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Rusty Greaves

Egypt Khedivate Judge's Badge question

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On 03/05/2018 at 13:54, Rusty Greaves said:

Below is an Egyptian medal commemorating the termination of the Mixed Courts in October 1949 (they were initially established in October of 1875), and the unification of the Egyptian Court system. I have a couple questions about signatures & hallmarks on these medals. The first example from Sixbid.com/Stephen Album Rare Coins may be silver, see the hallmarks on the reverse below. All 3 examples have a signature under the R shoulder of the obverse Farouk I bust, and I wonder if anyone knows who this may identify as the medallist? The signature appears to be similar to that on the Egyptian 1955 five pound coin showing Tutankhamun riding in a chariot with a drawn bow (underneath the forequarters of the horse), also on the 3rd & 5th Anniversary of the Revolution 1 pound Egyptian coin, and is a design very similar to that on the Republic of Egypt Military Medal of Courage (lacking this signature on the obverse). The 2 examples from eBay are bronze, they lack the hallmarks seen on the Sixbid.com/Stephen Album Rare Coins medal, and the eBay listing identifies the "STB" signature, seen on all 3 medals on the inferior of the reverse to the R of "MIXTE", as that of Tewfik Bichay. Is that a signature Bichay used? The engraving of this medal seems much less fine than any other Bichay commemorative pieces I have seen.

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This 1949 medal from an auction taking place on 18 May, 2018 on Sixbid.com/Stephen Album Rare Coins (lot 1776) shows King Farouk I on the obverse and the inscription of the commemoration of the end of the Mixed Courts and judicial symbols. I am unclear what the symbolism of the R side of the design may be that is overlapping with the scales of justice? The medal is identified as 42 mm in diameter weighting 32.27 g, no material is identified, but note the hallmarks on the inferior margin of the reverse to the L of "MIXTE" suggesting this is a silver medal. (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=4785&category=141394&lot=3944922


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Two of these medals are offered on a current eBay listing by egynotes_74. Both are identified as 43 mm in diameter, variably weighing 27.27 (shown above) and 27.32 g. Both of these eBay medals are identified as bronze and lack any hallmarks seen on the silver example above. The example shown above is supposedly identified as being the work of Tewfik Bichay because of the "STB" hallmark on the inferior portion of the reverse. (https://www.ebay.ie/itm/EGYPT-BRONZE-MEDAL-OF-KING-FAROUK-1949-MIXTE-NE-EXTREMELY-RARE/222926942423?hash=item33e77b30d7:g:X1kAAMXQyY1TV6cB) - this example is shown above & (https://www.ebay.ie/itm/EGYPT-BRONZE-MEDAL-OF-KING-FAROUK-1949-MIXTE-EXTREMELY-RARE/222944960504?hash=item33e88e1ff8:g:afAAAOxyoA1RSx18)

Incidentally, the 4th photo in my April 27 post on this thread showing Youssef Zulficar Pasha talking with Aly Maher Pasha, also is of interest to my research on the Mixed Courts. Zulficar was a judge on the Mixed Courts beginning in 1926 and became vice President of the Alexandria Court of Appeals. In addition to being father of Queen Farida of Egypt (married to King Farouk I), Zulficar married Zainab Sa'id, the daughter of former Prime Minister Muhammad Sa'id Pasha, and she was the sister of the influential modernist artist Mahmud Sa'id (who painted the portrait of the President of the Appeals Court, Jasper Brinton, shown in my post on this thread of 1 December, 2016). As I've noted elsewhere in this thread, Mahmud Sai'd also was a judge on the Mixed Courts. Although Mahmud Sa'id is currently quite well-known for his paintings that can command high auction prices, he was never a professional artist, his work on the Mixed Courts was his profession.  At least one of my posts incorrectly says he only served on the courts for a short time. Sa'id joined the Mixed Courts in 1922 as an Assistant Judge, he then served as a Judge on the District Courts of Mansourah in 1927, and in Alexandria from 1937 until resigning in 1947 at age 50. Youssef Zulficar is controversial for his sympathies with the Axis powers during the early potion of WWII, making several communications with the Germans regarding King Farouk's potential interest in alliance with the Axis, and delivering one communique about the upcoming British & Soviet invasion of Iran, while serving as the Egyptian Ambassador to Iran (1939-41). Zulfikar was initially opposed to his daughter's marriage to Farouk, and later drew Farouk I's ire by discussing the marriage and 1948 divorce following the King's abdication. 

I believe that the signature S.T.B is Sadek Tewfik Bichay, who was the brother of Fahmy Tewfik Bichay. 

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On 03/05/2018 at 13:54, Rusty Greaves said:

Below is an Egyptian medal commemorating the termination of the Mixed Courts in October 1949 (they were initially established in October of 1875), and the unification of the Egyptian Court system. I have a couple questions about signatures & hallmarks on these medals. The first example from Sixbid.com/Stephen Album Rare Coins may be silver, see the hallmarks on the reverse below. All 3 examples have a signature under the R shoulder of the obverse Farouk I bust, and I wonder if anyone knows who this may identify as the medallist? The signature appears to be similar to that on the Egyptian 1955 five pound coin showing Tutankhamun riding in a chariot with a drawn bow (underneath the forequarters of the horse), also on the 3rd & 5th Anniversary of the Revolution 1 pound Egyptian coin, and is a design very similar to that on the Republic of Egypt Military Medal of Courage (lacking this signature on the obverse). The 2 examples from eBay are bronze, they lack the hallmarks seen on the Sixbid.com/Stephen Album Rare Coins medal, and the eBay listing identifies the "STB" signature, seen on all 3 medals on the inferior of the reverse to the R of "MIXTE", as that of Tewfik Bichay. Is that a signature Bichay used? The engraving of this medal seems much less fine than any other Bichay commemorative pieces I have seen.

3944922l.jpg

This 1949 medal from an auction taking place on 18 May, 2018 on Sixbid.com/Stephen Album Rare Coins (lot 1776) shows King Farouk I on the obverse and the inscription of the commemoration of the end of the Mixed Courts and judicial symbols. I am unclear what the symbolism of the R side of the design may be that is overlapping with the scales of justice? The medal is identified as 42 mm in diameter weighting 32.27 g, no material is identified, but note the hallmarks on the inferior margin of the reverse to the L of "MIXTE" suggesting this is a silver medal. (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=4785&category=141394&lot=3944922


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Two of these medals are offered on a current eBay listing by egynotes_74. Both are identified as 43 mm in diameter, variably weighing 27.27 (shown above) and 27.32 g. Both of these eBay medals are identified as bronze and lack any hallmarks seen on the silver example above. The example shown above is supposedly identified as being the work of Tewfik Bichay because of the "STB" hallmark on the inferior portion of the reverse. (https://www.ebay.ie/itm/EGYPT-BRONZE-MEDAL-OF-KING-FAROUK-1949-MIXTE-NE-EXTREMELY-RARE/222926942423?hash=item33e77b30d7:g:X1kAAMXQyY1TV6cB) - this example is shown above & (https://www.ebay.ie/itm/EGYPT-BRONZE-MEDAL-OF-KING-FAROUK-1949-MIXTE-EXTREMELY-RARE/222944960504?hash=item33e88e1ff8:g:afAAAOxyoA1RSx18)

Incidentally, the 4th photo in my April 27 post on this thread showing Youssef Zulficar Pasha talking with Aly Maher Pasha, also is of interest to my research on the Mixed Courts. Zulficar was a judge on the Mixed Courts beginning in 1926 and became vice President of the Alexandria Court of Appeals. In addition to being father of Queen Farida of Egypt (married to King Farouk I), Zulficar married Zainab Sa'id, the daughter of former Prime Minister Muhammad Sa'id Pasha, and she was the sister of the influential modernist artist Mahmud Sa'id (who painted the portrait of the President of the Appeals Court, Jasper Brinton, shown in my post on this thread of 1 December, 2016). As I've noted elsewhere in this thread, Mahmud Sai'd also was a judge on the Mixed Courts. Although Mahmud Sa'id is currently quite well-known for his paintings that can command high auction prices, he was never a professional artist, his work on the Mixed Courts was his profession.  At least one of my posts incorrectly says he only served on the courts for a short time. Sa'id joined the Mixed Courts in 1922 as an Assistant Judge, he then served as a Judge on the District Courts of Mansourah in 1927, and in Alexandria from 1937 until resigning in 1947 at age 50. Youssef Zulficar is controversial for his sympathies with the Axis powers during the early potion of WWII, making several communications with the Germans regarding King Farouk's potential interest in alliance with the Axis, and delivering one communique about the upcoming British & Soviet invasion of Iran, while serving as the Egyptian Ambassador to Iran (1939-41). Zulfikar was initially opposed to his daughter's marriage to Farouk, and later drew Farouk I's ire by discussing the marriage and 1948 divorce following the King's abdication. 

 

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S.T.B is Sadek Tewfik Bichay who was the brother of Fahmy Tewfik Bichay.

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Thanks for your input on this! Would that be a reason for the quality difference compared with other Bichay medals? 

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The portrait of King Farouk I on the medal commemorating the termination of the mixed courts in 1949 shown above, is the model of for a portrait on another medal issued in 1950 under Fuad I celebrating the 25th anniversary of Fuad I University (1925-1950). The university was founded in 1908 and know as the Egyptian University until 1940. It was named Fuad I University (until 1952) in his honor, since it became a public institution under his reign in 1925. Currently, it is known as Cairo University. This commemorative medal adds a bust portrait of Fuad I behind and to the right of Farouk I. The illustrated example is from current eBay auction (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-KING-FUAD-FAROUK-MEDAL-25TH-ANNIVERSARY-OF-FOUAD-UNIVERSITY-1950-RARE/222970807446?hash=item33ea188496%3Ag%3AQXwAAOSw3ydVyhKg&_pgn=4&_nkw=egypt+medal&rt=nc) that identifies the manufacturer as Bichay and adds the name "M. Farag" as another manufacturer (does that name mean anything to more knowledgable folks or is this a confoundingg of some aspect of the inscription?). An example of this bronze medal on Worthpoint (https://www.worthpoint.com/worthopedia/1925-1950-king-fouad-farouk-bronze-403321281) identifies the manufacturer as solely Maison Bichay, it gives the diameter as 60 mm (same as the eBay listing) and weight of 77.6 g.  No "STB" hallmark is visible on any photos I've seen of this medal.

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Obverse of the King Fuad I and Farouk I medal commemorating the 25 yr jubilee of Fuad I University (now Cairo University) in 1950 showing the same bust portrait of Farouk I as in the 1949 medal commemorating the closing of the Mixed Courts made by Bichay. 

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Reverse of the university anniversary commemorative medial. 

Edited by Rusty Greaves

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Here is another example of the silver Parquet judges' badge from a recent auction on eMedals. This badge is identified as 113 mm high X 85 mm wide, and made by Froment-Meurice of Paris. There is no maker's mark on the reverse of the badge, but the case clearly identifies Froment-Meurice on the inside of the cover.

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The example below with damage to the central legend is from a recent  offering on Lundin Antiques also is silver, measured as 112 X 85 mm, but interestingly is identified as coming from the courts in Alexandria. As a silver badge, it probably derives from the Parquet as well (http://www.lundinantique.com/medals.html) . 

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I have a small amount of information related to the 2 studio portraits of the Egyptian judge that I posted on 27, October 2017 (and re-posted below here). The signature in the lower right of each portrait is that of the studio, Jean Weinberg of Cairo. An image of the reverse of the first portrait is reproduced below that portrait.  https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-JUDGE-WITH-SCARF-AND-MEDAL-JEAN-WEINBRCE-CAIRO/312199905275?_trkparms=aid%3D222007%26algo%3DSIM.MBE%26ao%3D1%26asc%3D52935%26meid%3D00c834136082464b8a1f03494b4e0efc%26pid%3D100010%26rk%3D4%26rkt%3D12%26sd%3D273338376524%26itm%3D312199905275&_trksid=p2047675.c100010.m2109

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I also have seen a few images of judges from the early post-Mixed Courts period (after 1949) that show a range of mixed configurations of the sashes, and the Ottoman crescent & star emblems attached to those sashes. All of these come from the photographic inventory of shebacoin on current eBay auctions. I do not know if these represent formal regalia distinctions associated with different courts, legal roles, experience & rank, or idiosyncratic choices by these judges, or possibly other kinds of court employees. The first image is a portrait of a Republic period judge, possibly taken in the 1950s.

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This is a photo of a Republic of Egypt judge, apparently wearing the sash of the Appeals Court. Although there is no date identified for this photo, it is likely an "early" post-1953 Republic-era portrait. Attached to the sash is the Saladin Eagle and 3 stars as seen in the illustrations of modern Egyptian Judges (see the last, 4th, image in my post of April 27, 2018). The regalia differs only in the placement of 2 stars below the Eagle, as opposed to all 3 appearing above the eagle in photos of current Egyptian judges. Note the similarity of the decorative knot on the sash to that of the Mixed Court or Native Court judge in the Weinberg Studio portrait above (also from shebacoin's eBay inventory), and the modern Egyptian judges shown in my posts of 1 November, 2017, and April 27, 2018. https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-Judge-with-the-scarf/273416587171?hash=item3fa8e607a3:g:dKkAAOSwK6NbebRb

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The sash of the above post-1949 judge is not a configuration I have seen before, only the form is similar to that above. I have not seen such a clear image of a bicolored sash, but it may be similar to the sash of the judge in the following portrait. It is identified as an Egyptian judge. The single star is see only in 1 other judge's portrait I have come across (also the next portrait illustrated below). https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-A-small-judge-wearing-a-scarf/312191646480?hash=item48b0127b10:g:UMcAAOSw0S9bThIn

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This studio portrait is identified  as coming from an Armenian studio, and portraying a post-1949 era Egyptian judge. The sash appears to be bicolored (and may be similar to that of the Judges sash above), and is reminiscent of the sash worn by Judge Apostolo N. Gennaropoulo of the Mixed Court's Parquet that I illustrated on 24 March, 2017. I originally interpreted Judge Gennaropoulo's sash as bicolored, but have changed my mind based on the color image of a sash that I illustrated on 27 April, 2018 and the image of Judge Michael Hansson that I posted on 3 May, 2018. This image, and probably the above image as well, are the only photos I have seen that shows the decorative sash knot for a lower court (below the Appeals Court) sash configuration, suggesting that it may be a component of several lower court regalia, possibly pre-1949 as well. https://www.ebay.com/itm/Old-Armenian-photographer-in-Egypt-Judge-with-the-scarf-PHOTO-VARIJABEDIAN/273203620917?hash=item3f9c346c35:g:zm0AAOSwf95a80zw

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The above portrait shows a man identified as an Egyptian judge wearing a tricolored sash (or bicolored with a differently colored central stripe as shown in the color sash image from my post of 27 April, 2018; possibly in the photo of Judge Gennaropoulo's posted on 24 March, 2017; and in the black & white image of Judge Hansson that I posted on 3 May, 2018) with multiple stars of two different sizes. As seen in the other photos, this is a post-1949 period judge prior to the 1953 establishment of the Republic. The only other portrait of a judge with multiple stars in 2 sizes is shown in the second portrait of my 27 April, 2018 post, showing 3 smaller stars below the crescent, & 1 larger star and 3 smaller stars above the crescent (this judge also wears a pleated, apparently single colored sash with the decorative sash knot that probably also has gold metallic thread decorations). The configuration of 3 stars, usually above the crescent, is the most common insignia in portraits of post-1949 judicial regalia, and is retained in modern Egyptian judicial insignia. This judge wears a turban rather than a Tarboosh, and his traditional "long shirt" (gallebaya) in a dark-color, rather than the western-style coat shown in all other images I have seen of post-1949 Egyptian judges, or the high-necked narrow-collared coat of the Mixed International Courts (and probably the "Native" or National Courts) before 1949. This eBay seller has 2 additional images of this same judge: one working in his office in a turban and a lighter-colored gallebaya without his judge's sash and emblems, & a further image of him outside in that same outfit (native garment-gallebaya, and turban) also without any judicial regalia. https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-Judge-with-the-scarf/273147885787?hash=item3f98e1f8db:g:5lkAAOSw13ZayXDv

 

 

Edited by Rusty Greaves

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I have determined what part of the design on the reverse of the 1949 King Farouk I medal commemorating the closing of the Mixed Courts of Egypt represents. In my post on this thread of 3 May, 2018 I noted what was, at least to me, a puzzling design element on the R side of the reverse of this medal; a "triangle" overlapping with the scales of justice and the portion right of that to the margin of the medal. I am including an image of the reverse of the bronze version of that medal, designed by Sadek Tewfik Bichay, in this post below as a reference. 

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Reverse of the 1949 King Farouk medal commemorating the closure of the Egyptian Mixed Courts. (https://www.ebay.ie/itm/EGYPT-BRONZE-MEDAL-OF-KING-FAROUK-1949-MIXTE-NE-EXTREMELY-RARE/222926942423?hash=item33e77b30d7:g:X1kAAMXQyY1TV6cB)

The "triangle" is a portion of an image used on a commemorative stamp that was issued on 14 October, 1949 to observe the closure of the Mixed International Courts. The "triangle" is simply a representation of a turned-over portion of a page or banner from the stamp's design (shown below) that apparently has been used by Sadek Tewfik Bichay for the motif elements on the reverse of this medal. This is clear in the images of the stamp commemorating the 1949 ending of the Mixed Court system. The stamp's design also makes it apparent that the central element of the scales of justice (the pillar of the balance) represents the double-edged sword symbol, common in western depictions of Lady Justice (and in use in Egypt as the pillar of the scales of justice), that often is identified as a representation of reason,  the power of law, and the double-edged configuration is used to suggest the impartiality of the law. 

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Block of 4 Egyptian stamps from a current eBay auction showing the design adapted for use on the reverse of the Farouk I medal commemorating the termination of the Mixed Courts.From a current eBay auction: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-1949-Abolition-of-Mixed-Courts-Control-Block-MNH/142950418402?ssPageName=STRK%3AMEBIDX%3AIT&_trksid=p2060353.m1438.l2649

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First day cover (14 October, 1949) envelope from Alexandria, Egypt commemorating the end of the Mixed Courts. The dates below the scales of justice identify the date of origin of the Mixed Courts (1875 AD) and their end date (1949 AD). From a current eBay auction: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-1949-Abolition-of-Mixed-Courts-First-Day-Cover-FDC-Alex-CDs-Rare/142957707271?ssPageName=STRK%3AMEBIDX%3AIT&_trksid=p2060353.m1438.l2649

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An English language version that is probably a first day cover (the date is unclear in the postmark, but the envelope identifies this as a first day cover on the lower left, and the address to a philatelist also suggests this probably is a first day cover) from Cairo commemorating the abolition of the Mixed Courts. The sword of justice can be seen here as the pillar of the balance. The hilt matches the design on the Cairo High Court of Justice (see next photo). From an August 2018 eBay auction: https://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/EGYPT-1949-POSSIBLE-FDC-OFFICIAL-COVER-STAMP-ISSUED-ABOLITION-OF-MIXED-COURTS-/273386954439?nma=true&si=cPHwS%2FtTJRlY2xkoq1HOZakCN%2Bw%3D&orig_cvip=true&nordt=true&rt=nc&_trksid=p2047675.l2557

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The Egyptian High Court of Justice in downtown Cairo showing the symbolism of the sword of justice used as the pillar of the sales of justice on either side of the frontispiece of the building. As Egyptian Zogist noted in this thread on 16 November, 2016, the inscription (translated by Egyptian Zogst as "justice is the foundation of kingship/governance") is the same motto as appears on the judges' badges for the Mixed Courts (shown in the next image below). From Wikipedia: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Egyptian_High_Court_of_Justice.jpg

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Enameled motto on a silver Parquet form of the judicial badge of the Egyptian Mixed Courts. This is a close up of a portion of the badge shown in my post on this thread of 6 December, 2017 from a Spink & Son auction (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-us/auction-catalogues/spink/catalogue-id-srspi10156/lot-63685e70-7557-48b1-aabf-a83200b99d8c)

 

Edited by Rusty Greaves

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Below is another example of the English language first-day cover envelope with the commemorative end of the Mixed Courts stamp (see the 4th photo in the post above for October 17) that shows the postmark for 14 October 1949, from Alexandria. Alexandria and Cairo were the two locations with permanent District Mixed Court jurisdictions. From a recent eBay auction: https://www.ebay.com/itm/Egypt-1949-Alexandria-National-Courts-Commemoration-Abolition-Mixed/273338212665?ssPageName=STRK%3AMEBIDX%3AIT&_trksid=p2057872.m2749.l2649

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And below is an image of another version of a first-day cover for this stamp from Port Said (where one of there District Mixed Courts was located periodically). From a recent eBay auction: https://www.ebay.ca/itm/DR-WHO-1949-EGYPT-FDC-DISSOLUTION-OF-MIXED-COURTS-CACHET-d52065-/163285951903

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Below is a nice high-resolution image of an example of the gold and silver version of the Judges' badge for the District Courts of the Egyptian Mixed Courts. It shows some variation in the distribution of the gold gilding in comparison with the silver that may be of interest in seeing some variation in the manufacture of this judicial emblem. This example comes from a 2014 auction by Jean Elsen & see Fils, archived onto acsearch.info website (https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=3990624). While the silver Parquet badges frequently appear on auction sites, the gold and silver District Court version of this badge is more uncommon. I illustrated an example in this thread on my first post (17 November, 2016),  and in the photograph of my wife's great-grandfather on that same post; Egyptian Zogist contributed an example in a painted portrait of an unidentified probable European judge of the Mixed Courts on 23 November, 2016 (apparently misidentified as a portrait of Khedive Abbas Hilmi II on Pinterest, the only source I have identified for this image). The same badge seen in my first photo in the 17, November 2016 post is also shown in my 6th image on my post of 24 March, 2017 (that I mis-labelled as an Appeals Court judges' badge, which are gold - I corrected that labelling in a repost of the image on 4 April, 2017). This example was made by Froment Meurice of Paris. There are some differences in which parts of the badge design are gilt in gold on this example compared with other images, and there may be some variation in other probably genuine badges. The gold on the exterior rays is sown in the the judges portrait Egyptian Zogist contributed (23 November 2016), and in the high resolution images I recently received of my wife's great grandfather. However, the example I illustrated on 17 November, 2016, 24 March, 2017 and 4 April, 2017 lack this gilding. The gold on the hand and whisk in the upper left and right corners above the tablet with the inscription appears to be shown in the portrait that Egyptian zogist found, but is lacking on the 17 November, 24 March, and 4 April, 2017 example. The 24 March ( & 17 November & 4 April ) example also lacks the gold on the cipher on the tughra on the inferior portion of the design. It also has gilding on the upper outer fold of the drape under the innermost upper tassel ornaments that is not present in other examples of the District Court gold and silver badge.  The badge shown below also has 2 additional unique elements if the coloration represents the gold contrasting with the silver. There is gilding of the oak branches in this example that does not appear in any other examples. This example from the Jean Elsen & see Fils auction also suggests that one other illustration that seemed a bit ambiguous to me because I was comparing it with the cleaned 24 March & 4 April ( & 17 Novemebr 2016) badge, that appeared to be the clearest example of the gold & silver distribution in the gilding of the design. The badge I illustrated on 6 December, 2017 (and the close up of the legend on the tablet in the illustration from my post here on 17 October, 2018) may have a distribution of gold that indicates it is could also be a variant District Court badge rather than a silver Parquet version. However, some anomalies may indicate that the "gold" coloration is simply tarnish. That particular badge appears unique in not having gilding on the drapery decorative margin above the fringe in the two folds on either side under the inner upper tassel, having the rays around the central 5-pointed star above the tablet appearing to gilt. Most problematic if this is a bi-colred badge, the central table in that example appears to be silver rather than gold. The gold on the drapery bring and on the cordage timing the upper corners of the drapery are the strongest suggestion that the 6 December 2017 may have been a District Court gold & silver badge rather than just being a tarnished Parquet Judges' badge. 

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The above badge's measurements are given as 117 x 87 mm. This may be named badge, it is attributed to Joseph Timmermans (or Jules Timmermans) who is identified as a Procureur General for the Mixed Tribunals of Alexandria from Belgium.  I have not yet had any success tracking down additional information about Timmermans. Technically, the Procureur General is the Parquet's branch of the Mixed Courts and badges of most members of the Parquet is identified in the literature as of silver (as seen in several examples on this thread). As part of exploring the variation in forms of the badges worn by different judges and officials of the Mixed Courts, this might suggest that while the majority of judges and any other members of the Parquet who may have worn this insignia had a silver badge, perhaps the Procurer General wore the gold and silver badge.  However, I cannot find any suggestion that prosecutors wore a badge other than the silver version specified for the Parquet. In the auction listing, Tillermans is identified as also holding a 3rd Class Order of Osmanieh from Turkey and the 5th Class (Chevalier/Knight) Belgian Order of Leopold (l'Ordre de Leopold).

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The acsearch.info archive also has a good-resolution illustration of a silver Parquet badge, shown above, from a 2018 auction by Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. (https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=4974323). This badge was made by Stobbe of Alexandria. The measurement for this badge is given as 117 mm tall by 88 mm wide. 

 

Edited by Rusty Greaves

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Here are a couple additional images of post-1949 judges wearing the judicial sash and the crescent and star emblems  that replaced the regalia of the Mixed courts that were in place from 1875 until 1949. The crescent and star probably disappeared as judicial emblems shortly after the 1953 revolution, replaced by the Eagle of Saladin, but retaining the 3 stars (usually positioned above the Eagle, but see the example of a Republic era judge I posted in the 3rd photo on 12 September 2018 in this thread with 2 stars below the crescent and 1 above). These 2 individuals below show the same orientation of the bicolored sash with the lighter color (green?) in the lower position, but note the images on this thread of other post-1949 judges (the 4th and 5th photos on 12 September) who wear the sash with the lighter strip orientated in the inferior position. The judges in the 4th & 5th photo also sport only 1 star above the crescent, and note also the post-1949 and pre Revolution Egyptian judge in the 6th photo on 12 September who wears a three stripe version of the sash that appears similar to that  used for the Parquet during the period of the Mixed Courts, in addition to the multiplicity of stars adorning his sash (3 large stars below the crescent, 3 large stars above the crescent, and 3 smaller stars above the upper 3 larger stars).  Both judges' sashes exhibit the elaborate fringed knot used during the period of the Mixed Court era at least for the Appeals Court judges and possibly those of the District Courts (and the Parquet?) as well. I illustrate these post-Mixed Court period photos to show some of the derivation of the judicial regalia that derives from the Mixed Courts into the post-1949 judiciary, and is later adapted to the post-Revolution period judges sash & emblems. As more of these photo exist from this period, they also demonstrate some of the variant configurations of judicial regalia that are either undocumented in easily accessible literature, or subject to some whims of the judges themselves.  

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Post-1949 Egyptian judge wearing the sash, crescent, and 3 stars. The Fez has been retained as part of the judges regalia, but the high-collared long tunic-style jacket of the Mixed Court era has been replaced with a European style coat. From a crest eBay auction of an original 14 x 9 cm print from the Studio Vart (?): https://www.ebay.com/itm/Old-Armenian-photographer-in-Egypt-Judge-With-a-medal-and-scarf-STUDIO-VART/273500934866

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A young judge in the post-1949 period, also wearing a western style jacket and leaving his fez on the table where his right hand is resting.  From a recent eBay auction or an original 23 x 16 cm print froth studio Adel (?):https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-A-young-judge-with-scarf-studio-adel/273502381828

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Close-up image of the sash and crescent with stars regalia of this same young judge shown above. https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-A-young-judge-with-scarf-studio-adel/273502381828

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As a further interesting illustration of variation in depiction Egyptian judges at this time period (and in the spirit of the US celebration of Halloween), here is a boy dressed in a hybrid judges costume that includes the fez, a more European-style robe, and a sash with the crescent and 3 stars that is actually an abbreviated form of the French epitoge, which is the French academic and judicial scarf, derived from the medieval chaperon, and is the counterpart of the  English academic regalia's hood. This is an original 14 x 9 cm print, possibly titled "The Little Judge" from the studio Photo Charles. From a current eBay auction: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-CUTE-BOY-The-Little-Judge-PHOTO-Charles/312156615770

 

Edited by Rusty Greaves

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Below is an unusual image of another post-1949 & pre-revolution individual identified as a a judge. The hand-tinted, matted original studio print (23 x 18cm) has a bicolored sash (lighter colored stripe [green?] worn uppermost) with the crescent and 1 star in the superior position. What seems unusual to me is that this man is wearing a white uniform (rather than the more common western-style suit at this time period) and is identified as a police officer (at the same times his judicial appointment?). The eBay listing identifies the name Ali Arafa, of Port Said, but I do not know if this is the subject's name or the studio name. I am including close-ups of the inscriptions on each of the lower corners. (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-POLICE-OFFICER-Judge-HAND-COLOR-ALI-ARAFA-PORT-SAID-/273502359767?_trksid=p2385738.m4383.l4275.c10)

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inscription on the lower R of the above photo.

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inscription on the lower L of the above photo. 

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To follow up on a couple additional aspects of judges' costume, I want to illustrate a few images of post-termination of the Mixed Courts and pre-Republic period when all judicial duties were given to new National Courts that assumed the jurisdiction over cases involving foreigners as well as Egyptian citizens. These first photos show the use of non-official dress (perhaps only outside of he courtroom?) related the Egyptian judge I illustrated in the final photograph (6th image) on my post of 12, September 2018. I mentioned in that post that there were 2 additional eBay photos of this judge in traditional dress without his judge's sash and the crescent & stars emblems he wears in that image (included below for comparison). I am including the those photos I referenced here, below the one of the judge wearing his sash with crescent and star emblems. In both portraits, he wears a light-colored gallebaya without his judge's sash and emblems. I have no information about what court this judge may have served, and do not know if the use of traditional clothing suggests it is part of one of the Muslim or another division of National Courts that replaced the Mixed Court system. 

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Above is the Egyptian judge wearing a tri-colored sash (probably similar in color to that illustrated on 27 April, 2018 on this thread) with the crescent and multiple star emblems, previously posted here on 12 September, 2018, from a current eBay auction of an original 14 x 9 cm black & white print (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-Judge-with-the-scarf/273147885787?hash=item3f98e1f8db:g:5lkAAOSw13ZayXDv:rk:33:pf:0). Unlike the other post-1949 judges I have found photos of, this individual wears more traditional Egyptian costume with the judicial regalia (sash with crescent & stars). Unlike all other photos I have seen, he wears a turban rather than a fez, along with a dark traditional tunic (gallebaya) that is unlike the coat of the Mixed Court era (see the 2 illustrations of the same Egyptian judge in Appeals Court regalia posted on this thread on 27 October, 2017) or the western-style jackets more common among the 1949-1953 as shown in several posts here on this thread (see 3rd photo on the post of 27 April 2018; the 4th &5th images posted on 12 September, 2018; and the 3rd & 4th photos posted on 31 October, 2018). 

 

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The same judge, identified as working in his office, wearing a turban, gallebaya, but no official judicial regalia. From a current eBay auction of an original 14 x 9 cm print (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-Judge-in-his-office/273147887546?hash=item3f98e1ffba:g:k~oAAOSwlJlayXGK:rk:30:pf:0). 

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The same judge outdoors in turban, gallebaya, and without judicial regalia. From a current eBay auction of an original 14 x 9 cm photographic print (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-Judge-standing-on-the-bridge/312105737674?hash=item48aaf39dca:g:OPsAAOSwH1VayXIX:rk:31:pf:0). 

 

As a correction, the second photo I posted on 27 April, 2018 that was identified on the eBay site and an Egyptian Judge, appears to be wearing regalia that suggests the Egyptian or Libyan Parliament (I have included it below as well). He is not wearing judicial regalia. The man in the 27 April image is wearing a watered silk sash (with a darker border) with the crescent with 3 stars closely spaced within the arms of the crescent that is part of the sash emblem for members of the Egyptian Upper House of Parliament, and a lapel pin with 8 major rays. The Libyan regalia is similar in design to the of the Egyptian Upper House of Parliament, as noted by Owain on 18 May, 2016 on the thread "Libya - unknown order and medal" started by James Hoards on 15 May, 2016 here in the Middle East & Arab States section:

The visible lapel badge on my 27 April posting (and below) has 8 major rays, in contrast with the 6 rays of the Egyptian Upper House of Parliament badge (see eMedals image below). Additionally, the watered silk sash has a darker border that I have not seen for the Egyptian parliamentary sash. That photo is identified as coming from Egypt, although no studio is specified. Does anyone know if there were other variants of this regalia for Egyptian officials? 

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Photo I posted on 27 April of an alleged Egyptian judge, whose regalia may indicate he is a member of the Egyptian Parliament (or Libyan?). I am correcting my past illustration of this individual as a post-1949 pre 1953 judge because of the bordered sash, configuration of the crescent and 3 stars, and the lapel badge. This 14 x 9 cm original print is from a past eBay auction with the identification: "Egypt old vintage photo of judge with scarf". https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-Judge-with-the-scarf-/273105393192?nordt=true&orig_cvip=true&rt=nc&_trksid=p2047675.m43663.l44720

 

An identified Egyptian sash with crescent & star insignia, the sash badge, neck badge, and lapel badge for a member of the Egyptian Upper House of Parliament is shown below from an eMedals past auction listing https://www.emedals.com/africa/egypt/an-egyptian-upper-house-of-parliamentary-set-w1572). This shows that the neck and lapel badges have a configuration of 6 major rays in contrast with the 8-rayed lapel badge visible in the other images here. The sash of green watered silk also lacks the darker border shown in the image above and the the two photos 

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Below is a better photo of an individual wearing the same regalia seen in the 27 April, 2018 image I am correcting as not representing a judge, but the photo below shows all of the regalia that is partly covered in that 27 April image. This is from a current eBay auction (https://www.ebay.com/itm/Armenian-photographer-in-Egypt-member-of-the-Egyptian-Upper-House-of-Parliament/273500928337). The seller initially identified this man as an Egyptian judge, but I am currently unsure whether this represents a member of the Egyptian Upper House of Parliament or possibly a man wearing that for Libya, given the differences between the sash border and number of rays on the lapel badge compared with the eMedals example shown above. Both portraits (below and on 27 April) show an 8-rayed lapel badge. The sash badge attached to the decorative knot shown in the eMedals image above and the photograph below are 8-rayed . The photo below is identified as from Egypt, taken by an Armenian studio, K. Papazian in Cairo, and is an 18 x 13 cm original print. 

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Below is another individual in a photo from a current eBay auction (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-Judge-With-a-medal-and-scarf/273500915471) identified as an Egyptian judge, but wearing regalia that suggests either an Egyptian or Libyan member of Parliament. What is visible of his sash shows a lighter border than that of the individual above or the man I initially illustrated on 27 April (but it is very difficult to determine color or hue in black & white photos). The sash does have the same crescent & 3-star emblem of Parliamentary regalia. The lapel pin shows 8 major rays. Unlike the individual above, this man wears a turban and gallibaya. This 22 x 15 cm original print is said to be from Egypt, but no studio is identified. 

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Edited by Rusty Greaves

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I recently found this additional example of a different first day postal cover envelope design for the abolition of the Egyptian Mixed Court system on 14 October, 1949. This French language version that is postmarked from Cairo is from a September 2018 UK eBay auction (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-1949-MIXTES-FDC-/283142086028?nordt=true&orig_cvip=true&rt=nc&_trksid=p2047675.m43663.l44720).

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I recently obtained a higher resolution image of Judge Pierre Crabitès in his judicial regalia, taken in ~1911 at the beginning of his appointment to the Mixed Courts' District judiciary in Cairo. This is a better image than that at the beginning of this thread, although it does not show the judicial badge as well as other images I've posted here. It does show some of the contrast between the areas of the badge design that are gold gilt and the silver portions of the District Court judges version of this badge, although not in enough detail to help address the question I have about the badge depicted in the first photo of my first post of 31 October, 2018 on this thread. This image derives from a photo in the morgue of the New Orleans Times Picayune, first brought to my attention when I found a 21 February, 2010 re-publication of the photo archived on the Times Picayune website. Judge Crabitès was from New Orleans, and he featured periodically in several human interest local society page stories. That article reprinted a synopsis of parts of a 1924 article outlining Judge Crabitès role as the presiding judge in a case brought by Howard Carter, the discoverer of the tomb of Tutankhamen, against the Egyptian government over his objections to certain conditions of his excavation permit and requirement to host large numbers of visitors that he felt seriously interrupted his scientific recovery of the tomb contents, as well as a brief recapping of his later career as a lecturer at Lecturer at Louisiana State University, and 1943 death in  Baghdad. 

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Edited by Rusty Greaves

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Below is an example of the Mixed Courts judicial badge from a current eBay auction (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-KING-FAROUK-SILVER-GILT-ENAMEL-JUDGE-BADGE-IN-ORIGINAL-CASE-XXX-RARE/223228334558?hash=item33f97211de:g:1o0AAOSwBURb6gap). This is the only example I have encountered that is clearly identified as having been made by W. Horovitz of Alexandria. It is possible that the reverse of the gold Appeals Court badge Illustrated in the 5th photo on 24 March, 2017 indicates it was made by Horovitz. The resolution of this image is not good enough to read the name on the hallmark that is mostly obscured by the pin. When I first saw it on flickr it looked as though it stated with "MO"  (but is probably "HO") and the ending of the hallmark now looks as though it may be "TZ". I am nearly certain that gold example is a Horovitz manufacture, only since finding that name associated with the badge I am illustrating here. Wolf Horovitz was a Romanian jeweler who settled in Alexandria, kept his business on the Rue Chérif Pacha and became a leading jeweler and watchmaker. His clientele were wealthy Egyptians and the Royal Court of King Fuad I and Farouk I. Much of the material he sold was obtained or manufactured in Paris (often hallmarked as made for Horovitz). The badge was originally designed by Froment-Meurice of Paris, and most auction examples are made either by Froment-Meurice or Stobbe of Alexandria. I have seen several examples with no manufacturer's hallmarks (some illustrated on this thread). Supposedly, these badges also were made by Lattes of Cairo, Tewfik Bichay of Cairo, and M. Laurencin & Cie. of Alexandria, although I have never seen a photo of the hallmarks of any of these manufacturers on any examples of the Mixed Court badges. This Horovitz badge is identified as measuring 115 x 85 mm, and weighs 161 g. The badge is gilt silver and is being sold in its original case. There are some slightly less detailed aspects of the engraving of this example compared with other badges, i.e., the hair on the whisks in each upper corner are less detailed than on many examples, the fringe & border design on the drapery is less detailed and in lower relief, as are the tassels on each of the drapery corners (all of this lesser detail is similar to the 2nd example I illustrated on 31 October, 2018 made by Stobbe), some of the leaves around the central tablet may be less detailed, and the crown also appears to be in lower relief (although some other badges may also exhibit this level of detail of the crown, or it could just be the perspective the photo  provides). The wreath around the lower star & tug is made of larger, less detailed leaves than many of the judicial badges made by Froment-Meurice and Stobbe. However the wreath appears similar to that of the badge I illustrated on this thread in the 1st photo on 31 October, 2018 that was made by Froment-Meurice (although other aspects of the design appear more detailed in that example). The hallmark "N" on the reverse of this Horovitz badge and on the pin indicates a manufacturing date of 1938-39. This badge is supposedly identified as having been used in the Alexandria Courts during the reign of King Farouk I in 1937-38. As a silver badge, this should have been worn by a judge of the Parquet (office of the Procureur-General who prosecuted cases in front of the Mixed Courts). 

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Obverse of this silver Parquet badge of the Mixed Courts made by Horovitz of Alexandria showing several of the lower relief details in the fringe & border design of the drapery, the tassels in each upper corner, the whisks in each upper corner of the drapery, possible in details of some of the leaves surrounding the central tablet & inscription. The calligraphy on the legend is executed in thinner enamel lines than most other examples, with a few differences not seen on other badges. 

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Reverse of the Horovitz judicial badge

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The Horovitz judicial badge in its case.

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The W. Horovitz name and address (26 Rue Chérif Pacha, Alexandria) inside the lid of the case. This business was listed as still existing on Rue Chérif Pacha at least as late as 1970. 

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The interior of the case showing the fit for the back pin of the badge. 

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Detail of the badge reverse showing the Horovitz hallmark and the 3 silver hallmarks including an "N" indicating a manufacturing date of 1928-39.

s-l1600-5.thumb.jpg.313c00c68e3957d09fab1ac0095ab9bb.jpg Detail of the tablet and surrounding decoration showing some of the lower relief detail of this maker's version of the judicial badge. 

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Postcard showing the Rue Chérif Pacha in Alexandria, probably between 1900-1910. (https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1d/Alexandrie_Rue_Cherif_Pacha.jpg).

 

Edited by Rusty Greaves

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I came across this unusual pin or badge on The Saleroom website for an upcoming auction by Bamfords Auctioneers & Valuers (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-gb/auction-catalogues/bamfords/catalogue-id-bamfor10553/lot-546dbbb8-f7b1-4f6a-a2ba-a9a0009cb8b5 and http://www.bamfords-auctions.co.uk/auctions/21-11-2018-gentlemans-library-and-grand-tour-of-auction-curiosities-sale/lot-3620A/img-0/). This is lot 3620A that is misidentified as the "Order of the Khedive". It is 11.5 cm high, the same size as the Mixed Courts judicial badges, and may be silver gilt, with enamel. The auctioneer identifies it as a medal from the Kingdom of Egypt, dating to the early 20th century. I have never seen another example of the Mixed Courts judicial badge in this form. It is unclear whether this full sized "replica" would have had any official function or if it may be a unique large pin that was personal jewelry rather than a component of any judicial regalia. The reverse does appear to have a makers' mark, and it may be a "Horovitz" mark from what I can see in the low resolution image. I am unsure whether this would be an actual Horovitz construction or a copy that includes this manufacturer's name. It also does have silver hallmarks in the same locations that they appear on the fully-detailed badges (however, the resolution of the images is too low to read the hallmarks). 

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Obverse of this unusual, full-sized "imitation " of the judicial badge design showing the dramatically abbreviated versions of the design elements of the Mixed Courts badge. Note the whisk on the upper L repeats the crescent motif (normally seen only on the upper R) rather than the hand. The white enamel around the tugra medallion (lacking any indication of the cipher) has no indication of the 7 pointed multi-rayed star nor the crescent & star that is usually suspended below the crossing point of the oak & laurel branches below the tablet with the inscription. Silver & enamel. 

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Reverse of this unusual pin or badge showing manufacturers' and silver hallmarks. The silver hallmarks near the inferior portion of the lower relief area under the pin and on the pin just proximal of the union of the double tongue with the single pin of the distal portion this tube hinge pin. Just to the left of the silver hallmarks on the pin ~ 3.5 letters are visible that may be "HOROV...". Marks on the upper left quadrant of the reverse, and on the tablet with the inscription of the obverse, show that this piece was cast not struck (as is also clear in the form of the obverse design). 

Edited by Rusty Greaves

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 I have been using a jumble of terminology to refer to the design elements on the Mixed Courts judicial badge. I wanted to extend some of the information on the  components of the badge symbols here so that I can bring my terms in line with more standard usage. 

Egyptian Zogist contributed an image of the French July Monarchy (1830-1848) coat of arms on 23 November 2016 on this thread, pointing out the similarities between the judicial badge design and the French coat of arms. That image shows the mantle (that I have been calling the "drapery" here in several descriptions), the tablet of law, and two crossed scepters behind the mantle that includes one on the left that shows that "hand of justice", and the mantle is surmounted with a royal crown. I illustrated two French coat of arms on 24 March, 2017  on this thread that also are framed with the royal mantle surmounted with a crown and having 2 crossed scepter with the left one having the hand of justice. 

The coat of arms used as the basis for the configuration of the Mixed Courts badges probably derives from French versions of this design, although it also has significant similarities to those used by other European royalty. For example, the following example is the coat of arms of the German Counts zu Pappenheim (from: https://www.napoleon.org/en/history-of-the-two-empires/the-symbols-of-empire/; an excerpted set of examples posted by Andrew Andersen from von Volboth, Carl Alexander, 1973. Heraldry of the World. Copenhagen). This shows the use of the royal ermine lined mantle with crown exhibiting the mantle's the upper corners tied with a gold tassel. 

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The following is the form of Napoleon's coat of arms he approved on 10 July, 1804 after being proclaimed Emperor in May of that year. This example is interesting for the similarities to the Mixed Courts judges badge  in the form of the mantle, the royal crown, the crossed scepters that includes the lefthand one exhibiting the hand of justice, and the Chain of the Légion d'honneur surrounding he central shield with the emblem of the Order in the central inferior position on the coat of arms (as seen on the 2 French examples on my 24 March, 2017 post on this thread). From: https://www.napoleon.org/en/history-of-the-two-empires/the-symbols-of-empire/

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Below are two Egyptian examples from the reign of Khedive Isma'il Pasha (rule=1863-1879) that show adaptations of the French coat of arms to Egyptian/Ottoman symbolism that is reflected in the form of the Mixed Courts judicial badge. Khedive Isma'il Pasha created the Mixed Courts in October 1875 following the proposed bold reforms the Egyptian legal system developed by Nubar Pasha. These images are from http://www.hubert-herald.nl/EgyptKingdom.htm and use the term "achievement" to identify the forms and symbolism of these coats of arms. 

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The Hubert de Vries website identifies this configuration of the "achievement" as the form Isma'il Pasha created after his promotion to Khedive (1863). Changes from previous versions includes the substitution of tughs for the 6 scepters that were featured in previous versions. Tugh is a Turkish word, possibly derived from Chinese (tu) and Uyghur (tugh), identifying rods with horsetails that are a military standard with various historical uses (I have been inappropriately calling these "whisks"). The substitution of tughs for the more European form of scepters and the inferior presence of a medal of the Order of the Crescent (instituted 1799) provide more Turkish (Ottoman) embellishments to this coat of arms. http://www.hubert-herald.nl/EgyptKingdom.htm.

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This second versions of the Khedive Isma'il coat of arms substitutes the Ottoman Order of Medjidie as the medal in the inferior position below the Azure arms with a crescent and 3 stars. This example also shows the ermine tails on the interior of the royal mantle quite well. This design change occurred sometime after Khedive Isma'il was awarded the Order of Medjidie in a special class with brilliants in 1863. The Order of Medjidie (created in 1851) is the award featured on the inferior margin of the mantle of the Mixed Courts judicial badge, that I have been referring to as a "tugra". The judicial badge shows the stylized Ottoman Tugra at the center of the medallion of this award. There is insufficient detail to know if it intended to represent the Tugra of the Sultan Abdülaziz (the 32nd Ottoman Sultan, reign=1861-1876), who was Sultan at the time the Mixed Courts were established (1875), or simply to indicate the Ottoman control over Egypt. http://www.hubert-herald.nl/EgyptKingdom.htm

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Khedive Abbas Hilmi II used similar forms of the above coats of arms, occasionally without the the tughs, and at least one form does not have a second crown above the central medallion with the crescent and 3 stars. This version above is identified as a military coat of arms ("achievement') probably from the time of Abbas Hilmi II (note the crossed cannon, rifles with bayonets, probably spears, and tughs as additional military weapons and symbols behind the shield, similar to weapons shown on the Ottoman Empire coat of arms). It is notable in comparison with the Mixed Courts judicial badge for the substitution of a five pointed star with rays above the central medallion rather than another crown (as seen on the Mixed Courts judicial badge). This coat of arms also shows the Order of Medjidie at the inferior position below the central shield.  http://www.hubert-herald.nl/EgyptKingdom.htm

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Detail of the Order of Medjidie symbol on the inferior margin of the silver Mixed Courts Judicial badge (this is the example that is supposedly attributed to Judge Herbert Mills: http://www.dreweatts.com/auctions/lot-details/?saleId=13863&lotId=175). This high resolution image shows good detail of the form of the Ottoman tugra on the depiction of the Order of Medjidie with its crescent & star suspension device. The tufts of ermine tails and the textured interior indicating fur lining of the royal mantle also are clearly evident in this close-up image. 

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The tugra of the 32nd Ottoman Sultan Sultan Abdülaziz (the 32nd Ottoman Sultan, reign=1861-1876), who was Sultan at the time the Mixed Courts were established (1875). Although the name portion of the tugra cannot be read in the stand portion (the lowermost component) of the tugra on the judicial badge, most of the form of the cipher is formulaic & artistic calligraphy, and that is what is shown on the Mixed Courts judges' badges. from: http://www.tugra.org/en/tugralar.asp

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The same silver Mixed Courts judicial badge attributed to Judge Herbert Mills (http://www.dreweatts.com/auctions/lot-details/?saleId=13863&lotId=175) repeated here to illustrate the design elements of this badge. The form of the surmounting crown over the fringed and ermne-lined royal mantle is called the "Princely Crown"  and was used from 1854 until ~1922. It is based on European style crown with a purple velvet cap, a diadem that often is shown with 5 leaves & 5 hoops (but on the judicial badge has 7 leaves & 7 hoops) and is surmounted by the crescent & star (from 1923-1952 a versions called the Egyptian Royal Crown was used with five pairs of papyrus blossoms, 5 hoops, and surmounted with a globe supporting the star & crescent). The judicial hand on the distal portion of the L side tugh appears to be derived from a Christian symbol (sometimes called the hand of benediction with the 4th & 5th fingers bent over the palm). The branch of oak leaves & acorns on the L side of the judicial tablet also derive from European heraldic use, considered emblematic of faith and endurance. The branch of laurel on the R is used in European heraldry as a symbol of victory, especially triumph and fame that is won after long internal struggles. The rays around the margins of the badge (as well as the star with rays above the central tablet) may be an adaptation of the symbolism of the Ottoman sun. The inscription on the central tablet reads: "Justice is the foundation of kingship/governance" as translated by Egyptian Zogist on 23 November, 2016. 

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Left is the Princely Crown used from 1854 to ~1922. On the right is the Egyptian Royal Crown used from 1923-1952. (http://www.hubert-herald.nl/EgyptKingdom.htm)

Edited by Rusty Greaves

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Here is an example of the silver Parquet version of the judges' badge for the Egyptian Mixed Courts. This is from a current auction by Heritage World Coin Auctions. The listing is on the NumisBids website (https://www.numisbids.com/n.php?p=lot&sid=2946&lot=36093) and also on the Heritage Auctions site (https://coins.ha.com/itm/egypt/egypt-abbas-hilmi-pacha-1874-1944-khedive-1892-1914-magistrate-badge-nd-c1892-au-/a/3072-36093.s?type=CoinArchives3072). The auction description identifies the badge as 114 mm tall by 84.5 mm wide, and weighs 173.05 g. The badge is identified as belonging to a judge from the Mixed Courts of Alexandria. the listing incorrectly states that the badge was made by Stobbe of Alexandria. The image of the reverse clearly shows the name of Froment Meurice of Paris. This is a high resolution image that can be zoomed to examine details. 

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Below is a cased Egyptian Mixed Courts judges' badge from a 2015 auction by Clark Auction Gallery in Larchmont, NY (USA) that is archived on the LiveAuctioneers website (https://www.liveauctioneers.com/item/38904932_silver-froment-meurice-egyptian-badge). The set includes a cased judges' badge made by Froment-Meurice. The badges is thought to have been used in Alexandria, possibly because of the studio name on one of the 2 photos of an Egyptian national wearing judicial regalia that includes judicial sash and badge, a tunic, and fez that was part of this auction lot. One of the 2 photos (both are the same portrait) has the following inscription on the reverse: "Artistival Photographs Haure/No 1. Gordon Pacha Street/Alexandria Egypt". This set came from an estate in Westchester, NY (USA). It is unclear if there is an association between the studio photograph of a Native judge and this silver badge. In combination with some other photographic information I've posted here, it may suggest that the Native Courts' badge also was usually silver, as was the badge for the prosecutor's office, the Parquet. An unusual medal or badge is included with this auction lot that may be a fantasy piece or some other medal (non-Egyptian probably) that I cannot identify with my limited knowledge. 

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Above is the silver judicial badge in its case

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Above is an image of the obverse face of this silver badge. This badge is identified as measuring 3.5 " wide x 4.5 " high (76 mm wide x 114 mm high) and the wring tis given as 5.44 troy oz. 

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The reverse of this silver judges badge. There appears to be a single silver hallmark (most likely the fineness mark) on the tunic pin close to the proximal bifurcation of the pin near the hinge. The "FROMENT-MEURICE" manufacturer's hallmark is visible above he bosses holding the obverse tablet wit the enamel inscription to the back portion of the badge. 

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Close-up view of the "FROMENT-MEURICE" hallmark on the reverse this badge. 

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The inscription on the inside of the upper lid of the case for this judicial badge with the inscription: "FROMENT-MEURICE; 372.RUE ST. HONORÉ; PARIS". This the same address than that is embossed on the red silk lining of the dark blue case for the silver parquet badge of the Greek judge on the Parquet, Judge Apostolo N. Gennaropoulo (from a 2014 eBay auction), shown in the last photo of my post of March 24, 2017 on this thread. However, it is different from the address in the red silk & velvet lined red case for a silver judges' badge made by Froment-Meurice from a June 2018 eMedals auction which reads ""FROMENT-MEURICE; 46.RUE D'ANJOU; PARIS" (badge and case shown in the first 5 photos of my post of 23 July 2018 on this thread). I do not know if these different addresses might indicate a move of the Froment-Meurice workshops that could be of any use in dating such badges (in the absence of better images of the date hallmarks that some of these piece may have). 

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The 2 studio photos of a judge wearing the judicial sash, judicial badge, long tunic, and fez behind the obverse of this silver Mixed Courts' judicial badge. The portraits appear to show an Egyptian Native judge. The image is not high-enough resolution to determine if the judicial sash is bicolored or only a single color. However, the lower portion of the sash does appear darker in both photos than the upper half of the sash, similar to the sashes of the Republic period judges shown in the 4th and 5th photos of my post of 12 September, 2018, on the hand-tinted image in my 1st photo on the post of 5 November, 2018, and in a reversed orientation of the darker and lighter colors on the Republic judges shown in the 1st, 2nd, & 3rd photos of my October 31, 2018 post, all on this thread. The studio name given from the back of one of these photos is: "Artistival Photographs Haure/No 1. Gordon Pacha Street/Alexandria Egypt". 

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Photograph of the full lot from the main auction listing. Note the medal in the center foreground that I cannot identify (see image below) and its case on the lower R .

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Obverse of an unidentified medal included with this auction lot. I cannot recognize if this is any kind of genuine award, but perhaps other learned individuals here can share an opinion. It appears likely it could be some kind of unofficial or fantasy piece. The ribbon resembles the red with green stripes of the Moroccan Order of the Throne (Wisam al-Arch). The reverse this medal is mostly plain, but there may be a possible marking on the upper arm of the cross that might be slightly visible in the low-resolution image of the reverse. 

Edited by Rusty Greaves

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I want to provide some information about hallmarks on the Egyptian Mixed Courts judges’ badges. I have recently been researching Egyptian hallmarks for my interests in the Egyptian Order of Ismail. I have provided data and images on the precious metal hallmarks in the thread “Question about the Order of Ismail/Nishan al-Ismail” that I started on 7 November, 2017 in this Middle East & Arab States section. My posts on the Order of Ismail thread of 11 January, 2019 and 21 February, 2019 contain more detailed information about those hallmarks than I wish to repeat here. Unlike the availability of many photos of hallmarks for the Order of Ismail, many fewer auction listings contain useful photos of the manufacturers’ hallmarks and precious metal hallmarks for these Mixed Courts judicial badges. I have included some of the illustrations below in previous posts, and apologize for the redundancy, but want to have the relevant images together in this discussion of the hallmarks on the Mixed Courts badges. 

There are not a lot of the photographs of the Egyptian Mixed Courts judges’ badges that exhibit hallmarks. That is true for both the manufacturers’ hallmarks and fineness hallmarks as well. As noted in this thread, probably only one manufacturer was located in Europe (Foment-Meurice of Paris), and several examples attributed to this workshop lack any hallmarks. Additionally, many of the Egyptian-manufactured badges appear to lack manufacturers' hallmarks as well (although they all would legally have been required to have  precious metal hallmarks). Several auction sites note that their badge offerings do not bear any hallmarks, and it appears that some auction badges that are cased (with the manufacturers’ names) also may not be marked. Several photos that I have previously posted on this thread show the reverse of badges that are unmarked. Unlike my research on Egyptian gold and silver hallmarks in relation to the Order of Ismail, there is not as rich a photographic documentation or auction description details regarding the hallmarks associated with the Mixed Courts badges.

As noted in other posts here, one foreign manufacturer of these judicial badges, Froment-Meurice of Paris, is well-documented in the auction availability of these badges, and Egyptian manufacturers include Stobbe of Alexandria, Wolf Horovitz of Alexandria, and probably others as well. Although some sources identify J. Lattes of Cairo, Tewfik Bichay of Cairo, and M. Laurencin & Cie. of Alexandria, as makers of these badges, I have not yet seen photographs of makers’ hallmarks for these manufacturers nor any auction information about examples made by them (except the badge attributed to M. Laurencin & Cie in a November 2012 auction by La Galerie Numismatique, but without any images of the reverse or maker’s name on the case for that example, shown below). Paul Wood wrote that he has seen examples made by Lattes and Bichay in his post of 10 May, 2011 on the thread “Egyptian Khedivate – Judges Badge of Office” started by drclaw on 9 May, 2011 here in the Middle East & Arab States section, a link to that thread also is in my first post on 17 November, 2016 on this thread. The most commonly seen examples on auction sites are made by Froment-Meurice (many unmarked, but in Froment-Meurice cases) and Stobbe of Alexandria. I have never seen an image of the reverse of an example made by Laurencine & Cie., and have only come across the one La Galerie Numismatique example that is attributed to this Alexandrian maker. Of course, a few auction listings do identify incorrect manufacturers.

Egyptian precious metal hallmarks include a complete set of three different hallmarks (see the two illustrations below). When all 3 are present they read from L-R as the fineness mark that includes a square with the particular assay office identified and the purity of the metal (gold, silver, or platinum). The middle square hallmark identifies the kind of precious metal, and is distinct to Egyptian manufacture. The rightmost square is a letter that identifies the year, either of manufacture or hallmarking. These are all punched by the assay office that tests each piece. On some parts of particular kinds of items, only two hallmarks may be present (the fineness and date hallmarks) or a single hallmark may be stamped (always the fineness mark). However, somewhere on these pieces, all 3 hallmarks should be present.

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A complete set of all 3 Egyptian gold hallmarks on the reverse of a Commander’s neck badge of the Order of Ismail made by J. Lattes of Cairo (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=3427&category=71681&lot=2842251). They indicate, from L-R: the finesses mark of the Cairo assay office of 18 carat gold; the ibis hallmark for Egyptian-manufactured gold; and a date hallmark “A: indicating manufacture or hallmarking in 1925-1926. 

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A complete set of 3 silver hallmarks from the reverse of a Grand Officer’s Class of the Order of Ismail made by J. Lattes of Cairo (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-ORDER-OF-THE-ISMAIL-2ND-CLASS-GRAND-OFFICER-ORIGINAL-CASE-RIBBON-RARE/222734299477?hash=item33dbffb155:g:5jQAAOSwQwBZkILL). From L-R they indicate: the fineness mark from the Cairo assay office of 90% (900 silver); the cat indicating an Egyptian-made silver piece; and a date hallmark of “Z” indicating manufacture in 1924-1925.

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On the left are fineness hallmarks for Egyptian gold with the identification of the Cairo assay office for (from top-bottom): 23.5 carats; 21 carats, 18 carats; 15 carats, and 12 carats. On the right is the ibis hallmark indicating Egyptian-made gold (from: Fahmy, Azza 2007. Enchanted Jewelry of Egypt: The Tradition and Craft. The American University of Cairo Press, Cairo and New York: pg 198, credited to the Egyptian Department of Hallmarks and Measures Archives).

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Table of letters used to identify the year(s) of manufacturing or hallmarking of precious metals (for both gold and silver). English letters were used from 1916-1940, and then Arabic letters were used through the current day (a table that includes additional letters from 1982 until 2009 is shown in the 2nd image of my post of 11 January, 2019 on the thread “Question about the Order of Ismail/Nishan al-Ismail” that I started on 7 November, 2017. However, that table contains some errors). From Fahmy 2007: pg 199, derived from the Egyptian Department of Hallmarks and Measures Archives. Fahmy also notes (pg 201) that after 1949 (until 1967) the letters changed every 2 years (rather than the previous practice of changing them each year). When the war between Egypt and Israel occurred in 1967, Egypt stopped importing the steel pens used to trace hallmarks on jewelry from England until 1974 in order to conserve their reserves of foreign currency.  

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Egyptian silver hallmarks from illustrations in the Fahmy 2007 volume, pg. 200 (from the Egyptian Department of Hallmarks and Measures Archives). On the left is a chart that shows regional hallmarks from the principal assay offices. The lotus blossom in all examples is the mark for Egyptian silver that may have been instituted in 1946 to replace the cat symbol (however see the last note and hallmark examples in this post). The 3 hallmarks to the right of the lotus show the different finesses mark options that include the identification of the particular assay office (the symbol at the top of the square) and the particular silver purity markings (600, 800, and 900 silver) for any individual piece. The Arabic letter at the right is a date hallmark, in this case I am uncertain which letter it represents, whether for 1965-1967 or 1968-1974. The illustration on the right shows 3 different Egyptian silver hallmarks that are used in the middle position of a complete set of hallmarks. From top--bottom they are: the lotus blossom mark that may be for post-1946 Egyptian silver (but see the final illustrations in this post), the cat with a raised tail hallmark that many sources identify as the hallmark for Egyptian silver between 1916-1942, and a variant cat hallmark with a lowered tail, this example also showing the Arabic “90” for 90% (900) silver. I have only seen the cat with a raised tail hallmark on the Order of Ismail or on the Mixed Courts judges' badges where these hallmarks are shown in enough detail in photographs. Additional examples of the variation in how some of these marks look can be seen on my 11 January and 21 February, 2019 posts on the Order of Ismail thread. 

Froment-Meurice, Paris: Émile Froment-Meurice lived from 1837-1913 and created the design of the judicial badge that was instituted by Khedive Abbas Hilmi II. I am uncertain of the precise date when this badge was instituted, although the Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG auction description of a Stobbe manufactured Dictrict Court gold and silver judge’s badge (see below) identifies 1907 as the date of this commission. The creation of this badge for the Mixed Courts’ judges may have been associated with the judicial costume change from the earliest practice of each judge (foreign and Egyptian) wearing their own country’s judicial robes to a standardized Egyptian costume of fez, long tunic coat, along with the colored sashes and this large badge (see my discussion in the 4th paragraph of my 24 March, 2017 post in this thread). Such a promotion of Egyptian attire for the Mixed Courts judges is consistent with Khedive Abbas Hilmi II’s nationalist leanings, a source of conflict with Lord Cromer and later with Lord Kitchener that eventually resulted in the Khedive being deposed and banished from Egypt by the occupying British "protectorate" in 1914 after the beginning of WWI. Émile Froment-Meurice took over the workshop in 1859 following the death of his father, François-Désiré Foment-Meurice, in 1855. The name Froment-Meurice derives from Émile’s paternal grandmother having married her husband’s (François Froment) partner following her husband's death, goldsmith Pierre Meurice in 1832, changing the workshop name to Froment-Meurice. Émile’s father, François-Désiré Froment-Meurice took over the shop in 1837, the year of Emile’s birth. Émile Froment-Meurice is known for having worked in a distinctive sculptural or figural decorative arts style (bijoux sculptes) rather than the joaillerie and bijouterie style that previously characterized the work coming out of the shop. Perhaps his training in the delicacy of the bijouterie style is partly responsible for the beauty of the Egyptian Mixed Courts badge. Judicial badges either marked Froment-Meurice or attributed to that manufacturer appear to dominate the available examples of these badges on current auction sites. In addition to hallmarked examples, several auction badges are identified as the work of Froment-Meurice based on the case associated with the badge. Many examples that are probably the genuine work of Maison Froment-Meurice are unmarked. Most of the manufacturer's hallmarks from this maker are situated in the upper portion of the reverse within the concavity associated with the central coat of arms portion of the obverse design. I have only seen one example showing the diamond-shaped maker’s hallmark with a rose where the name “FROMENT” is above a stylized rose with stem and two leaves, with the bloom on the right side, above the word “MEURICE” (see the 4th example described below, that of Parquet Judge Apostolo N. Gennaropoulo).  

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The two photos above show an example of a Froment-Meurice hallmark on the reverse of a Mixed Courts silver judicial badge from a current eBay listing (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-KHEDIVE-SILVER-GILT-ENAMEL-JUDGE-BADGE-TOP-GRADE-EXTREMELY-RARE/223386325115?hash=item3402dcd07b:g:CLQAAOSwo3pWdm9L:rk:2:pf:1) that has been re-listed several times over at least the last 2 years (probably because of the high asking price). I have not previously illustrated the obverse of this particular badge. The uppermost image shows the placement of the manufacturer's hallmark on the reverse of the judicial badge and the lower image a close-up (offset) of the mark. No dimensions are provided for this example in the auction description. 

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Hallmark of Froment-Meurice judicial badge from a high-resolution image of a January 2019 auction by Heritage Auctions (Lot 36093) showing the same placement of the Froment-Meurice hallmark as on the eBay example above. No silver hallmarks are visible in this photo, either on the body of the badge or the tunic pin. The auction listing incorrectly identifies the manufacture as Stobbe. I previously illustrated both the obverse and reverse of this badge on my post here of 14 January, 2019. From: https://coins.ha.com/itm/egypt/egypt-abbas-hilmi-pacha-1874-1944-khedive-1892-1914-magistrate-badge-nd-c1892-au-/a/3072-36093.s?type=CoinArchives3072 and on the Numisbids.com website: https://www.numisbids.com/n.php?p=lot&sid=2946&lot=36093

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Reverse of a silver judicial badge made by Froment-Meurice showing the manufacturer’s hallmark in the same upper position as both of the other examples shown above. This badge is from a July 2015 auction by Clarke Auction Gallery, that is archived on the liveauctioneers.com website (https://www.liveauctioneers.com/item/38904932_silver-froment-meurice-egyptian-badge). No silver hallmarks are visible in this med-resolution image. It is unclear from this photo whether the mark on the proximal (end near the hings) tunic pin may be a silver hallmark. I previously illustrated the obverse and reverse of this badge, a close-up of the Froment-Meurice hallmark (also shown in the following photo, the badge in its case, the inscription on the interior case lid (also shown below), the two portrait photos of an Egyptian judge wearing either this or a comparable badge with this lot, and another unidentified medal associated with this lot of in my most recent post of 22 January, 2019. 

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Close-up of the Froment-Meurice hallmark on this same badge from the July 2015 Clarke Auction Gallery listing. (https://www.liveauctioneers.com/item/38904932_silver-froment-meurice-egyptian-badge)

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Name and address of Froment-Meurice, 372 Rue St. Honore, Paris on the interior lid of the case for the same silver judicial badge sold by Clarke Auction Gallery in July 2015 (https://www.liveauctioneers.com/item/38904932_silver-froment-meurice-egyptian-badge). The interior silk of this case lid is pale blue, as is the velvet badge bed, and the case exterior is a dark blue. 

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Above is a photo of the reverse of the only example of the silver judicial badge I have seen with the Froment-Meurice hallmark in a different position than the examples shown above. It also is a unique photo showing the diamond shaped hallmark with the name “FROMENT” above the stylized rose with stem and two leaves between the lower word “MEURICE” on this badge. I have seen this diamond-shaped hallmark commonly on many Froment-Meurice table service silver pieces. This is the reverse of the cased silver badge worn by the Greek Judge Apostolo N. Gennaropoulo of the Mixed Tribunals Parquet of Alexandria from a 2014 eBay auction archived on the WorthPoint website (https://www.worthpoint.com/worthopedia/ottoman-empire-egypt-khedivate-judges-982926374). I have previously illustrated the obverse of this badge in its original case along with the accompanying photo of Judge Gennaropoulo wearing the badge with his other court regalia, in the 9th photo of my post of 24 March, 2017. 

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Drawing of the Froment-Meurice rose hallmark used by Maison Froment-Meurice. I do not know the date ranges for the use of this hallmark. (From: https://www.langantiques.com/university/Froment-Meurice_Jewelry_Maker%27s_Mark)

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The Froment-Meurice name and business address (same as on the Clarke Auction Gallery example above, with contrasting interior silk color) on the interior lid of the case for the Judge Gennaropoulo silver Parquet judicial badge. Although the interior silk color is crimson (as is the velvet badge bed,), the exterior case color for this example is dark blue, similar to the Clarke Auction Gallery example shown above in my 22 January post. An eMedals silver judicial badge that is unmarked on its reverse is identified as a Froment-Meurice manufacture due to its associated case, that has the same crimson colored silk with gold lettering and crimson velvet badge bed but has a red leather case exterior (illustrated in the 5th photo following 4 images of the badge itself, including the 3rd and 4th photos that show the unmarked back with no silver hallmarks, on my post of 23 July, 2018). 

Stobbe of Alexandria: Stobbe is the second most commonly identified manufacturer for the Mixed Courts badges on auction listings. The manufacturer's mark for Stobbe is usually situated on the lower portion of the reverse side’s concavity that defines the central coat of arms on the obverse. I have not yet found good, high-resolution images of the Stobbe hallmarks. 

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The best image of a Stobbe hallmark I have found is on the above example of a gold and silver District courts badge from a Baldwins’ auction of December 2014 (lot 844) archived on The Saleroom.com website (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-gb/auction-catalogues/baldwins/catalogue-id-srbal10006/lot-895754ae-9b9f-4f06-9d11-a3fe00ab0fe1). The high-resolution image of the reverse shows the Stobbe mark as three lines, although some parts of the right side of the hallmarks are obscured by the closed tunic pin. The first line of the hallmarks reads: “STOBBE”; the second line reads “900” (for 900 silver); and the third line reads “ALEXAND[RIE]”. No other Egyptian silver hallmarks are visible on the reverse of this badge, nor on the pin. I previously illustrated the obverse and reverse of this badge in the first photo of my initial post starting this thread on 17 November, 2016, in the 6th photo of post of March 24, 2017, and in my correction of misidentifying this badge as an Appeals Court badge form on my post of April 4, 2017. 

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An example from a May 2015 auction by Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG (Lot 49) that is archived on the acsearch.com website (https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=4974323) has a slightly different configuration of the Stobbe Hallmark. This example is identified as being silver, gold, and enamel; the silver and gold means this is a District Courts judge’s badge (Cairo, Alexandria, Mansourah, with the former having a once-a-year session in Port Said). I illustrated this badge’s obverse and reverse on the first post of on 31 October, 2018 (2nd photo). I mistakenly identified it in that post as a silver badge, but both the German description in the auction listing and examination of the obverse, show that gold gilding can be seen (somewhat worn) on the exterior rays, and the rays around the superior 5-pointed star above the central tablet with the enameled inscription. It is unclear which other parts of the obverse of this badge are gold. This badge appears to show a symbol on the left side of the line with the name “STOBBE” that is followed to the right of the maker's name by “900” indicating 900 silver. The location “ALEXANDRIE” is centered below the other inscription. However, the low resolution of this image and the closed tunic pin obscuring some parts of the hallmark make any details very difficult to evaluate. This particular example also is noteworthy because of the visibility of 2 silver (probably?) hallmarks on the lower margin of the reverse of the body of the badge, on the first individual ray to the left of the pin’s catch situated over the most inferior 3 rays of the badge. Again, as the image is not high-enough resolution, it is not possible to determine which 2 hallmarks they are, but most likely they are the assay office’s fineness mark (from Alexandria?) for silver (?) and date hallmark. There also are 3 silver hallmarks on the tunic pin. From the most superior portion of the pin at it’s hinge, approximately ¼ down the length of the pin on the on the left bifurcated part of the pin are the 3 silver hallmarks. The low resolution of this image makes it difficult to read any of these. However, the photo does show they are oriented with the inferior portion of the hallmarks to the left, the first is certainly a fineness mark, although the assay office cannot be identified nor the fineness (probably “ 90” in agreement with the “900” at the right end of the line with Stobbe’s name). The second hallmark is clearly the cat with it’s tail raised, the Egyptian silver hallmark that may be associated with silver made mostly before 1946 (however, see comment below about the King Farouk I medal commemorating the closing of the Mixed Court). I cannot read the date hallmark in this set. No gold hallmark is apparent on the photo of the reverse of this badge.

Horovitz of Alexandria: I have only recently found Horovitz as a maker of some judicial badges, and have  seen just 2 examples (in addition to the anomalous “pin” form of the judicial badge illustrated on this thread in my post of 2 December, 2018, and the reverse of that badge also is shown below) made by Horowitz offered on auction sites. I presented some information about Wolf Horovitz, a Romanian jeweler who settled in Alexandria in my post of 1 December, 2018 when I first found a judicial badge attributed to Horovitz. This allowed me to re-evaluate the markings on a gold Appeals Court badge that I illustrated in the 4th and 5th photos of my post of 24 March, 2017 (both the obverse and reverse, and only the reverse of that badge is shown in the next photo below). 

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Reverse of the only example of a gold International Tribunals Appeals Court badge I have seen a photograph of, from a flickr site. Unfortunately, I did not copy the http address of the images for this badge before they appear to have been removed from flickr. I cannot subsequently re-locate the photos and have not successfully found them with a Google Images search. Although not a high-resolution image, the first 3 letters of “HOR” can be made out to the left of the tunic pin and “TZ” can be seen on the right side of the pin. This manufcturer’s mark is in approximately the same position as the majority of the Froment-Meurice manufacturer’s hallmarks. Near the bottom of the concavity associated with the obverse coat of arms, 2 gold hallmarks are visible to the left of the tunic pin. The photo is not detailed enough to read those hallmarks, but the rightmost one is probably a fineness mark (most likely from the Alexandria assay office as is clear in the other Horovitz example from an ongoing eBay auction shown below). As I have seen no other examples’ hallmarks nor any descriptions of the gold purity of the Appeals Court badges, I do not know how many carats may be assayed. The other Horovitz example I have seen, shown below, is silver.  

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Reverse of a silver Horovitz judge’s badge from a December 2018 eBay auction (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-KING-FAROUK-SILVER-GILT-ENAMEL-JUDGE-BADGE-IN-ORIGINAL-CASE-XXX-RARE/223228334558?hash=item33f97211de:g:1o0AAOSwBURb6gap) that continues to be re-listed on eBay, also probably because of the high asking price. This photo shows the identical placement of the Horovitz manufacturer’s hallmark (the pin also obscuring the same letters “…OVI…” as on the Appeals Court example) as on the gold Appeals Court example and the same position for the precious metal hallmarks. This photo also shows that the tunic pin has 2 silver hallmarks near the proximal (hinge) end on the left bifurcated pin portion. I previously provided images of the obverse, reverse,  some of the hallmarks, and images of the case in my 1 December, 2018 post on this thread. 

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The same silver Horovitz badge from the current eBay auction with the tunic pin open showing the manufacturer’s hallmark and the 3 silver hallmarks. 

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Close-up of the reverse of the same silver Horovitz judicial badge showing the Horovitz maker’s hallmark and the 3 silver hallmarks. Detaisl of both hallmarks are shown below.  

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Close-up of the “HOROVITZ” maker’s hallmark on the same eBay silver judges badge.

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Close-up of the 3 silver hallmarks on this same Horovitz judge’s badge. From L-R they indicate: the finesses mark from the Alexandria assay office for 90% (900) silver, the cat hallmark indicating Egyptian silver, and the date hallmark “N” indicating a manufacture or hallmarking date of 1938-1939. 

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Close-up of the two silver hallmarks on the tunic pin of the same eBay example the Horovitz judge’s badge. The hallmarks are (L-R) the Alexandria assay office fineness mark for 90% silver and the date Hallmark “N”.

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W. Horowitz name and business address (26 Rue Chérif Pacha, Alexandrie) inside the upper lid of the case of this same eBay example that is lined with tan silk, the velvet badge bed also is tan, and the case exterior appears to be dark green or black. 

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Reverse of the strange silver pin based on the iconography of the Mixed Courts badge that I illustrated on 2 December, 2018 on this thread. This is from a December 2018 auction by Bamfords (http://www.bamfords-auctions.co.uk/auctions/673/lot-3620A/_/) that is archived on The Salesroom website (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-gb/auction-catalogues/bamfords/catalogue-id-bamfor10553/lot-546dbbb8-f7b1-4f6a-a2ba-a9a0009cb8b5). The "HOROVITZ" hallmark is partially visible underneath the tunic pin in the same position as the other Horovitz examples shown above. Three silver hallmarks are visible to the left of the distal end of the tunic pin, above the catch and within the concavity of the modified coat of arms on the obverse. Although not high resolution, the 3 silver hallmarks probably represent the assay office (Alexandria?) fineness mark, the cat with tail raised mark for Egyptian silver can just be made out as the middle hallmark, and the rightmost should be a date hallmark. As noted in my original description of this anomalous piece, it appears to be somewhat crudely cast (note the negative holes on either side of the tunic pin in the middle of the concavity where judicial badges have raised attachments for securing the tablet with the inscription to the central coat of arms and affixing both components to the obverse face of the embellishment in the 3-piece construction that can be seen especially well in the 5th photo, and the 2nd photo, from a June 2018 eMedals auction in my post of 23 July, 2018 on this thread-additionally, the 6th and 7th photos in that post also show good images of the unmarked reverse of a Froment-Meurice badge), but as it is a silver jewelry piece it still should bear Egyptian hallmarks, and these do appear to be in relief. Also note the 3 silver hallmarks on the most distal portion of the right side's bifurcated proximal portion of the tunic pin before it forms the single shaft of that pin. The hallmarks on the pin cannot be read in this photo, but should represent a complete set of fineness mark, Egyptian silver mark, and a date hallmark. 

M. Laurencin & Cie, Alexandria:I have only seen one example attributed to this maker on an auction site, but the reverse of the badge is not illustrated. A November 2012 auction by La Galerie Numismatique (Lot 323) that is archived on the sixbid.com website identifies its offering as being in a case marked “M. Laurencin & Cie, Alexandrie, Egypte”. No information is provided in the auction description whether there is a manufacturer's mark on the reverse of this badge and no photographs are provided of the reverse. This is a silver example of the badge identified as measuring 112 mm high x 85 mm wide. 

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The cased silver judicial badge attributed to M. Laurencin & Cie, of Alexandria from the November 2012 action by La Galerie Numismatique (Lot 323), archived on the Sixbid.com website (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=515&category=11656&lot=539484). This badge is identified as measuring 112 mm high x 85 mm wide.  I have not previously illustrated this badge. 

Although several internet sources and some published material suggest that the silver cat hallmark was only used from 1916-1946 to indicate Egyptian-made silver and then replaced with the lotus blossom mark, the precious metal hallmarks on the 1949 King Farouk I silver medal commemorating the closure of the Mixed Courts uses the cat hallmark for Egyptian silver. I do not yet know how to resolve some of these discrepancies in the temporal periods covered by the cat or lotus blossom silver hallmarks. 

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Close up of the silver hallmarks on the lower left of the King Farouk I silver medal commemorating the termination of the Mixed Courts (from a September 2017 Auction by Stephen Album Rare coins : https://www.coinarchives.com/w/lotviewer.php?LotID=3018794&AucID=3079&Lot=1776&Val=7022a8a05524ba0ccff62c071a37a509&Match=1#match1). The high-resolution of the image of these silver hallmarks shows (L-R) the Cairo assay office fineness hallmark for 90% (900) silver, the cat hallmark for Egyptian silver, and the date hallmark for 1948-1949. 

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Obverse (L) and reverse (R) of a different King Farouk I silver medal commemorating the end of the Mixed Courts from a May 2018 auction by Stephen Album Rare Coins arcoved on the icollector.com Online Collectibles Auctions website (http://www.icollector.com/EGYPT-Farouk-1936-1952-AR-medal-32-27g-1949-EF_i29825948). Unfortunately, I do not read Arabic, but some of the inscriptions on this medal are translated by Ahmed S. Kamel on his flickr site: https://www.flickr.com/photos/askamel/2377843795/in/photolist-5Wv6Q1-a7Qy7k-5LqeKv-a7QztZ-5XBeXa-5KYdKK-5XFv79-5XFvob-4C857P-5WqN1r-5XFuQd-4Q1dWa-5QeWGi-5XFqcC-5WqRyR-5XBfEH-5WqRnx-5WqShg-5QeW4a-5Wv7BN-5XBa1H-5XFoUU-5XFvNb-5WqNYg-5UqfKu-otnVUE-5XFpZW-a1e2so-5Wv6q3-5XBfKV-RXYNPw-WNEU4t-EgzCUc-Xr4u9u-qtAtnj-q8o8uw-qpVB9M-CE4mCr-Pwiqcw-2ccgjqU-2ccgiJJ-2ccgxXJ-R5X1c7-5XFpBE-5XBaEg-Hadd4j-q8wY58-pu3qeR-ovFS5q-ouRdoY. The inscription on the left side of the bust of King Farouk I on the obverse face reads: “King of Egypt”; on the right of the obverse it reads “Farouk I”. On the lower right below the bust of King Faoruk I is the medalist signature for Sadek Tewfik Bichay. On the reverse, the Arabic inscription on the right is not translated, but is probably a translation of the French inscription on the left of the medal: “FIN DU SYSTÉME JUDICIARE MIXTE”, as also seen on the stamp commemorating this event. The silver hallmarks on this example are not as easy to read, but they include (L-R) the Cairo assay office’s fineness hallmark for 900 silver, the Egyptian cat hallmark identifying Egyptian silver, and the date hallmark (which I cannot read). As noted in the exchange with annab on 3 June and 5 June, 2018 in this thread, the “S.T.B.” on the lower right is the medalist hallmark of Sadek Tewfik Bichay. 

Edited by Rusty Greaves

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I have recently gotten an interlibrary loan of a very interesting volume celebrating the 50th anniversary of the Egyptian Mixed Courts, published in 1926: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926. This publication has a number of photos of judges (foreign and Egyptian), councilors, and other staff associated with the history of the Mixed Courts and very complete listings of all current & past judges by the courts they served as of 1926. I am going though this to get some of the photos of judges in their official costumes with badges visible for this thread and to try and resolve some of the conflicts regarding particular judges' appointment details whose named badges I have come across and presented on this thread (i.e., Herbert Hills, Joseph Timmermans, Michael Hansson, and Alexander Cockburn McBarnet). The photos in this volume are not high resolution, but they should provided some interestingly complete and well-documented images of the different courts. 

Today I am only going to post one of the images from that volume for the Court of Mansourah that includes an image of the important Egyptian modernist painter Mahmoud Saïd in his judicial regalia (page 194) at age 28. This image can be zoomed, but I will see if I can scan it at a higher resolution. This is the only photograph I have seen of Saïd in his judicial costume (front row, 2nd from L). 

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Front Row L-R=Julien Sheridan (Belgium) Mahmoud Saïd (Egypt, Chef du Parquet), Hangs Gram Bechmann (Denmark, Président), Maurice de Wee (Belgium, Vice-Président), Ahmed Bey Mazloum (Egypt). 
Back row L-R=Iscandar Azer Bey (Egypt), Hassan Kamel (Egypt, Substitut du Procureur Général), Antonio Pennetta (Italy), Pehr de Cederskjold (or Cedereschiold?, Sweden), JoséFesser y Reina (Spain), Ismail Gazzarine (Egypt, Substitut du Procureur Général, actuellement transféré á Alexandrie)
 
Mahmoud Saïd painted a portrait of Maurice de Wee (shown in the portrait above, 2nd from R) in civilian clothes in c.1924-26. Saïd painted 2 portraits of Ahmed Bey Mazloum (also shown in the portrait above, 1st from R) in civilian clothes as well (1917 & 1921). I have previously posted the portrait that Saïd painted of the the American judge and President of the Court of Appeals, Jasper Brinton (painted in 1944), in my post of 1 December, 2016 on this thread, the only portrait he did of a judge wearing part of his costume. Interestingly, Ahmed Mazloum Pacha in the above photo looks much more like the Mahmoud Saïd portrait of him made in 1917 than the 1921 portrait of him with gray moustaches and hair (is there perhaps an attribution problem of the subject in the 1921 painting?). I still have some confusion about Saïd's judicial career, however I have confirmed that Saïd worked principally in the Parquet, the prosecutor's office. He was appointed the deputy district prosecutor (Parquet) in 1921 (substitute) and promoted in that position in 1922. He was named Chief of the Parquet in Mansourah in 1925, and probably served on the district Courts in Alexandria starting in 1937, and retired from his legal career in 1949, the year of the closing of the Mixed Courts. Saïd was awarded the Egyptian Kingdom Order of the Nile (4th Class) probably after his retirement in 1949, the Republic-era Order of Independence of the Republic, the Egyptian State Merit Award for Arts in 1960  and the French Légion d'honneur in 1951 (although some biographical sources identify it as the "Medal for Honorary Merit"). Saïd's judicial badge (silver), Order of the Nile (with ribbon & rosette, hence 4th Class), the Order of Independence of the Republic (sans ribbon), and several art medals awarded to him are housed in Mahmoud Saïd Museum in Gianaclis, Alexandria (6 Mahmoud Saïd Pasha Street). 
 
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I also recently came across the above image of the Danish Judge Carl Valdemar Kraft (it can be zoomed for better details). This photo is from a postcard by the Atelier of Andreas D. Reiser in Alexandria (although undated, this image must have been taken between Kraft's initial appointment in 1896 and 1914, Reiser was a Romanian who moved to Egypt in 1884 and had studios in Alexandria & Cairo. Andreas Reiser died in 1898, his son Lucien and partner Anton Binder continued to run the studio in Alexandria until 1914, and then moved to Munich) showing Kraft in his maroon fez, black tunic, red sash (for the District Courts), and judicial badge (that should be gold and silver). This portrait provides good detail of the decorative sash knot for the District Courts' sash. Kraft was appointed to the District Court in 1896 in Mansourah and transferred to Cairo in 1901. He retired in 1920, having reached the age limit for serving on the courts (70). Kraft was awarded the Grand Officer Class of the Order of the Nile upon his retirement. 
Edited by Rusty Greaves

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Below is an image of a named Egyptian judge on the Mixed Courts. 

large.9711242159_c6318fd3e5_o.jpg.55e491c2b607581c960e6f695a7e2a8c.jpgThis undated photo shows Ambassador Sami Ali Aboulfetouh Bey (R) and Judge Ismail Ali Aboulfetouh Bey (L). I can find only a small amount of information about Sami Ali Aboulfetouh Bey, but Judge Ismail Aboulfetouh is listed in the 1941 and 1943 editions of Le Mondain Égyptien: The Egyptian Who's Who, L' Annuarie de l' Elite  d' Egypt. (F.E. Nouri et Fils, le Caire: 1941: http://www.cealex.org/sitecealex/diffusion/etud_anc_alex/LVR_000055_I_w.pdf; 1943: http://cealex.org/sitecealex/diffusion/etud_anc_alex/LVR_000018_I_w.pdf; these listings also identify orders & decorations held by the individuals) as a judge of the Mixed Courts, living in Cairo. In this photo, Judge Aboulfetouh is wearing his tarboosh, a European-style formal jacket with white tie rather than the Egyptian-style long tunic, a bicolored sash, and probably a silver judicial badge. The bi-colored sash (green superior and red inferior) is that of the Parquet, although I cannot confirm some details of his appointments. The 1939 edition of Le Mondain Égyptien: The Egyptian Who's Who (https://www.yumpu.com/fr/document/view/39404410/lvr-000091-w/41) identifies Judge Ismail Aboulfetouh as the Chief of the Parquet in Alexandria. In the 1939 and 1941 editions of Le Mondain Égyptien: The Egyptian Who's Who,  an individual named Samy Aboulfetouh is identified as an Assistant Director of the Section of European and American Affairs, in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Cairo.  Samy Aboulfetouh also is identified in the 1941 publication as an Officer of the Iranian Order of the Crown. From: https://www.flickr.com/photos/kelisli/9711242159/in/photostream (photo Courtesy of: Samia Ismail Aboulfetouh)

 

Edited by Rusty Greaves

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I believe I may have identified 2 individuals in two of the best portraits of Mixed Courts judges that have been posted on this thread. I have previously posted 2 of these portraits of one Egyptian judge and Egyptian Zogist posted the other of a European judge, but will add them here as well for reference. These visual identifications are based principally on photographic information from the interesting volume celebrating the 50th anniversary off the Egyptian Mixed Courts, published in 1926 that I referenced for the photo of Mahmoud Said in my post of 5 March, 2019 (Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le :journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926). While my comparisons are hardly ironclad, I have been searching other images for some time trying to see if it was possible to identify these 2 individuals. One of the greatest difficulties is that these portraits (the first 2 photos below and the painted portrait that is the 5th image below) were made when the judges were young (probably ~1911), and the best photos I have found with possible matches date from ~1926. The same is true comparing Judge Crabitès, whose 1911 portrait at the time of his initial appointment to the District Courts in Cairo (age 34) differ's markedly from how he looked when the 7th photo below was taken, probably c1926. I would not post this if I did not feel there is a very good chance that the individuals depicted in these portraits that show excellent details of the judicial costumes of the Mixed Courts' judges are the Judges I may have been able to identify through the detailed information available in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume. 

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These 2 studio portraits above, made in the Jean Weinberg Studio in Cairo, were offered on eBay auctions by shebacoin between ~October 2017-September 2018. They show an unnamed Egyptian judge wearing the green sash of the Appeals Court. I believe they represent Judge Mahmoud El Toayar Bey. I have compared faces and body girth for the Egyptian judges who appear in photos of the Appeals Court in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume, and while the images below show a slightly older man, I think the similarities make this a high probability that the studio portraits above are of Judge Mahmoud El Toayar Bey. No other Egyptian judge in the Appeals Court photos from the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume show a better match in their facial features (especially the eyes, eyebrows, mouth, chin and cheeks) and robust body to those seen in the studio portraits above of the unnamed Egyptian Appeals Court judge. Judge Mahmoud El Toayar Bey was appointed as Chief of the Parquet of Mansourah in November 1911, transferred to the Cairo in February, 1913, and was promoted to the Court of Appeals in May, 1922. His role on the Appeals Court appears to have been as Conseiller (advisor) to the Court, possibly not as a judge. Several additional photos in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume also appear to show some court advisors wearing the same judicial garb as judges. 

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Mahmoud El Toayar Bey is shown as the fourth man from the near end on the left side of the table (1st man on that side from the near end wearing a tarboosh). This image can be zoomed for a somewhat more detailed view. The other judges are: Mohamed Bahi El Dine Barakat Bey (Egypt), Constant van Ackere (Belgium), Bernard Favenc (France), Mahmoud El Toayar Bey (Egypt), Richard Augustus Vaux (Britain), Abdel Aziz Kahil Pacha (Egypt), Fouad Gress Bey (Egypt), Michael Hansson (Norway, Vice President, see also the photo Judge Hansson in my post of 3, May 2018 in this thread), Nicolas Cambas (Greece, President), Firmin van den Bosch (Belgium, Procureur Général), Soubhi Ghali Bey (Egypt), Ralph Bertie Peter Cator (Britain), Moustapha Behram Bey (Egypt),  Alexander Cockburn McBarnet (Britain), Jasper Yeates Brinton (USA, his portrait painted by Mahmoud Said [see above post of 5 March 2019] is shown in my post of 1 December, 2016), Giovanni Baviera (Italy), and Don Enrique Garcia de Hereros (Spain). At the far right is M. G. Coroni Bey, the Chief Clerk. (Above photo from: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 191). 

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Mahmoud  El Toayar Bey is shown in this 1926 courtroom photo as the 4th judge seated from the left end of the semicircular bench. This image also can be zoomed, but the additional details of Judge Toayar Bey are not terrific. The other judges are (L-R): Firmin van den Bosch (Belgium, Procureur Général), Constant van Ackere (Belgium), Richard Augustus Vaux (Britain), Mahmoud El Toayar Bey (Egypt), Jasper Yeates Brinton (USA), Ralph Bertie Peter Cator (Britain), Soubhi Ghali Bey (Egypt), Michael Hansson (Norway, Vice President), Nicolas Cambas (Greece, President), Fuad Gress Bey (Egypt), Moustapha Behram Bey (Egypt), Abdel Aziz Kahil Pacha (Egypt), Giovanni Baviera (Italy), Bernard Favenc (France), Mohamed Bahi El Dine Barakat Bey (Egypt), and Don Enrique Garcia de de Hereros (Spain). In front of the judges are the lawyers for the plaintiff, and nearest the camera are the clerks, some lawyers (wearing the French chausse à bourrelet or, more commonly it is called the épitoge, roughly the French version of the academic hood in British and American usage), and an interpreter. (Above photo from: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 198). 

Mahmoud El Toayar Bey also is identified in the Le Mondain Ègyptien: the Egyptian Who's Who: L' Annuaire de l' Elite d' Egypt. F. E. Noury & Fils, le Caire for 1939 (pg. 361), 1941 (pg. 272) and 1943 (pg. 246) as having been awarded the Grand Officer Class of the Italian Order of the Crown, the Grand Officer of the Tunisian Order of Glory (Nichan Iftikhar), the Spanish Cross of Isabella the Catholic, and the Knight of the Swedish Royal Order of the Polar Star. Those same three issues of Le Mondain Egyptian also identify him as a former legal advisor to the Appeals Court, indicting that he must have retired form his judicial career before 1939. Unfortunately, I currently have little additional information about Mahmoud  El Toayar Bey. 

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Egyptian Zogist posted this portrait on 23 November, 2016 in this thread. I have found several versions of this portrait on Pinterest (for example: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/410460953518450951/?lp=true). All of these borrowed images identify the individual incorrectly as Abbas Hilmi II. The red sash and the gold and silver judicial badge clearly indicates this is a judge of one of the District Courts. The individual looks European. I have not found any other versions of this portrait, other than the several Pinterest examples that all misidentify the subject as Khedive Abbas Hilmi II. After searching several photos, I believe this may represent Raoul Houriet, a Swiss judge on the District Courts of Cairo. 

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I believe that there is a strong resemblance between the painted portrait above and a couple photographs of Judge Raoul Houriet in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume. These 2 pictures (above and below) show an older man than in the painted portrait above, but the similarity in nose, chin, chin dimple (somewhat visible in this photo), mustaches, and glasses in these couple photos seem a very good match with the portrait. Some aspects of Houriet's ear in the above image are the only facial element that contrasts with the above painted portrait. He is not listed in the 1939, 1941, or 1943 Le Mondain Ègyptien: the Egyptian Who's Who: L' Annuaire de l' Elite d' Egypt. F. E. Noury & Fils, le Caire, that also has photos of certain notable individuals (Egyptians and foreigners). I have not found another individual's portrait that seems to match the painted portrait of a younger judge better than these couple images of Raoul Houriet. This image can be zoomed, but the detail is not much better in enlarged views. Raoul Houriet lived in Egypt from 1910-1937. He was appointed to the District Courts in Cairo in May of 1916, and made the President of that Tribunal in January 1922. He became an Appeals Court judge in Alexandria in 1929. A small amount of information about Judge Houriet's judicial career in Egypt is published in: Zimmili Hardman, Esther, 2008. From Camp Caesar to Cleopatra’s Pool: A Swiss Childhod in Alexandria, 1934-1950. The Alexandria and Mediterranean Research Center Monogaphs 4. Biblioteca Alexandrina, in Les Tribunaux Mixtes et la Suisse. In Numéro Spécial du 1er Aout 1949 du Journal Suisse d’Égypte et du Proche-Orient. Alexandria: 1949, pp.79–81 avaialbe online at: https://www.bibalex.org/Attachments/Publications/Files/2013032015414960823_FromCampCeaesartoCleopatrasPool.pdf), and in: Shalash, Yehia. My Book Project: The Swiss Egyptians & The Egyptian Swiss The Theban Legion Story (book proposal). AAHA = Amicale Alexandrie Hier et Aujourd'hui. Cahier No 76 September 2014 (available at http://www.cealex.org/pfe/diffusion/PFEWeb/pfe_028/PFE_028_019_w.pdf). Mention of his role in sitting on the board selecting the architectural design for the Palace of Justice in Cairo, built between 1925 -1934, as the only representative of the Mixed Courts on the panel reviewing the submitted architectural designs is in a short article on the Palace of Justice by Samir Raafat in the Cairo Times of 2 April, 1998 (avaialbe at: http://www.egy.com/landmarks/98-04-02.php). (Above photo from: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 35).

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Raoul Houriet (Switzerland, President) is seated at the head of the table at the left end. This image can be zoomed for greater detail comparing Judge Houriet to the painted portrait above. Again, the facial configuration of nose, chin (and dimple), mustaches, and glasses seem to match the image of the younger judge in the painted portrait better than any other judges' images for the District Courts that I have been able to examine. The other judges in this photo are (from R to L, beginning with the individual on Judge Houriet's right, on the near side of the table): Mohamed Onsi Bey (Egypt, Chief of the Parquet), Pierre Crabitès (USA, my wife's great grandfather, see the 1911 portrait of a younger Judge Crabitès in the second photo of my post on 14 November, 2018), Mohamed Izzet Bey (Egypt), Abdel Latif Korchid Bey (Egypt), Mohamed Naguib Choukri Bey (Egypt), Mohamed Fouad Housny Bey (Egypt), Alfred Emile Frédéric Sandstroem (Sweden), George Arthur Warrington Booth (Britain), Léon Pierre Joseph Bassard (France), Constantin Vryakos (Greece), Charles Oger du Rocher (France), Halvard Nicolaï Heggen (Norway), Moustafa Neguib Bey (Egypt), Arthur Samson Preston (Britain), Hugues Holmes (Britain), Franco Gautero (Italy), Zaki Ghali Bey (Egypt), Niels Wilhelm Boëg (Denmark), Vincenzo Falqui-Cao (Italy), Georges Molotsvoff (Russia), Francis J. Peter (Switzerland, Vice President). To the left of President Houriet is M. Lucchesi Bey, Chief Clerk. (Above photo from: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 193).

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Image of the judicial badge design on the back cover of the volume: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926. 

Edited by Rusty Greaves
correcting spell-check

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As always, some excellent research and great photos here. Thanks Rusty!

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