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aussiesoldier

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About aussiesoldier

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    Australia
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    Ex-Aust Reserve Infantry, History teacher, developed an interest in C19th/C20th military swords

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  1. My cavalry comment is linked to the shape of the handle and what looks like a straight blade for the most right hand officer. The 'negro' look - is it not possible? There were many 'gemischte Rasse' (mulato?) Germans in nth Germany, particularly the port cities. Happy to go along with your description.
  2. At least on photo 4, a cavalry photograph, shows German negro soldiers. Most unusual in Bavaria, although I believe many served.
  3. This is a Pattern 1822/46 Light Cavalry sword. It is 103.5cm long. The 1845 blade design, outlined by Henry Wilkinson, was intended to be a more practical fighting blade than the pipe-backed blade which was used as regulation for officers' swords between 1821 and 1845/6. The slightly curved, polished steel blade is 82.6 cm long. The hilt and the grip is wire wrapped black leather. It is clearly made to withstand wear and use, however, unlike the standard pattern which had a knurled thumb rest, this example only has the outline of the border of where the knurling should be. Instead of a brass proof disk in the ricasso, there is only a circular outline of where one should be. I think this may indicate that it was a later production. Cavalry officers carried different pattern combat sabres akin to those of the trooper versions, but were often lighter in weight and had higher levels of finish and workmanship. The sword is a single fullered blade design, with crisp deep etching. The blade is straight and solid in the hilt. The hilt is officially described as a half basket, that is, a three bar, nickel steel design. The twisted triple silver wire is all in place, but the leather grip covering has lifted a bit from below the ferrule. The blade is engraved T H R 1854. (T H R – Thomas Hanson Radcliff) on one side and the bottom of the other side is marked "Parker Field & Sons, 233 Holborn London". Parker Field and Sons of London were the largest manufacturer by far for the police, prison service and customs. Thomas Hanson Radcliff was born in 1823 on Portsea Island, Hampshire. Little is known of his family, however, they had sufficient resources to purchase an Infantry Officer’s commission for him on the 3rd of April, 1840. Appointed as Infantry Ensign (@ £450). The purchase of officer commissions in the British Army was the practice of paying money to be made an officer in the cavalry and infantry regiments of the English and later British Army. By making a payment, a commission as an officer could be secured, avoiding the need to wait to be promoted for merit or seniority. It ensured that the officer class was largely filled by persons having a vested interest in maintaining the social and political status quo; thereby reducing the possibility of the military taking part in a revolution or coup. It ensured that officers had some private means and were less likely to engage in looting or pillaging or to cheat the soldiers under their command by engaging in profiteering using army supplies. Ensign Thomas Hanson Radcliff was commissioned and posted to the 1st Battalion, 2nd (The Queen’s Royal) Regiment of Foot in 1840. The battalion was stationed in the Desa Barracks, in Bombay. He was promoted Lieutenant on the 16th of August 1842. He saw combat service with the battalion in September, 1842 in Afghanistan, taking part in the Battle of / Retreat from Kabul, and was again in combat in 1844 in the Maratha Gwalior Campaign. He was eligible for the campaign medal and clasp. From 1852 until 1859 he was posted as Paymaster, 9th Regiment (Queen's Royal) Lancers, stationed at Umballah, in Bengal. Conforming to dress regulations, he purchased THIS 1822 light cavalry sword, using his wages to buy a personalised blade. He saw combat service again between May, 1857 and March, 1858, in the siege & capture of Delhi and the relief of Lucknow Delhi, although, how much of this was ‘combat’ is hard to define. He was however, eligible for the Medal with clasp. In January, 1860 he changed course yet again and was posted, as Paymaster Grade 3 to the Headquarters in Calcutta as paymaster to the Royal Artillery in India between 1860 and 1863. During this time he was promoted, Hon. Major, (10th January, 1860). Between 1864 and 1865 he was paymaster of the Military Train (Commissary) in India. Between 1866 and 1871 he was posted as Paymaster Grade 3 to the 3rd Battalion, The Prince Consort’s Own Rifle Brigade in Rawul Pindee. Major Thomas Radcliff returned to England, in January 1872, stationed in Portsmouth, with the 3rd Battalion, The Prince Consort’s Own Rifle Brigade. He retired that year to Portsea Island, Hampshire, England and died in April, 1873.
  4. Hi, I collect and research military swords and then use them as teaching aids with secondary school history students. Recently I have taken to giving talks to antique and military sword collectors. It was my intention to keep the sword as part of my display and for the purposes stated. I have no intentions of selling and when I die I was going to give it to the local RSL as a representation of Korean War service. I can assure you it is well looked after and as you can see, I spent a great deal of time researching the background of its owner. I have been unable to discover his WW2 service beyond the bare bones of joining the RAAF and qualifying for air accident and fighter aircraft combat. It certainly wasn't a cheap purchase at auction and postage is horrendous from O/S at the moment. The exchange rate is a shocker. I am retired and this is my 'hobby'. I hope this helps. Yours George
  5. Gentlemen, The following is the result of a great deal of research into a sword I purchased that did NOT fit into what I thought was correct, however, I believe I have scored a gem - something quite special and seemingly rare. Following the end of WWI and the creation of the post-war German Weimar Republic, Reichswehr Infantry Officers initially used an IOD-89 pattern Degen. The Degen was without the WRII grip cipher and with the Weimar pattern eagle without the Prussian crown, WRII cipher, sword or sceptre replacing the Imperial eagle on the guard. It is my belief that this sword is an early 1919 - late 1921-22 sword based upon the design of the eagle in the folding guard (charniett zum hochenklappen) [sorry if that is wrong]. As you can see the guard utilises the basic design of the Imperial Eagle and crown but does not have Kaiser Wilhelm's WR II monogram on the eagle's breast nor does this monogram appear on the hilt handle. The eagle does show the eagle holding the sword and sceptre of the state, and is shown wearing the state crown. This bird is extremely detailed throughout. The eagle, however, is not indicative of the Weimar version that commenced with the design shown and later changed to incorporate a new, neutral shield. This sword was beautifully crafted! The blade measures approx. 29” long with the overall length of the sword being approx. 34 ½”. Size 3 Officer’s sword. (Douglas, Swords of Germany, 1900/1945) On the side of the blade, there is an etching that reads "Paul Weyersburg & Co. Solignen" (active between 1905 – 1940). This sword was still listed in the Eickhorn sword sales catalogue in 1930 as their pattern No. 316. Who would have bought these swords? The vast majority of officers were taken over from the old army into the Reichswehr and therefore still had their IOD. Quite possibly, only new officers, or those that had lost their sword, would need to purchase. The Weimar Reichswehr was less than 100,000 and one would imagine that the need for new infantry officer’s sword was less than a 500 between December 1918 and February, 1922. The demand in the 14 months would, therefore, have been low. One should not forget that these early post-war years were tough times. Many officers and non-commissioned officers will surely have chosen the cost-effective version and converted the imperial IOD with a new hinge and handle without a WRII monogram. Why this low demand? Reichswehr officers were able to continue using their old sword, and there was no reason to buy a new one. Some new officers may have been conscious of tradition, that is, wanted to emulate the legacies of their "warlike" ancestors or their own past, if possible. However, in 1922 a new standard uniform or unitary sabre was introduced for the Reichswehr and retained for the Wehrmacht was introduced as; "Unitary sabre (order of February 17th, 1922, RWMin. No. 703 / 1.22.Jn.2 III. - HVBlatt 1922, No. 109)" of the Reichswehr.” These sabres were issued to the Portepee non-commissioned officers from 1922 and became the new model for officers in the Wehrmacht after 1933. Unfortunately, a distinction between the standard Reichswehr sabre and the 1933-45 sabre is difficult. So, I hope my research is close to the truth. It is the oNLY example of this sword and eagle combination I have been able to fit on the internet. Later examples displaying the Weimar Riechswehr eagle are shown but rare.
  6. John Edgar Dent was born in Dec. 1863 at Hendon, Middlesex. He attended Sandhurst Military College in 1882 graduating as a Lieutenant. He was commissioned and posted 2nd Battalion, King’s Own Borderers, in Gibraltar in Mar, 1883. He would have purchased his first sword upon commissioning, a 1845 Infantry sword. The 2nd Battalion return to England in June, 1886 and was renamed King’s Own Scottish Borderers in 1887. In July, 1888, his battalion embarked for Egypt, joining the Suakin Field Force in Dec. 1888. Lt. Dent saw combat service in Soudan & Frontier. He fought at Gemaizah (Medal with Clasp & Khedive’s Star) and at Toski (Mentioned in Dispatches & 4th Class Medal of the Medjidie with Clasp). He was Wounded In Action in April, 1889 whilst part of the Upper Nile River Expedition. In 1890, the battalion embarked for India being barracked at Umbalia and at Meean Meer. In January of 1891 he was posted to the 1st Battalion and return to England, being promoted to Captain in Feb. 1891. Capt. Dent probably replaced his worn blade with a new pattern blade to commemorate his promotion. On the 1st Sept. 1894 he was posted to the 3rd Battalion in Dumfries, Scotland as Adjudant, HQ Coy. 3rd (Militia) Battalion. In Jan. of 1900 he was posted to the 1st Battalion and embarked for Sth Africa, 26th January. He saw combat service between 1900 to 1901 with the 1st Battalion served in the Boer War taking part in the action at Paardeberg, the Traansval & at the Battle of Rustenberg in October 1900, and in May the following year at Vlakfontein & Lambrechtfontein. He was eligible for the Queen’s South Africa Medal and the King’s South Africa Medal with Paarderberg, Johannesburg, and Cape Colony clasps. Capt. Dent return to England in 1901 and is promoted Major upon retirement in 1903. His sword is re-hilted with a Edward VII hilt, perhaps as a gift for service. He dies on the 18th Sept. 1906, single and well off.
  7. Gentlemen, I had the pleasure of bringing this sword back to Australia from California(?????). Can't help but think it has some importance to the Royal Australian Navy. It is a Wilkinson sword and engraved with his initials and name; J R N Salthouse = LCDR (P) John Roy Norman Salthouse (RAAF) RAN Service – 3rd FEB 1948 TO MAY 1968 * John Roy Norman Salthouse was born on October 10, 1925, the son of Ms. Rosenwax and John. West Melbourne Victoria J R N Salthouse (438534) enlisted in the RAAF on 23 October, 1943, probably in Melbourne and obviously trained as a fighter pilot rising to the rank of Flight Lieutenant. There is a limited record of his WW2 service available. I have no clear idea if he saw combat in the later years/months of the war. Qualified for fighter combat and as an accident investigator. No evidence of a combat posting. When the British Pacific Fleet and its aircraft carriers came to Australia in the latter part of the war, approximately 24 RAAF pilots volunteered to transfer to the Royal Australian Navy Volunteer Reserve (RANVR) and these men subsequently served aboard Royal Navy aircraft carriers and at Royal Navy Air Stations established in Australia. These pilots have their Navy List marks X* P = General List Seaman Officer who was transferred primarily for aviation duties and is not qualified to undertake the full duties of an Officer of the Seaman Specialisation. He seems to be of a subsequent batch transferred to the Navy. Ft Lt Salthouse (RAAF) accepted a transfer to the Royal Australian Navy as a Lt (Pilot) on the 3rd of February, 1948. Initial service training was conducted at HMAS Cerebus and on the heavy cruiser, HMAS Australia. He was sent to Britain for a deck landing course in Britain at RNAS Heron at Yeovil and conversion to Sea Furies at RNAS St. Merryn.He sailed ‘home’ on the Stratheden arriving on 23 April, 1949. HMAS Sydney was commissioned into the RAN on 16th December, 1948. Sydney's maiden voyage saw the delivery of the first two squadrons operated by the Fleet Air Arm: 805 Squadron with Hawker Sea Furies, and 816 Squadron with Fairey Fireflies. The two squadrons operated as the 20th Carrier Air Group (CAG). Lt (P) Salthouse was posted to 808 Squadron at this time, 21st Carrier Air Group. During the Korean War, HMAS Sydney left Australia on 31st August, 1951, was deployed to Korean waters, with a wartime 20th Carrier Air Group of 805, 808, and 817 Squadrons embarked. (photo attached) The Fleet Air Arm operated in a strike, ground support, and escort role during the deployment. Promoted to Lieutenant Commander Appointed Commanding Officer of 805 Squadron on the 09 April 1951, as the 1st Australian Commanding Officer of a Royal Australian Navy Fleet Air Arm Squadron. (This came from a Fleet Air Arm site and can't be supported by his record, nor the Navy Lists) His squadron at war for 8 months as they conducted fighter and fighter bomber missions in the skies over the Korean Peninsula and the CAG was very highly regarded for its ground support accuracy. HMAS Sydney returned to Sydney on 22nd of February. he is relieved as CO 805Sq on the following day, 28th January, 1952. He made no further combat tours in his career. Continued to serve with the 805 & 808 Squadrons as Senior Pilot until April, 1955 HMAS Sydney, HMAS Melbourne, and NAS Albatross. Whilst test flying Fairfly WJ112 he crashed landed on 2nd of June, 1954, as a result of an engine fire and making an emergency wheels-up at Nowra Air Station, Albatross. LCDR Salthouse retrained as a helicopter pilot during September - December, 1955. Completes his Naval Watch Keeping Certificate on HMAS Anzac, January, 1956. I can only conclude that this was a prerequisite for promotion. Promoted to LtComder and takes Command of 723 Squadron on 3rd Feb 1957. 723 Sq. operates the following helicopters: 5 Sycamores and 2 Auster J5-G Autocars and two Firefly target tugs in May 1959, serving on HMAS Melbourne and HMAS Anzac. He commences a second tour as CO of this squadron on 24th July, 1959. Posted to Britain RN Air Station, (HMS Seahawk) Culdrose, Britain, February 1962 – September, 1963. Whirlwind Wessex helicopter conversion course (fully qualified 16 July, 1962) Posted as test pilot for Wessex Test Flight & Acceptance Program supervising the acceptance of all of the Wessex helicopters before they were sent to Australia. N7-200, the first RAN Wessex to be flown, at HMNAS Heron at Yeovil, (UK) on the 6th Sept. 1962 Posted 18 Aug, 1966 – 2 Nov, 1966 NAS Albatross Scout Helicopter conversion course Posted 723 Squadron, on 19th December, 1966, OIC of Survey Flight (Helicopters) He crashed again when on the 8th April, 1967. He was piloting the last Scout helicopter, WS102, operating off hydrographic survey ship, HMAS Moresby, mapping Australia's and New Guinea’s coastline and waterways, when he was forced to ditch in Wewak Harbour during take-off. LCDR JRN Salthouse retired from active service in May, 1968. Seems to have retired to Victoria with his second wife and daughter still only in his forties and worked as an insurance agent. He died on December 8, 1986, in Victoria, Australia, at the age of 61. The scabbard was in a very bad shape and there was considerable rust on the lower ends of the blade. I had purchased two replacement pieces on eBay from England but HMCustoms confiscated them ????? I ended up buying a cheap replacement RAN Naval sword, removed the chape and gave the sword to my 8 year old grandson. Not finished with the restoration but I love having another names sword. The sword knot is is poor shape but I don't want to replace it.
  8. Chris, Don't know if this is true of all Infantry swords of the Bavarian Army but I own two very different I.O.S 1855 swords. (1) A fairly plain sword measuring 95.6 cm fitted with black metal fittings and a black scabbard made by Josef Vierheiligs of Munich, 1855 – 1887. I have assumed that this might well be purchased by a Unteroffizier mit Portpee or a cheap skate officer! (2) A more elaborate Löwekopf Infanterie Offizier Säbel, 94 cm long with brass fittings and a black scabbard showing no makers' mark. Would one expect officer's swords to usually be shorter or is this just to suit a shorter officer.
  9. Thanks, that's what I thought. Both things could be true - a large number of a new style IOD89 made under King Karl and not enough sold to replace the monogram AND simply leaving the it that way. If you place a monogram on your weapons, why would it not reflect the current monarch?
  10. Makes sense = Einjährig-Freiwilliger (One-Year Volunteer Enlistee) I looked up traditional German Gothic and that is what a gothic 'G' was but an E !!!!!! Thanks. No ideas on the other problem?
  11. Knowledgeable Colleagues. I have been pondering these two problems for a long while. 1. Are all Kingdom of Württemberg I OD89 engraved with the royal cipher of King Karl I? Did it eventually change in the C20th? 2. Is a old German Gothic inscription challenge. I can not find a German word that starts with these four letters in either archaic German dictionaries or a more modern dictionary. Part of the translation is reasonably easy (yes that's a bold statement). 'Ginj. Freiw.D.Nebelung' = Ginj. Free Volunteers of Nebelung (Forest?) If you are able to help, whta does the abbreviated term Ginj. stand for? I look forward with some hope to your responses. Thanks, George
  12. Update on the Spanish 1895. Recent research reveals the existence of official OFFICER variations. This is a ‘Thomas Modelo’ 1895 Mounted Troops Sabre. These private purchase sabres were purchased by officers serving in mounted troop corps such as transport, engineers, etc. This sabre was ordered by an Artillery Corps officer, probably upon graduation in 1897. (See artillery corps emblem on guard, initials of the officer and the official cypher of Spain.) There were also versions designed for cavalry and infantry officers, very similar but smaller and with two screws in the grip (Robert Modelo). The order was intended to unify the sword model to be used by mounted troops of all Corps. Gunnery officer, José Robert is cited as designer of the so-called, "Robert Modelo". Between the adoption of the model of 1895, and the declaration of the authorised "Robert Modelo" in 1905, swords were produced at the Toledo Factory as Officer's sabres for the Infantry, Carabinieri, Artillery, Engineers Corps and The Civil Guard. Interesting info that places my 1897 Artillery Corps sword as an unofficial but permitted Robert Model.
  13. The 1897 Pattern Infantry Officers’ Sword To go to another British sword I own, the 1897 Pattern Infantry Officers’ Sword is a straight-bladed, three-quarter basket-hilted sword that has been the regulation sword for officers of the line infantry of the British Army from 1897 to the present day. The curved, Gothic-hilted 1821 and 1845 Pattern infantry swords, although elegant, had been widely criticized as fighting swords. In common with British cavalry swords of the era, they were compromised cut-and-thrust swords and as a consequence were not ideal for either task. In 1892, a new, straight, blade was introduced, mated to the existing Gothic hilt. Presaging the introduction of the 1908 Pattern cavalry sword, the curved blade was abandoned in favour of a straight, stiff blade optimized for the thrust. Credit for the design has been given to Colonel G.M. Fox, Chief Inspector of Physical Training at the Board of Education, who was also influential in the design of the Pattern 1908 cavalry sword. In 1895, a new pierced steel hilt pattern was introduced, replacing the earlier Gothic hilt with a three-quarter basket hilt. The new Pattern was short-lived due to the edge of the guard fraying uniforms, and in 1897 the final pattern was settled on, being simply the 1895 Pattern with the inner edge of the guard turned down, and the piercings becoming smaller. By the time of its introduction, the sword was of limited use on the battlefield against rapid-firing rifles, machine guns and long-range artillery. However, the new sword was regarded, when needed, as a very effective fighting weapon. Reports from the Sudan, where it was used in close-quarters fighting during the Reconquest of the Sudan 1896-99, were positive. Bernard Montgomery advanced with his 1897 Pattern drawn during a counteroffensive in the First World War. The actual sword he carried is exhibited in the Imperial War Museum, London. The blade is described in the pattern as being 32 1⁄2 inches (830 mm) long and 1 inch (25 mm) wide at the shoulder, with the complete sword weighing between 1 lb 12oz and 1 lb 13 oz (794-822g). The blade is straight and symmetrical in shape about both its longitudinal axes. The thick blade has a deep central fuller on each side and is rounded on both its edge and back towards the hilt, giving a “dumbbell” or “girder” cross section. Through a gradual transition, the blade becomes double edged towards the tip, and the last 17 inches (430 mm) were sharpened when on active service. The blade ends in a sharp spear point. The blade would usually be decoratively etched on both sides. The guard is a three-quarter basket of pressed, plated steel. It is decorated with a pierced scroll-work pattern and had the royal cypher of the reigning monarch set over the lower knuckle bow. The sword shows a number of features that indicate its intent as a thrusting weapon. The spear point and double edge towards the point aids penetration and withdrawal by incising the wound edges. The blade, whilst quite narrow, is thick and its dumbbell section gives it good weak-axis buckling strength whilst maintaining robustness in bending for the parry. The blade tapers in both width and thickness and, with the substantial guard, has a hilt-biased balance, aiding agility at the expense of concussive force in a cut. The guard would give comprehensive protection to the hand, but does not restrict wrist movement. The length of the double edge, at 17 inches (430 mm), is quite significant, suggesting that some cutting capability was maintained. I own three of these swords. 1. A Royal Marine Officer’s P1897 with some evidence of sharpening and wear, with George V guard. 2. A standard officer’s, unsharpened, with George V. 3. An Edward VII Infantry Officer’s P1897 which in all likelihood was a retirement piece. The latter sword has the owners initials etched into the blade which I believe is E J D. This is Captain Edgar John Dent who was commissioned an officer in March, 1883, and was posted to the King’s Own Scottish Borderers. He saw active service with the 2nd Battalion in December 1888 as part of the Suakin Field Force being awarded the Khedive’s Star with Clasp. In 1889 he saw action in Sudan, including the engagement at Toski where he was mentioned in dispatches, and was awarded the 4th Class of the Medjidie with Clasp. He was promoted to Captain in February, 1893. Between 1889 and 1900 he saw service in the South African War, where once again he was mentioned in dispatches. He is retired from the Army and the King’s Own Scottish Borderers in 1902 and seems to have died in 1906.
  14. I thought I might offer a continuation of this quest by describing the 1885 British Cavalry Sword. I own one of these weapons and they a considerable beast of a thing. British Pattern 1885 sword The British Pattern 1885 sword was designed during the period when the British army was continuing to argue on the merits of the ‘cut’ versus the ‘thrust’ of British cavalry blades, therefore (as is the case with most Victorian cavalry blades) it was a compromise and not good for either. The hilt design was first introduced for the 1864 pattern, this was primarily a new hilt mated with the existing 1853 pattern blade (35 ½ inches long 1 ¼ inches wide). No official trials took place for this hilt and there were a number of complaints about the edges of the guard rubbing against the uniform and causing it to fray (this was corrected on the 1880 pattern). This sword continued to be the official pattern until about 1880 when a new design was sought, what followed was five years and numerous patterns. One complaint of the 1853 pattern blade was its weight. The following patterns looked to lighten the blade and in some cases shorten it. The result was to create blades that, when tested regularly, bent or broke. Eventually a new pattern was agreed in 1884 and the new 1885 pattern was accepted. The new blade was 34 ½ inches long and 1 1/8 inches wide. It has a single fuller ending 8 ¼ inches from the point with the last 10 inches double edged. New tests were introduced for the 1885 pattern involving hitting the edge and back of the blade by a machine to an equivalent of the ‘hardest blow a man could strike against the trunk of an oak tree’ the blade was also to be bent round a pattern to a degree where the distance from point to guard was shortened by 5 inches. In 1888 these swords were tested in action by the British Cavalry against the Mahdists round Suakin, complaints were subsequently received with dramatic reports of the blade breaking when ‘making a downward cut upon an enemy’s head’. Investigations were subsequently made by testing blades already issued and the results showed the blade still as being too weak. Subsequently the 1890 blade was introduced. The 1890 took advantage to changes in manufacturing techniques and also different testing methods, it was also about 3 ozs heavier with small changes to the design of the fullers. The 1885 pattern hilt was maintained on the 1890 blade. The sword was made in 1886 and was issued to the 13th Hussars (D squadron, weapon #33) in Sept. of 1888, and retested by armourers before then passed on to the Hertfordshire Yeomanry (weapon 58) in August of 1893. The 'YC' = 'Yeomanry Cavalry'. (Extract from British Military Swords 1786 – 1912 Harvey Withers) The 1882, 1885 and 1890 Pattern Cavalry Trooper Swords can be distinguished by their varying lengths, blade types, scabbards (this pattern saw the first adoption of fixed rings) and weights. The fact that we see three changes of pattern in only a few years highlights the crisis experienced within the British Army to find a sword both durable and effective. The 1882 Pattern is found in both‘Long’ and ‘Short’ versions, with the relevance of having two lengths hotly debated ever since. The general consensus is that the longer sword was for use by the heavy cavalry regiments who tended to employ taller men! This seems quite a strange theory, and the introduction of these two lengths has never adequately been explained. The pattern is easy to recognise because of the distinctive Maltese Cross motif cut into the guard. It was purely ornamental and served no practical purpose. Many examples are also marked on the blade to the German sword-maker Weyersberg, Kirschbaum & Co., who impressed their knight’s head logo and company name to the blade forte. Kirschbaum took on a large contract to produce these swords as British companies were unable to fulfil the orders, although Mole and Son and the R.S.A.F. Enfield, shared around 11,500 of the contract, with Kirschbaum taking the remaining 18,000. It is a common sword and many were carried by Yeomanry Regiments. They are marked accordingly to hilt, blade and scabbard.
  15. Well done, Mike. Fascinating series of variation in design of the pugaree/hat band. Photographs of the Light Horse clearly show many of these variations, sometimes in the same photo, and one with the 6th ALH with their koala pugaree.
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