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  1. Kreß von Kressenstein, Friedrich Siegmund Georg Freiherr * 24. April 1870 in Nürnberg † 16. Oktober 1948 in München Chef des Generalstabs des 8. türkischen Armeekorps Kommandeur des 1. türkischen Expeditionskorps Kommandeur des 22. türkischen Armeekorps Kommandeur der 8. türkischen Armee Kommandeur der Deutschen Kaukasusexpedition Artillerieführer VII Kommandeur der 7. Division und Befehlshaber im Wehrkreis VII Oberbefehlshaber des Gruppenkommandos 2 Highest rank reached: General der Artillerie Ritter des Ordens "Pour le Mérite" (PLM) Kommandeurkreuz des Militär-Max Joseph-Ordens https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_Freiherr_Kress_von_Kressenstein https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_Kreß_von_Kressenstein_(General_der_Artillerie) https://www.lexikon-der-wehrmacht.de/Personenregister/K/KressvKressensteinFriedrichFreiherr.htm
  2. this medal was shown in a german forum (SDA). i didn't find it in my literature but i guess it could be one of the dozens of unofficial medals that were struck on the ocassion of the jungturk revolution 1908. i think i can read the ottoman date 1324 (=1908/09) beneath the thugra. yout thoughts are wellcome regards and thanks in advance josef
  3. In his excellent book on the medals of the Korean War, Kevin Ingraham wrote that the Turkish brigade "established a fearsome reputation for its offensive capability and front line conduct", a description echoed by various postings on the Internet. I was surprised to learn that after 1923 Turkey outlawed all military decorations and that the Turkish language UN Korea Medal was issued to Turkish troops as a "momento" and could not be worn openly. Also, since the UN colours (blue and white) on the ribbon are anathema to the Turks, this ribbon was often replaced by a plain red one. In my so far unsuccessful attempts to acquire a Turkish UN Korea Medal, I have only seen illustrated medals with the original blue and white ribbon. I wonder if anyone reading this post has either seen or actually owns a red-ribboned medal? A photograph and/or a description of the red fabric would be much appreciated. Regards Brett
  4. Hello, Some colleques have been asking questions about the United Nations Korean War Medal given to the Turkish troops. In order to get the answers from the veterans I visited today the Turkish War Veterans Association and tried to find the answers : Q1: Are the Turkish Korean War Veterans allowed to wear the UN Korean war medal ? A1: There is no official medal given by the Turkish Government but Veterans can wear the UN Korean War Medal. Q2: Did the Turkish Korean War Veterans change the blue and white UN ribbons into red ribbons (as sold by some companies as vintage ribbons) because it resembles the Greek flag? A2: No, they did not and it is absurd to claim such an idea. Q3: Did Turkish Korean War Veterans send their medals back to the UN in June 5,1964 when Turkish troops were stopped to intervene the situation by a letter written by the USA President Lyndon B. Johnson ( …."Furthermore, a military intervention in Cyprus by Turkey could lead to direct involvement by the Soviet Union. I hope you will understand that your NATO allies have not had a chance to consider whether they have an obligation to protect Turkey against the Soviet Union if Turkey takes a step which results in Soviet intervention without the full consent and understanding of its NATO allies….." summary: So he was saying that you are all alone against the Soviet Union although you are a member of NATO which was founded against the Soviet aggression) after the Cypriot Greeks start killing the Turks in Cyprus? (more info: http://www.cyprus-co...nsonletter.html) A3: Yes they have sent their UN Korean war medals back in order to protest USA and USA Army which they dearly helped by their lives during the Korean War. The medals were sent to the regional Military Draft Offices. Q4: What happened to those who have sent their medals back since they don't even have an official Turkish Korean War Medal? A4: Through the organization of the National Turkish Students Association and with the financial help of a well known late singer Zeki Muren, they were given a medal with a Cyprus map. Obverse; Cyprus Map and National Turkish Students Association written under it. Reverse: initials of the Association (MTTB) and their logo on the top and Korean Veterans National Service Award written in Turkish. (attached picture)
  5. These are the pictures taken at the Turkish War veterans Assc. showing the uniform and patchs on it and in the mean time the plaques given to the Assc. regarding the Korean war. Also some pictures from my collection. Top Northern Star for the Turkish Brigade and Tropic Ligtning for serving under the USA 25th Infantry Division. The standard of the 5th Brigade in the Military Museum. Also the soil brought from PUSAN/Korea Turkish Cemetery. demir
  6. HELLO, HERE IS SOME INFORMATION ABOUT THE OTTOMAN SULTAN TUGRAS AND EXPLANATION OF SULTAN RESAD'S TUGRA. PLEASE CHECK YOUR TWM TUGRAS AND THE ORIGINAL TUGRA OF SULTAN RESAD. WHO CHANGED HIS TUGRA ON HIS SEVENTH YEAR OF REIGN (1333) 1914. I HOPE THIS WILL HELP. ALL THE BEST demir Tugras In Ottomans (www.tugra.org) In Ottomans some viziers in borderline states were permitted to use tugra of the sultan for important and political matters depending on the far distances. This measure lasted upto Kemankesh Kara Mustapha Pasha and ended in his period (year 1640-43) (1). All of the following definitions in historic Ottoman documents are equivalents of tugra: “tevki-i hümâyun” “tevki-i refî” “tevki-i refi-i hümâyun” “nişân-ı şerif-i âlîşân-ı sultanî” “tuğrây-ı garrâ” “tuğrây-ı garrây-ı sâmi mekân-ı hâkanî” “nişan-ı hümâyun” “tuğray-ı meymun” “misal-i meymun” “misal-i hümayun” “nişan-ı şerif-i âlîşan” “alamet-i şerife” (1). It is observed that great viziers, state viziers and seigniories used tugra-like signatures (panche-claw-) in official documents. The emerging date of these signs and whether they were used before Ottomans is unknown. Panches were written in Arabic letters on over-right, mid or down-side of the document depending on the importance of the subject person. Panches are seen at left side of the documents in Otoman documents with western languages. As the difference, panches include only one curve. Double curves could be only in Tugras. Panches left their role to seals in mid 19th century (1). The earliest Ottoman tugra belongs to 2nd Ottoman Sultan Orhan Gazi. Two documents bearing this tugra are discovered (2). A tugra belonging to first Ottoman Sultan Osman Gazi has not been encountered yet to this date. So there were 36 Ottoman Sultans but 35 sultan tugras. (Note: we are informed that a coin bearing - Osman bin Ertuğrul bin Gündüz Alp- is found) It is accepted that the tugras passed to Ottomans from Great Selcuks via Anatolian Seljuks and seigniories (1). The tugras were used on various places and objects throughout Ottoman Empire, they became a form of Ottoman-Arabic calligraphy and after completing its official role, became the possession of history (3). Today it is kept alive by calligraphers for artistic purposes. Initially tugras were used on official documents (e.g. fermans: order of sultan) to give formality, but later on they are seen on coins, flags, stamps, passports, official monuments, official buildings, war ships, mosques and palaces as a symbol of sovereignty (1). The tugra, on it’s own, it’s peculiar to the Turks. The form of the tugra is peculiar to itself. Neither is anything similar to the tugra, nor is the tugra similar to anything else..(4). While preserving the form of the familiar tugra; to reconcile the name of the sultan with this form is a difficult art. To view the evolution of tugras with repeating and changing parts from Orhan Gazi’s to Sultan Vahideddin is very interesting. In this state the complete series of Ottoman Tugras resemble a film fragment of 600 years of an art. With the serious symbolic meaning, the tugras are seen at the top of documents not at the end... (4). The first 20 tugras of the series are a topic of history of calligraphy without a significant artistic value. But the tugras of Mehmed the Conqueror (7th sultan) and Suleiman the Magnificient (10th sultan) should be excluded from tis statement because they are summits of first 20 tugras. Although the word “tugra” comes from earlier times than Ottomans, and similars were used in documents of previous Turkish states, Ottoman tugras has no common sites with formers other than name similarity. The writing style of the words “Orhan” and “Osman” in the tugra of the second Ottoman Sultan Orhan Gazi formed the skeleton for subsequent tugras (3). The size of the tugras over documents were harmonious with the text conditions. Placing flowers or pseudonym of the sultan were introduced in later periods (1). After the tugras evolved as a monogram, the calligraphers entered the artistic dimension and tried to write better and better tugras. Other than tugras for sultans, verses from the Holy Quran, hadiths, prayers and the names of individuals etc. were written in the form of artistic tugra pictures. After acceptance of the tugra of a sultan, its content and form was static throughout his sultanate. Of course there were small differences between tugras from one hand to another. Finding the owner of the tugra on an official Ottoman document is very helpful in determining the approximate date of the document. So much so that nuances within a sultan’s own tugra over time can often provide a date within a particular reign (3). It is widely accepted that the most excellent tugra among all tugras is the tugra of Sultan Abdulhamid II written by master calligrapher Sami Efendy. Professor Ugur Derman calls this tugra as “sultan of tugras” (5). References 1- Uzunçarşılı İ.H. Tuğra ve pençeler ile ferman ve buyuruldulara dair. Belleten, Sayı: 17-18 s. 101-157; 1941. 2- Orgun Z. Tuğralarda el-muzaffer daima duası ve şah ünvanı, şehzade tuğları, Mehmed II’nin tuğra, imza ve mühürleri. Türk Tarih Arkeologya ve Etnografya Dergisi. Sayı V. İstanbul, s. 203-220; 1943. 3-Umur S. Osmanlı Padişah Tuğraları. Cem Yayınevi. İstanbul,1980. 4-Boydas N. Osmanlı Tuğralarına Eleştiri Açısından Bir Bakış. http://yayim.meb.gov...giler/143/2.htm 5-Derman, Uğur M. Tuğralarda estetik. İlgi mecmuası, sayi: 33, s.16-24. 1982 PARTS of a TUGRA 1-Stand: The base of the tugra that includes the main text (the names of the sultan and his father, the appellations and the prayer “ever victorious”. 2-Eggs: (Beyze; Arabic: egg): Two ellipsoid curves on the left side of tugra. 3-Tughs: Three extensions at the upper part, like the letter “elif” in Arabic. They are not always the letter “elif”. Sometimes they are not a letter. Pennant like curves beside the tughs are called “zulfe” (Arabic: fringe). 4-Arms: two parallel arms starting from the eggs and running to the right side of the tugra. In some tugras the pseudonym of the sultan may be seen at the upper right area. Two eggs (Beyze) and three tughs are found in an evolved tugra. If the text content of the tugra does not provide these needs, additional unrelated figures may be included in some tugras. These are used to keep the classical form of the tugra and to provide similarity with earlier examples. They have no meaning but are for artistic effect to complete the form (3).
  7. Dear Friends , I am pasting you the pictures of a FAKE Order of Osmanie , If you have any questions you can ask me. Regards, Avsar Ibar
  8. Got them out for a dusting today
  9. Hello , 8 stars from my collection. A BB.CO with the Gallipoli Badge on the ribbon. A BB.CO , with the custom made silver marked Crescent and Star on the ribbon. Also An Austrian Made "*" 81 mm diameter , the huge one ! And the others ... Regards, Avsar Ibar
  10. I would like to share some photos of the Turkish Allies who have the TWM. PLEASE SHARE WHAT YOU HAVE ALSO: Top from left: 1. German Officer 2. German Officer - Asain Corps 3. Bulgarian NCO which was shared here in GMIC before by Theodor. 4. German Officer Bottom: 1. German Officer 2. Bulgarian Officers 3. Jordan Tal Scheich Jussuf Ul Ursan and Hauptmann Justin 4. German Officer in Maceonia 1917 Photos are shared by Mr. Iscen who collected them from the Net. Enjoy Demir
  11. Rick...or Glenn This question is really a thread by itself, but the subject "Turkish Super Hero" raises my query. Do either of you have Mustafa Kemal Atat?rk's listing of decorations awarded up to the end of the war? If I recall correctly, he fought at a company grade officer during the 1912 Balkan War. Although he didn't lead any attacks personally, he was in exposed positions frequently in his role as a division commander, etc. I'm curious what actual valor or gallantry awards he acquired...the hard way. Les
  12. Hello Gentlemen, Is anyone aware if this medal has been duplicated in both full and mini size? I am looking for them as well as the device for a ribbon bar. Any help locating described items would be greatly appreciated. Happy Holidays, Vince
  13. Hallo to all, can any one help me to identify this pieces? Thanks, Artan
  14. Hello, I posted one of these on Aerodrome with a similar query and got no joy. My original question was, we're all familiar with the German made Turkish pilots badges, but what do we know about the Turkish made ones? For example, what does the Koranic/Islamic script on the front of this Turkish made badge translate to? It is the same character on the front of the Gallipoli Star, so I believe it to be pre-1918. But I know of this varaition which has a completely different cartouche, and a smaller enamelled character. Any thoughts on what the difference signifies? Could this be a transitional piece? Helmut Weitze told me he thinks it is a secularised Kemal Ataturk period pilot's badge, but that is only a guess. Any thoughts? Any Islamic scholars? Rgds John
  15. How can one distinguish between the various Classes of the Order of Medjidie awarded to British officers for their service during the Sudan campaign of the late 1890s? What is the significance of the round bit on the medal's ribbon? I am especially interested in the differences between 3rd and 4th Class. Thank you, Jonathan
  16. Anyone know where I can find a good picture of the Ottoman Turkish Naval Pilot Badge? Any help is most appreciated.
  17. Hello, on the past weekend, I've paid a visit to the flea market of Piazzola sul Brenta; one of northern Italy's best places for collectors of any field (including militaria, orders and decorations). There, I've had the chance to buy a portrait photo of prince Osman Fuad, wearing the field grey uniform of a prussian Hussard regiment, and various high orders and decorations. The cardboard base, bears the autographed signature/date: Osman Fuad Prinz des Osmanischen Reiches 20.11.1917 Searching the web, I've learnt that this man had a very interesting life. Best wishes, Enzo (E.L.)
  18. Hi, Here are some books on the Ottoman Turkish Orders and Medals: 1. Osmanlı Madalyalar ve Nisanlar Belgelerle Tarihi - Ottoman Medals and Orders Documented History by METİN ERÜRETEN 2. Pride and Privilege a History of Ottoman Orders, Medals and Decorations by EDHEM ELDEM 3. The Turkish War Medal - Harp Madalyası by M. DEMİR ERMAN https://demirerman.wixsite.com/turkish-war-medal Regards in Facebook: 1. Ottoman Orders and Medals : https://www.facebook.com/groups/osmanlimadalyalari/?ref=bookmarks 2. The Turkish War Medal : https://www.facebook.com/groups/harpmadalyasi/ 3. Korean Medals: https://www.facebook.com/groups/koremadalyasi/ 4. Turkish Army Patches and Insignias : https://www.facebook.com/groups/TSKBROVELER/
  19. Hello, Here is a sample of a Steinhauer & Lück TWM, as Rick mentioned in his earlier thread "Steinhauer & Lück-- identifiable from their "strawberry seeds" enamel pattern and the "snail and Easter egg" tughra" . At the reverse: there is a pattern which is "in fact reversed - a mirror image. This is the result of what coin collectors refer to as "die clash"" as wisely put by Tim Tezer. In S&L location and types (lock and open) of the pins show some differences. OK. Please check the second picture (following thread) .... The "strawberry seeds" enamel pattern and the "snail and Easter egg" tughra is same also the white metal with thin inner lines covering the arms are same but the reverse; it is perfect, no mirror image. So my question is: what is the make of the TWM in the second picture? 1. Is it S&L ? 2. or this is also S&L but the first one is again as Tim Tezer said; "I couldn't say whether they are Turkish or German made, as the tughra mark on the back has nothing to do with the manufacturer, other than showing that careless workers were employed in their shop" ? Thanks demir
  20. Attached are images of the Turkish War Medal which Willy Tischbein was entitled to wear since the 12. August 1917( see http://gmic.co.uk/index.php/topic/37362-who-is-grovater-tischbein/?hl=Tischbein). Is one of the gents aware of the (German) maker of this stamped silver version? Both Godet and Maybauer have been suggested. The two photgraphs seem to have been taken during meetings with the Turkish allies.
  21. Gentlemen, I ran across this blog while performing a search. There is a link below. About halfway down the page there is a purported Turkish airmans qualification badge from WW1 in it's issue case. This item is in the collection of the Australian War Museum and the description is theirs. The description states that these were issued in bronze, silver and gold grades depending on perhaps how well they qualified. The one shown is in Bronze and there are additional photos at the AWM site. One photo shows the top of the titled case but it is, of course in arabic. All photos are copywrited, so I cannot post them. I have the exact badge in gilt without case. It is getting late so I will post photos tommorow. Dan Murphy Here is the link to the blog: Turkish history blog Here is the link to the search page at the AWM. Just enter "turkish badge" and select period WW1 1914-1918. It will come up at the top of the page: Australian War Museum
  22. Order of Charity (Nishani Shefkat - Şefkat Nişanı) Instituted in 1878 by Sultan Abdulhamid II in three classes, this order was reserved for women. It was given in recognition of charitable work, or as a token of the Sultan's esteem. First Class breast star, in gold and enamels, each of five points and olives in olive branches set with diamonds, 57mm, with pin back suspension. Bestowed upon Leila Jessie von Heidenstam (1849-1921), wife of Oskar Gustav von Heidenstam, Swedish Envoy to Constantinople (circa 1876-1883). (From the collection of Ayhan Özcan)
  23. Hello, A friend of mine has this painting and we are wondering about the identity of the pilot. Somebody suggested that he might be Oberleutnant Paul Leim. I would like to have your opinion please. Thanks Demir
  24. A very interesting information about the Turkish War Medal in the The Illustrated War News September 29, 1915.: THE NEW TURKISH DECORATION OF THE “IRON CRESCENT” By the way of the compliment to their German allies, the Turkish military authorities have introduced a new decoration, modelled in general idea on the German Iron Cross, to which the name “Iron Crescent” has been given. It is being distibuted also as lavishly as the Iron Cross has been- to the satisfaction of the German manufacturing firms who acquired the contract. Please share your opinions with us about this information. Regards Demir
  25. Cruiser Hamidiye Medal (Hamidiye Kruvazoru Humayunu Madalyasi) 1913 As the Balkan War of 1912-1913 was not considered successful for the Turks, other than the exploits of this particular cruiser against the Greek navy, the only commemorative military medal issued during this conflict was this medal. I understand less than 400 total were awarded to the crew, so it must be quite rare. Does anyone have one or at least pictures of one to show here? Thanks, Tim
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