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Status Replies posted by 922F

  1. Dear Mr. 992F, I want to ask you a little bit about the order of the Cuban Red Cross. Was it established in 1909? What are the criteria for obtaining it? Do you have photos of European people wearing them?

    1. 922F


      Hello, Just saw your question.  Cuban Presidential Decree 401 dated May 19, 1909 created the Cuban Red Cross Society as an independent organization linked to but independent of the Cuban government.  The government approved establishment of  La Orden de Honor y Merito de la Cruz Roja Cubano in 1913.   Most sources agree on this information including From A Grateful Nation.   However, some claim that retroactive governmental awards of the Order dated to as early as 1910.   It is also possible that the Red Cross Society awarded the Order begining in 1909 before the government bestowed the Order.    A news article dated May 1912 [https://books.google.com/books?id=rbxOAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA146&lpg=PA146&dq=order+Cuban+Red+Cross+bestowed&source=bl&ots=onZCXB_Dpt&sig=ACfU3U3mheXYdY3khFcqYpZMuPZC3m8M9Q&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwij9pqP9srnAhVBlnIEHVOwA9oQ6AEwBXoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=order Cuban Red Cross bestowed&f=false] reports award of Cuban Red Cross medals  -- this seems to indicate that the Society presented the honor before the government.  

      Authorities seem to agree that both the Cuban government and the Cuban Red Cross Society awarded the Order.   The question of when each entity started using the Order remains open

      The Order recognized outstanding services with grades depending on the awardee's merits and social position.  The government abolished it in 1978 and replaced it with a medal.  

      I do not have any images of people wearing the award to hand.  




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  2. Nick, Could you please PM me?  Thanks, EJ

    1. 922F


      Thank you, Nick.  I would like to make this subject the topic of my seminar presentation at OMSA's 2019 convention this August.  Most likely I would submit an article summarizing the talk for the OMSA Journal.  Naturally, I would give full acknowledgement to your contribution.  Again my  thanks!  EJ  

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  3. Nick, Could you please PM me?  Thanks, EJ

    1. 922F


      Hello Nick,

      Thank you!   I am trying to trace Manchukuo  awards to Central Americans 1936-1940.  You already know, I'm sure, that three Central American nations, El Salvador (March 3, 1934), the Dominican Republic (March 17?, 1934) and Costa Rica (September 23, 1934),  agreed to de jure relations with Manchukuo. 

      The Manchukuo Year Book includes notes of awards to foreigners but not names.  I suspect that the Yearbook has accurate figures but do not have one from 1936 onwards. 

      I have been able to find reference to three Salvadorians, President General Maximiliano Hernández Martínez [Dragon Ray], Foreign Minister Miguel Angel Araujo [Order of the Auspicious Clouds or Pillars of State, whichever one, lst class]  and the Salvadorean Consul General in Tokyo, León Siguenza.  [Pillars of State 2nd class].    These awards reportedly made in 1938. 

      Rafael Leónidas Trujillo, President of the Dominican Republic supposedly  received Gran cordón especial de la Orden de las Nubes Propicia [Order of the Auspicious Clouds 'special' grand cordon] in 1937 or 1938 and his  Foreign Minister/Vice President, Manuel de Jesús Troncoso de la Concha, obtained a Pillars of State Grand Cordon at the same time.  I do not know of any other Dominican awardees.

      I have not found any record of  Manchukuo  decorations bestowed to Costa Rican President León Cortés Castro, [1936 to 1940]  or his Foreign Ministers 1934–1936: Raúl Gurdián Rojas, 1936–1937: Manuel Francisco Jiménez Ortiz or 1937–1940: Tobías Zúñiga Montúfar.  Costa Rica did not have a tradition of giving or receiving Orders so none may have been offered.

      Also, in 1985, Bill Koonce mentioned that several Brazilians and a Peruvian received Manchukuo decorations for humanitarian work but I cannot find any verification.

      Could you possibly help in verifying these awards or provide any additional information?

      With sincere thanks, EJ Fischer  

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