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  2. Peter, perhaps i am wrong but i believe that the skull and bones as symbol of the Death is closely related with the Christianismus .
  3. Today
  4. Hi Thanks for the reply, I've decided to look for "Period made" examples, those normally used as museum displays etc, still copies I know but with a bit more "History" regards
  5. The British always referred to Rhodesia as Southern Rhodesia even after the federation disbanded and Northern Rhodesia became Zambia and Nyasaland became Malawi. Part of the argument between Ian Smith and various UK governments was if Zambia and Malawi had become independent from the Britain in 1964 why wasn't Rhodesia allowed to become independent.
  6. It is a fairly obvious symbol to connect with soldiering - and pirates, I suppose - as death is part of the whole package. The Elizabethans were fond of including skulls in artwork too, as a reminder of Man's mortality.
  7. Yesterday
  8. Yes, the Police section of the GMIC is now named in his honour, as that was his first love. He lived in SA for many many years and ran a militaria shop - in Jo'burg, I believe - but was an inveterate contributor to a number of the pages on this site and very willing to assist others with research and with his knowledge. He is much missed.
  9. He was a a colonel and promoted Generalmajor a la suite Graf Castell-Castell
  10. These crosses are still around on German ebay and according to the offering, it's a multi-piece cross with iron core, but non-silver (still silver marked...) frame. Those are brand-new, and most unlikely to be associated with any older German firm that made awards "back in the days". Only good thing here: they are offered as fake. Nothing for my collection, but if someone needs a filler... there are worse made ones, for sure.
  11. In general, I can give thumbs up for this statement, but I have to clearify: Baden changed from gold to silver gilt - or, to be acurate, to silver with a mechanical gold plating - as far back as 1910. So, this wasn't made due to war caused gold shortage, but just to save some money for the state. However, it is very easy to alter a knight's cross 2nd class to a (gilt) knight's cross 1st class, just by gilding it. From poor pictures, I couldn't tell original and manipulated pieces apart... they are a mine field, in my opinion. Unless they have the "D" mark stamped in the medaillon body. As a Baden collector, I avoid anything else.
  12. I had the same recently, and must clearify: such a combination of metal bows was never worn officially, but rather put together by a collector. You could only have the "1870 - 71." or one of the two other "1870." and "1871." bows, or maybe both of the latter in strange cases, plus, of course, the "1866." to any of those combinations. But not all at once. Your medal, Dean, seems to be an early striking, with the spotty arranged letters in the reverse inscription. Such a medal would most likely have been awarded in 1839 to a veteran of the Napoleonic wars... See Volle, Henning. Die Orden und tragbaren Ehrenzeichen des Großherzogtums und der Republik Baden. Freiburg im Breisgau 2019. p. 389–408.
  13. Dear CCJ, I agree that the loops on the left side are for the Iron Crescent. The horizontal loops on the right side are for a medal/ribbonbar which can be filled by any piece which is appropriate for the rank. Talking about rank, I don't have a great view of the shoulderboards but I think it is a colonel if my eyes do not deceive me, this would allow for some lovely steckkreuzen together with an EK1 on the lower right side. Kind regards, Laurentius
  14. The Ludvigsen volume gives award numbers for both pre- (mainly 1860s/1870s) and WW1 awards by years, the Geile work on Prussian WW1 awards gives the WW1 awards, those to the army only, with names, ranks, and dates. However, we have to keep in mind that from late 1916 on, they were produced and usually awarded in silver gilt! Once, when I had a damaged example, I discussed this very issue with Daniel Krause, who assumed there were ca. thirty commanders and roughly a dozen grand commander crosses in real gold awarded in WW1...
  15. Production of appointments. An officer was required to display his appointments, including his truncheon, at the beginning of his shift, to his supervisor. This was a long-standing practice but not one which continues to the present day. Police forces were organized on para-military lines. Officers saluted their superiors, boots were polished, faces shaved and, naturally enough, the shift would begin with an army-style parade.
  16. Right Sascha, that guy is a terrible purveyor of crap. I see the same stuff being offered every week, and apparently there are buyers for this Schrott.
  17. Gents, Almost five years later, this "set" is once again listed on the well-known auction site. Asking price: $12,499.00. Although the current owner/seller is located in California and not Greece, the same qualifiers identified in the above historical posts pertain. Regards, slava1stclass
  18. What decorations would be appropriate on the right side of the tunic breast? I know the Turkish War Medal and possibly other foreign but I really don’t see many Germans with awards on the right side And on this tunic, two sets of loops on the right
  19. Hello! Does anybody know how many Iron Crosses that was awarded to Finnish soldiers during ww2? Is there any list of it´s recipients available?
  20. A grouping with a Virtituti Military and a Grunwald 3rd class is exceptionnal!!!
  21. There were many German settlers in the Netherlands Indies. Most came as traders seeking their fortunes, gradually participating in all aspects of the colonies life. Paul
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