssPageName=STRK%3AMEBIDX%3AIT&_trksid=p2060353.m1438.l2649

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An English language version that is probably a first day cover (the date is unclear in the postmark, but the envelope identifies this as a first day cover on the lower left, and the address to a philatelist also suggests this probably is a first day cover) from Cairo commemorating the abolition of the Mixed Courts. The sword of justice can be seen here as the pillar of the balance. The hilt matches the design on the Cairo High Court of Justice (see next photo). From an August 2018 eBay auction: https://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/EGYPT-1949-POSSIBLE-FDC-OFFICIAL-COVER-STAMP-ISSUED-ABOLITION-OF-MIXED-COURTS-/273386954439?nma=true&si=cPHwS%2FtTJRlY2xkoq1HOZakCN%2Bw%3D&orig_cvip=true&nordt=true&rt=nc&_trksid=p2047675.l2557

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The Egyptian High Court of Justice in downtown Cairo showing the symbolism of the sword of justice used as the pillar of the sales of justice on either side of the frontispiece of the building. As Egyptian Zogist noted in this thread on 16 November, 2016, the inscription (translated by Egyptian Zogst as "justice is the foundation of kingship/governance") is the same motto as appears on the judges' badges for the Mixed Courts (shown in the next image below). From Wikipedia: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Egyptian_High_Court_of_Justice.jpg

928156605_judgesbadgeSpinkSoncopy.thumb.jpg.a7b50a670c7c955a2b10d3c8e8716e1f.jpg

Enameled motto on a silver Parquet form of the judicial badge of the Egyptian Mixed Courts. This is a close up of a portion of the badge shown in my post on this thread of 6 December, 2017 from a Spink & Son auction (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-us/auction-catalogues/spink/catalogue-id-srspi10156/lot-63685e70-7557-48b1-aabf-a83200b99d8c)

 

Edited by Rusty Greaves

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