I would definitely agree with Yankee, Paul and Enzo that Austrian hallmarks are a very complex topic. To clerify some issues about famous ''tax free'' hallmark and Rothe's hallmark (one of the most eminent producers of Austrain decoratios) , I would like to add some points which I've come across when doing research about Austrian producers and hallmarks. I'm presenting here some text parts and pictures from my book Serbian and Yugoslav Orders and Decorations 1858 – 1941. Namely, until 1914, a