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Rusty Greaves

Egypt Khedivate Judge's Badge question

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Gentlemen, I have a question regarding the Khedivate Judges Badge in Egypt. My wife's great grandfather was appointed to the international court (the Mixed Courts) in Egypt and served between 1911-1936. Unfortunately the family does have this badge, the illustration I am providing comes from a different source. There was a discussion in May, 2011 on GMIC regarding an example a member had obtained (link quoted here). I am curious whether someone would be kind enough to translate the enamelled inscription on this badge? I am including a photograph of my wife's great grandfather (Pierre Crabites) in his judicial robes wearing this badge. 

Khedivate Egypt Judicial Badge.jpgPierre Crabites.jpg 

Edited by Rusty Greaves
minor spelling edit

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Gentlemen, I may have found a translation of the inscription of this badge, but would appreciate any confirmation from scholars using this site. I have located a statement about the Khedive Judges' badge inscription and a description of the judical robes for the International Mixed Courts (matching the black & white image of my wife's great grandfather in my previous post). This description includes variants on the sash colors and badge metals for different roles in the Mixed Courts. The information was described by Richard Beardsley, the Consul General for the US in Cairo from 1870 -1876, in a letter date July 15, 1875 to Hamilton Fish, the US Secretary of State from 1869-1877: " The judicial dress adopted for the judges is very simple. It consists of a plain suit of black cloth, the coat single-breasted, buttoning up to the neck, with a narrow standing collar. Over the shoulder and around the body is worn a broad scarf, to which is attached a large and very handsome badge of office. The badge consists of a shield resting upon a drapery, bearing various appropriate devices, from beneath which radiate the rays of a many-pointed star. On the shield is engraved in Arabic " Law is the foundation of justice." The red fez cap, the national head-dress, is worn on the head. The scarf worn by the judges of appeal is green and the badge of pure gold; of first instance, the scarf is red and the badge of gold and silver combined; and of the bar or parquet the scarf is red and white, and the badge of silver." I hope this information may also be of interest to other individuals on GMIC. 

(source =  EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 1875-'76. WASHINGTON:  GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 1876; PAPERS RELATED TO FOREIGN RELATIONS The United States, TRANSMITTED TO CONGRESS, WITH THE ANNUAL MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT,  DECEMBER 6, 1875. PRECEDED BY A LIST OF PAPERS AND FOLLOWED BY AN INDEX OF PERSONS AND SUBJECTS. VOLUME II. WASHINGTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 1875. pp. 1347-1348)

 

Edited by Rusty Greaves
minor text edits

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As a clarification of the scarf (or sash, which is not really a "scarf" like the the French academic epitoge) colors and badge metal combinations, I did a tiny bit more sleuthing into the oraganization of the Mixed Courts of Egypt to be able to use the information in the Beardsley letter I quoted above. Another reference (Wilner, Gabriel M. 1975. The Mixed Courts of Egypt: a study on the use of natural law and equity. Georgia Journal of Internationa and Comaprative Law vol 5 (no 2): pp. 407-430) stated that the robes of the International Mixed Courts judges were the judicial robes used by appointed international judges in their home countries (ibid. pg 412). Perhaps this was true at the initiation of the Mixed Courts in 1875, but later information contradicts this statement, indicating the use of an Egyptian costume to emphasize the national interest in the Courts' roles and activities. The image of Judges' badges on various auction websites do seem to show variation, although their descriptions make it a bit unclear. The Mixed Courts' Court of Appeals was considered the highest court, and (according to Beardsley's description) its sash was green and the badge is gold. For the District Courts (i.e., Alexandria, Cairo, etc), the sash color appears to have been red, and the badge was gold and silver (as shown in the image I included on the first post in this string). The purely silver badges of the Parquet that Beardsley mentions refers to was a group of Magistrature debout, who worked under the Procureur General to prosecute case on behalf of the state and to be a guardian of the public order, primarily supervision over litigation of cases of public interest (especially those affecting minors or recovery of dowries by wives). 

Edited by Rusty Greaves
minor edit

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On 11/21/2016 at 22:31, Rusty Greaves said:

" On the shield is engraved in Arabic " Law is the foundation of justice."

Another very nice piece! I've actually seen one of these before in the royal collections museum in the Abdine Palace complex. 

The inscription is actually "العدل أساس الملك" meaning "justice is the foundation of kingship/governance". This motto is still seen today in courts in Egypt, whether on judges' benches or as architectural decor in court rooms. Here it is, below the scales/sword of justice design:

Always looking forward to seeing more posts!

518-The_lawyer_Madgy_Farouk_Saeed.jpg

Here is a very nice portrait of a judge wearing this badge. I haven't been able to identify the subject of the portrait, though. 

 

40588bf277058c03fc811ed25ee88086.jpg

 

I also think the design is influenced by the coat of arms of Louis-Philippe's so-called 'July Monarchy' in France (1830 - 1848), note the 'tablet of law' and the 'main de justice'.

 (image from www.heraldica.org)

monarchie_juillet.jpg

Edited by Egyptian Zogist

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Dear Egyptian Zogist, Many thanks for your translation and additional imagery! I really enjoyed the confirmation of the color scheme for the sash and the badge metal combination on the portrait you found. The Louis-Phillip coat of arms is quite interesting. The Mixed Courts in Egypt were based on adaptations of French law (discussed a bit in the Gabriel M. Wilner article 1975 I cited in a previous post), a partial legacy of the Napoleonic influences. Fluency in French was a requisite skill for judges appointed to the Mixed Courts (my wife's great grandfather was the son of a French immigrant  to the New Orleans community of français étrangers). All of this is of tremendous interest to my wife's family. I am spending thanksgiving with the grand daughters of Judge Crabites and they were thrilled at the additional information you and others on GMIC have provided and helped me find as well. This has been fun research. 

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Egyptian Zogist, I saw the judge's image that you posted here on Pinterest, is that where you came across it?  I noted it has  the incorrect identification as Abbas Hilmi II. I haven't found a way to get further on that yet. My only running idea is to chase down some additional images of George Sherman Batcheller, an American appointed to the District Court 1875-1885; 1897-1902, and an Appeals Court judge 1902-1908. There are apparently a couple painted portraits identified for him, he built an ornate mansion that he didn't get to live in, and had an elaborate Egyptian style-Mausoleaum built for himself in Saratoga Springs, NY- so he seems appropriately vain to sit for a judges portrait rather than a photographic one (such as my wife's great grandfather had done). The one post-Civil War photo I've found of Batcheller as a mature man has rough resemblances, but no clear match to the portrait you posted. Of course, there are many other potential judges with moustaches who could have been the subject of this portrait. I do not have a complete list of non-American or British judges to those courts. I found a portrait of Jasper Yeates Brinton, who was both a District and later Court of Appeals judge, who also wrote several articles about the Mixed Courts and the book: 1930 (1968 revised edition). The Mixed Courts of Egypt. Yale University Press, New Haven. The portrait is by the Egyptian modernist painter Mahmoud Said, who himself was briefly a judge on the international court.  The portrait is dated either 1944 or 1945, and is titled either "Portrait de Jasper Brinton" or "Portrait du Président: Jaspar Brinton". As you can see, the modernist style of the portrait provides a poor representation of the judges badge (except that it is gold), but shows the green sash worn by judges of the Court of Appeals. 

large.583fbc3a11130_JasperBrintonbyMahmoudSaid.jpg

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I would like to update my last posting with a few illustrations of the different badges and sashes that I have previously mentioned. I apologize for some redundancies with the above posts. For all these judgeships, at least in the early 20th century, the costume was a simple black tunic and a maroon fez. Each of the three different courts had a different colored silk sashes and badges made from different precious metals. The tablet legends on all badges are enamel. As noted, prior to the instigation of this system, judges wore the robes of their home countries and particular courts they had served. 

The Mixed Courts of Egypt were established in 1876 and were used until 1949. In place of the exclusive consular jurisdiction to which foreigners were formerly liable, a system of Mixed Tribunals was established in 1876. At least part of this was due to the increased presence of foreigners in Egypt associated with the cotton trade, following the decline of the US production during the Civil War, and probably construction of the Suez Canal. The judges for the Mixed Courts were Egyptians and foreigners from Europe and the United States (the latter generally appointed by the Khedive from qualified officials nominated by the European power and the US government). The Mixed Courts were based on the French civil code (Napoleonic Code), British common law, with additional elements from Islamic law.

For all these judgeships (in the Appeals Court, the District Courts, and the Parquet-the public prosecutor’s office), at least in the early 20th century until the end of the Mixed Courts, the costume was a simple black tunic with a standing collar, and a maroon fez. Initially, following the establishment of the Courts and probably throughout the

19th century, judges of the International Mixed Courts wore their own judicial robes used by each appointed international judge from their home countries. The costume change was apparently intentionally nationalistic, changing to a tunic and fez indicating the use of an Egyptian costume to emphasize the national interest in the Courts' roles and activities. Is there a proper term for this tunic? Each of the three different courts had a different colored silk sashes and badges made from different precious metals. The badge designs were all the same except for their materials. The tablet legends on all badges are enamel. 

The international Court of Appeals was the highest of the Mixed Courts (in Alexandria). The sash for this court was green and the judges’ badge was of gilt in gold (see badge illustration below and the previously posted portrait above on 12/1/2016 of Judge Jasper Brinton painted by the 20th century modernist painter Mahmoud Said, who was a judge on the Mixed Courts 1922-47, and his father was the Prime Minister of Egypt 1910-14 and May-November 1919). An additional small black & white image of a Greek member of the Appeals Court, Nicolas Cambas, wearing the tunic, sash and badge is published in Jasper Brintons book on teh Mixed Courts, cited above on 12/1/2016. For the District Courts (Alexandria, Cairo, and Mansourah-the latter held a session once a year in Port Said) the sash was red and the badge was gold and silver gilt ( see illustrated below-same as in my original post of 11/17/2016; and see the the color portrait posted by Egyptian Zogist on 11/23/2016; and the black & white photograph of Judge Pierre Crabitès in my original post of 11/17/2016). The sash for the Parquet (office of the Procureur-General who prosecuted cases in front of the Mixed Courts) was red and green and the badge is silver. The one illustration I have found so far of a parquet official was for Apostolo N. Gennaropoulo (of Greece) who served in Alexandria. The image shows the sash as having a green stripe as the upper margin of the sash that is ~1/3 the width of the red stripe below. Photos of him and his badge are shown below. These silver gilt badges appear to be the most common ones appearing on auction websites. 

The badges are large and heavy, ~ Width: 88 mm x Height: 117 mm; 161-172 gm. Abbas Hilmi II had the badge designed by Emile Froment-Meurice of Paris, the most famous jeweler in Paris at the time. Genuine examples were variously made for the courts by Froment-Meurice and several Egyptian manufacturers such as Lattes of Cairo, Bichay of Cairo, M. Laurencin & Cie. of Alexandria, and Stobbe in Alexandria. Some original badges were unmarked. The design of these badges remained unchanged throughout the entire period of their use. As noted by Egyptian Zogist in his post of 11/23/2016, apects of the obverse design derive from French iconography and Ottoman images (as the Khedivie represented an Ottoman viceroyalty ruling Egypt until Abbas Hilmi II was deposed and the remaining kings from this dynasty ruled under a British protectorate). Part of the badge design clearly derives from French iconography (see below), a borrowing from the influence of the Napoleonic code on Egyptian law. The drapery is considered a “pavillion”, the hand on the upper left is the “hand of justice”. The image of a scepter in the upper right may be derived from earlier versions depicting two knights representing two orders- Order of Saint-Michel and the Ordre du Saint-Esprit- were together known as the ordres du Roi with spears with standards held projecting above the pavilion. In the Mixed Courts judge’s badge, the hand of justice remains, and the other side is a whisk representing royal authority (like a scepter). I have been told that the small circular 'medallion' at the bottom of the badge bears the Ottoman Tughra and resembles the Order of Medjidie, its placement also appears to be related to the cross seen in the French royal arms (see below and image above from post by Egyptian Zogist on 11/23/2016).

I have seen and gotten several translations of the legend. That from Egyptian Zogist on 11/23/2016 is the most precise: "Justice is the foundation of kingship/governance".  His additional comments above on the continued use of this motto in Egypt are relevant.  

large.58d56a5fde418_JudgeHerbertMillsbadgeobverse.jpg.927cabffce7c63a5b3da9f65a0e1e70f.jpg

Silver gilt judges’ badge, identified as that of Herbert Hills of the Mixed Courts in Cairo. The silver of this badge indicates it was worn by a member of the Parquet, or the state prosecutor’s office, although Hills was a judge on the District Courts 1875-82 and on the Court of Appeals 1882-1904. Perhaps at this earlier period when the regalia changed from the previous use to the standardized Egyptian garb, the badge distinctions had not yet been fully established. It may also be that this is not Hillses badge, the named attribution appears to be based on a handwritten piece of paper attached to the reverse side of the badge. (Dreweatts Bloomsbury Auctions; lot 175; http://www.dreweatts.com/cms/pages/lot/13863/175)

large.58d56bb0bb6f9_istempire1804-14-emp.jpg.ff70a0d8d3b16a83e8edc272e07ebb2f.jpg

Arms of the first Empire (1804-14) showing elements included in the design of the Mixed Courts judges' badges

large.58d56ccc178b4_france-arms1814-302ndempire.jpg.b309d5476338a7133bdd7997d6bf897c.jpg

Arms of the monarchy of July (1830) showing elements included in the design of the Mixed Courts judges' badges.

large.58d560cf48fb9_JudgesBadgegoldobverse.jpg.601822bfe8585607d64d5b7c43e3babc.jpg

Gold gilt Judges’ Badge of the Mixed Court of Appeals, obverse view of badge with legend reading: "Justice is the foundation of kingship/governance".

large.58d561a47cb75_JudgesBadgegoldreverse.jpg.91e677e60cba2fe70cbaf25492a1643f.jpg

Gold gilt Judges’ Badge of the Mixed Court of Appeals, reverse view of badge. Maker's maker's is unclear, possibl' Froment Meurice of Paris, although the first two visible letters appear to be "MO...".

large.58d5655de137b_DistrictKhedivateEgyptJudicialBadge.jpg.4a754b728e4801be7f05bd6bee829e9a.jpg

Silver and gold gilt Judges’ Badge of the Mixed Court of Appeals, obverse and reverse view of badge. This example was made by Stobbe of Alexandria. 

large.58d567100e25a_SilverjudicialbadgeEgypt.jpg.3d0f42bbf5550398578eacd019f17f51.jpg

Silver gilt judges' and/or official's badge of the Parquet, or Procureur-General who prosecuted cases in front of the Mixed Courts, obverse view.

large.58d56807bebd8_Silverjudicialbadgereverse1.jpg.e7deb798b04427380c0f16a4dd6b4be2.jpg

ilver gilt judges' and/or official's badge of the Parquet, or Procureur-General who prosecuted cases in front of the Mixed Courts, reverse view. This example has no maker's mark, but is probably genuine.

large.s-l1600.jpg.cecf466d8085ac47f0c346d43a503eb5.jpg

Badge in case that that belonged to Apostolo N. Gennaropoulo (of Greece) of the Parquet attached to the Mixed Courts of Alexandria, Egypt and a photo of him in his official robes wearing the badge on his bi-colored sash of green over red. (http://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/OTTOMAN-EMPIRE-EGYPT-KHEDIVATE-JUDGE-039-S-BADGE-OF-OFFICE-FROMENT-MEURICE-W-BOX-/181500482691?_)

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I made an editing error in the illustration of the gold & silver gilt judge' badge for the Mixed Courts in my previous post. I can't find a way to correct that and a couple other text issues, but I will include the image (again, sorry) with the correct identification line. 

large.58d5655de137b_DistrictKhedivateEgyptJudicialBadge.jpg.4a754b728e4801be7f05bd6bee829e9a.jpg

Silver and gold gilt Judges’ Badge of the Mixed Court's District Courts (seated in Alexandria, Cairo, Mansourah, and Port Said), obverse and reverse view of badge. This example was made by Stobbe of Alexandria.

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I have encountered 2 photographs offered for sale on eBay that depict a judge either of the Appeals court or of the Parquet (office of the Procureur-General) showing the judicial regalia and badge that I am attaching here. The seller (who specializes in photos & misc. documents from Egypt & other areas of the Middle East) also provided higher resolution blowups focused on the badge that I also have attached. These studio images probably depict an Egyptian national and show the official costume of the high-collared tunic, fez, badge, and sash. The subject is not identified and the date may be in the 1940s (?). The Mixed Courts were abolished in 1949. The photos provide pretty good images of the judge’s badge, and excellent detail of the sash associated with this position. I cannot definitively determine whether the judge’s badge is gold (Appeals Court) or silver (Parquet), nor whether the sash is monochrome (green for the Appeals Court) or bicolored (a green stripe above a red stripe for the Parquet). The pleats of the sash more closely resemble that detail on the portrait of Jasper Brinton, painted by Mahmoud Said (attached within my message of December 1, 2016) than the sash worn by Apostolo N. Gennaropoulo, the Greek member of the Parquet whose photo is shown in my previous post of March 24, 2017. The B&W photo of the sash on Judge Gennaropoulo clearly shows the 2 colors, and the sash is a satin finish without pleats. The 2 images I have seen of the sash for the District Court (the painted portrait of a still unidentified European judge from Egyptian Zogist on November 23, 2016, and the studio portrait of my wife’s great grandfather shown in my post of November 17, 2016) do not show pleats on the costume sash. My current working notion is that this individual likely was a judge on the Appeals Court. I do not know if the elaborate decorative bow on the left hip was used only for the Appeals Court (possibly only by the president of the Appeals Court?). I have not seen the bow (or left hip) visible in the other images I have seen of judges in their regalia (again the images cited and attached above in previous messages). 

large.59f38f2a2e484_MixedCourtjudge1.JPG.9ac83bcdfa42ccf4f8fe981858cfca07.JPGlarge.59f38f369c51a_MixedCourtjudge1detail.JPG.ec64f1fef457436deef58a38bebb690b.JPGlarge.59f38f4ecc8e3_MixedCourtjudge2.JPG.aa7a083b5ae8cc8ff46340a7aa2d8ea3.JPGlarge.59f38f5686320_MixedCourtjudge2detail.JPG.bb9434165b143efe01d9e07d6109ba6e.JPG

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In relation to my question about the sash bow in my last post I have found a modern photo that suggests the bow was/is an element of the Appeals court regalia for all judges of that court, not reserved only for the president of the Court of Appeals. The bows of the modern judicial sashes appear to be nearly identical to those in the eBay images of the judge from the Appeals Court of the Mixed Courts that is attached above in my post of October 27. It is unclear whether such a bow is/was also included in the sash of the lower courts as well. I am attaching this image of the modern Egyptian judiciary showing the use of the sash with a bow for the Appeals Court that maintains the green sash used by the Mixed Courts in the late 19th-early 20th centuries. This image is from the cover of the book Judges and Political Reform in Egypt, 2008, edited by Nathalie Bernard-Maugiron, The American University of Cairo Press, Cairo & New York. The photo is copyrighted by the American University of Cairo Press and was taken by Hossam Fadl/al-Misri al-yawm. It shows judges demonstrating in front of the Judges' Club in Cairo in March, 2006. Note the continued use of the pleated green sash for the Appeals Court (highest Court) with modern insignia and the presence of judges behind them wearing red sashes, reminiscent of the District Courts' (lower Court) regalia during the period of the Mixed Courts. 

large.4167010.jpg.c3fdcbbc0fb2b1b6e62a3dc81b6568ac.jpg

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Hope this is relevant, and of interest to you:

https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-us/auction-catalogues/brightwells/catalogue-id-srbr10077/lot-b19bfcb8-19b4-41fd-808e-a81900b1168c

A khedivate era judge's badge, along with the Order of the British Empire, the Egyptian Order of the Nile and the Ottoman Order of the Medjidie. 

Here are the positions that the badge's owner occupied:

"Alexander Cockburn McBarnet son of Lt.-Col. A.C. McBarnet 79th Highlanders, Born: 6th December 1867, educated at Fettes College, Edinburgh and Balliol College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Judge of First Instance Assiout, Egypt 1906; Judge Native Court of Appeal, Egypt 1913; Legal Member Permanent Arbitration Board, Egypt 1914; Lt-Col. (Temp and Local) Major-general Shear’s Southern Punitive Force, Egypt, 1919; Palins Special Commission to Palestine, 1920; President Permanent Arbitration Board, Egypt, 1920; Special Arbitrator between H.M. War Office and Egyptian State Railways, 1922.

Died: Egypt 5th February 1934."

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Egyptian Zogist, 

Many thanks for the link you provided to the sale of the judge's badge and the other medals of Alexander McBarnet. As always, your interests provide some very useful information about this badge for my research. This is the first example I have seen of a documented badge for the Native Courts, which were distinctively separate from the Mixed Courts of Egypt. The Native Courts represented a separate bar from the Mixed Courts and the other Egyptian courts at the time; the Religious Courts of Personal Status -both Muslim & Christian); and the Consular Courts (many of their duties subsumed with the creation of the Mixed Courts). The "Native" Courts (later referred to as "National"), replaced previous purely Moslem courts and was modeled on the Mixed Court. Its jurisdiction was completely separate from the Mixed Courts and attended to cases involving Egyptian citizens. Foreign judges sat on the bench of the Native Courts in its earliest years (1883-~1930), primarily from Belgium and England. By 1930, only one foreign judge (Belgian) was still present on the Native Court, sitting on the Court of Appeals. While French was the official language of the Mixed Courts, the Native Courts used Arabic. The Egyptian government paid higher salaries to native judges (Egyptians) serving on the Native Courts than their Egyptian counterparts in the Mixed Courts in order to increase the prestige of the Native Courts. The highest magistrate of the Native Courts had a salary even higher than the European President of the Mixed Courts (Appeals Court). It is quite interesting that the badge of judge McBarnet is gold/gilt silver (for his position on the Native Court of Appeals; his listed service as a "Judge of First Instance Assiout" may represent a lower court within the Native Court system) as were the badges worn by the Mixed Courts' judges sitting on the Court of Appeals. I also enjoyed seeing information about a European who earned the Order of the Nile (Egypt) and the Order of Medjidie/Mecidiye (Ottoman Empire) for his service in Egypt (as noted, my wife's great grandfather was given the Nishan Ismail/Order of Ismail). The Nishan al Nil and Order of Medjidie were almost certainly awarded to judge McBarnet after he completed his service on the courts, and possibly only after finishing his position as a Legal Member of the Permanent Arbitration Board, so ~1914 at the earliest.  

Edited by Rusty Greaves
minor text corrections

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Just a couple things I tried to clarify in editing before that time limit ran out :

The Nishan al-Nil (Commander) was almost certainly awarded to judge McBarnet after he completed his service on the courts, and possibly only after finishing his position as a Legal Member of the Permanent Arbitration Board, so ~1914 at the earliest. Judges of the Mixed Courts were supposedly prohibited from receiving honors from the Egyptian government during their tenure on the courts (Brinton, Jasper Yeates 1968: The Mixed Court of Egypt 2nd edition. Yale University Press, New Haven. Pp. 53-54). I'm unsure about whether such restrictions may also have applied to the Order of Medjidie/Mecidiye from the Ottoman Empire. Brinton states that outgoing Presidents of the Mixed Courts' Court of Appeals often were awarded the Grand Cordon of the Nishan al-Nil. 

The Native Courts (that also included the Council of State) represented a separate bar from the Mixed Courts and the other two Egyptian courts at the time; the Religious Courts of Personal Status (both Muslim & Christian); and the Consular Courts (many of their duties subsumed with the creation of the Mixed Courts). The "Native" Courts (referred to as "National" after 1937), replaced previous purely Moslem courts and were modeled on the Mixed Courts. Its jurisdiction was completely separate from the Mixed Courts and attended to civil and criminal cases primarily involving only Egyptian citizens.

Edited by Rusty Greaves
minor text corrections

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I believe that awards of the Medjide were suspended after the deposition of Khedive Abbas Hilmi in 1914. Sultan Hussein Kamel instituted the Order of the Nile in 1915. On this basis we have a 'not after' and a 'not before' date for both of McBarnet's orders. It may well be that his Order of the Nile is also in the London Gazette. Regards, Owain

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Owain, 

Many thanks for this bit of information. I know nothing of McBarnet's career other than what is in the auction data, but it appears he remained in Egypt until his death, so there was plenty of time for his contributions to be recognized. What is interesting to me is the similarity of the Native Courts' judges' badges to those of the Mixed Courts. Jasper Brinton (cited above) published some numbers of the judges on various courts. The Mixed Courts started at 11 for the Appeals Court (four Egyptians and seven foreigners) and seven for each of the three District Courts (three Egyptians and four foreigners). The Egyptian government could increase the numbers of judges in any court, with the approval of the Appeals Court. At the closing of the Mixed Courts in 1949, several increases changed the number of judges from the original appointment of 32 judges to 70. The Parquet may have had ~11 judges and an additional 12 legal staff members.  By 1930, greater than 330 judges worked in the various Native Courts, more than thirty in the Appeals Court. The reason I cite these numbers is that if at least some of the judicial badges were similar between the Mixed Courts and the Native Courts, then potentially many more such badges would have been issued to judges on the Native Courts. Without secure documentation, potentially a greater number of Native Courts' badges may be represented in those available to modern collectors than genuine Mixed Court badges. All that I have seen advertised for auction, except the McBarnet badge, are noted to be those of judges of the Mixed Courts. There are relevant questions about the provenance of some of the badges at auction. For example, in my March 24, 2017 post the first illustration below the text shows the badge identified as belonging to Judge Herbert Hills, who served onto District Courts 1875-82 and on the Court of Appeals from 1882-1904. However, as noted above, this badge is silver, which would have been the badge of the Parquet, not that of either court Judge Hills served on in Egypt. The attribution is based on a piece of paper attached to the reverse of the badge, illustrated below. Of course, adherence to official insignia use may have periodically lapsed, however, the style of this badge would have looked out of place if most (or all) of the other judges Hill served with wore the correct regalia.  I'm not trying to muddy the waters here, just raising questions about determining accurate provenance for any of these badges that collectors have.

large.5a01efcef11b8_JudgeHerbertMillsbadgereverse.jpg.c1462f1ecd2ed598bc88639ee4da0d9c.jpg

Reverse of the silver-gilt judges' badge attributed to Judge Herbert Hills of the Mixed Courts in Cairo. The obverse is shown in the first illustration below the text of my post of March 24, 2017. Hills served on the District Courts 1875-82 and on the Appeals Court from 1882-1904. The appropriate style for those badges should be silver and gold for the District Courts or gold for the Appeals Court. The handwritten note on the reverse of this badge reads: "This is the badge of office always worn by the judge of the Mixed Tribunals of Cairo Egypt, whe[n] he was in court. Worn by Judge Herbert Hills". The term Tribunal was applied to the   District Courts. This silver obverse of this badge is the style used by the Parquet judges, and there is no evidence that Hills served on that court, except for the possibility of doing so by temporary assignment. 

Edited by Rusty Greaves
minor text edits

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