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Just picked this up today. If anyone knows of a nominal roll, please let me know.


General Service Medal, EIIR, clasp Arabian Peninsula to: 2737 Pte. Rashid Muhammad, T.O.S. (Trucial Oman Scouts)

The clasp "Arabian Peninsula" was awarded to entitled personnel for service in operations in resistance to border raids and against bands of dissidents in the Arabian Peninsula between 1st January, 1957 and 30th June, 1960, inclusive.
a) Officers and other ranks of the British Army, including British Army personnel seconded or attached to the Sultan of Muscat and Oman's Armed Forces, who served for 30 days or more, not necessarily continuous, in Aden Colony, the Aden Protectorate, the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman, or the Persian Gulf States while on the posted or attached strength of any unit in these theatres.
b) Members of the under mentioned local Armed Forces who served for 30 days in the same conditions as Army personnel.

(1) Aden Protectorate Government: Aden Protectorate Levies. Government Guards. Hadhrami Bedouin Legion.

(2) Eastern Aden Protectorate:- Mukalla Regular Army Qu'aitiArmed Constabulary. KathiriArmed Constabulary. WahidiTribal Guards.

(3) Western Aden Protectorate: From 1st January, 1957 to 11th February, 1959. AmiriTribal Guards. BeihanTribal Guards. Upper Aulaqi SheikdomTribal Guards. AughaliTribal Guards. Fadhli Armed Police. Lower YafaiArmed Police. From 1st January, 1957 to 11th February, 1960. Lower Aulaqi Sultanate Tribal Guards. Dathina- -Tribal Guards. From 1st January 1957 to 30th June, 1960. Upper Aulaqi Sultanate Tribal Guards. Shu'aibiTribal Guards. MuflahiTribal Guards. HaushabiTribal Guards. From 1st April, 1959 to 5th October, 1959. LahejRegular Army. LahejTribal Guards. From 11th February, 1959 to 30th June, 1960. Federation of Arab Amirates of the SouthFederal National Guard

(4) Trucial States. Trucial Oman Scouts.
c) Members of specially approved civilian categories, who served with the Forces on land were eligible under the same rules as for the Army, if they wore the approved uniform of:
NAAFI. SSAFA Nursing Service. British Red Cross Society Welfare Service. W.V.S. Mission to Mediterranean Garrison. Soldiers and Airmen's Scripture Readers Association. Civilian employees of the Aden Protectorate Government, who were properly enrolled as Government servants, and served with, or in conjunction with the local Armed Forces listed above.


The Trucial Oman Scouts was a security force established in 1951 (initially as the Trucial Oman Levies) to defend the seven emirates of Trucial Oman and keep the peace. TOS officers later established the Dubai Police (1956), the TOS Cadet School (196471), the Abu Dhabi Defence Force (196576), the Ras al-Khaimah Mobile Force (196996), the Dubai Defence Force (197196), and the Sharjah National Guard (197276). Upon independence, when the emirates merged to become the United Arab Emirates, the TOS was renamed the Union Defence Force. In 1976, the UDF, ADDF, DDF, and RAKMF were unified to form the UAE Armed Forces, and the SNG merged with the UAE Federal Police.


The TOS had an impeccable record over the course of its twenty-year existence: it defended the emirates against hostile forces, peacefully settled tribal and territorial disputes, policed the land, served as a stabilizing influence, and provided an honourable career and valuable training for thousands of Emiratis. It was modeled on Jordans Arab Legion as a joint partnership between Arabs and Britons, and a combined Arab and British leadership with the Arab Legion providing the forces first commanding officer and NCOs.


Established in 1951 as Trucial Oman Levies (T.O.L.), it was very small uniformed internal security and rural patrol force with originally one British major in command, two Jordanian officers [from the Arab Legion] and 32 other ranks (from the Arab Legion). It expanded to 30 British officers in command positions and a handful of Arab officers and Locally recruited soldiers, mainly from Abu Dhabi. There was one battalion under the command of a British major Headquartered at Sharjah.


In1952, there was a mutiny at Buraimi when the British commander of the Trucial Oman Levies, Major Otto Thwaite was shot dead along with a Jordanian TOL Sergeant Major and a British Royal Air Force medical doctor by Arab soldiers of the TOL when his vehicle with four occupants was ambushed outside Buraimi. There was only one survivor, a British REME Sergeant. The TOL soldiers were believed to be selling their ammunition to the Saudi garrison.


The Trucial Oman Levies were renamed in 1956 as Trucial Oman Scouts. In 1955 had 500 paramilitary personnel organized into 3 Rifle Squadrons. In 1956 there were 500 paramilitary personnel organized in four operational/Rifle Squadrons including 1 Squadron based at Buraimi oasis. By 1957 the TOS included 160 British officers & soldiers and in 1960 had 1,000 paramilitary personnel. In 1964 there were 1,324 paramilitary personnel including 38 British officers and 85 British other ranks organized into 5 Rifle Squadrons each with three British officers three Arab officers and 145 Arab other ranks. One group was equipped with machine guns and Mortars and there was one Signals Squadron, one motor transport squadron, one medical centre, one workshop, one boys squadron, one boys school and one training depot. By 1970, the TOS had 1,600 to 1,700 trained paramilitary personnel and in 1971 had 2,500 paramilitary personnel.


The Trucial Oman Scouts were a highly respected impartial paramilitary armed regular internal security and rural police force and regarded as well trained, well paid efficient military unit that cost 2 million UK pounds a year to run and operate in 1971 with small garrisons based in most of the coastal towns and other key posts. There had been a base in Dubai since 1952 and a permanent garrison at Buraimi oasis of one Field Squadron Organized as highly mobile light armored cavalry. The TOS included 40% locally recruited Arab personnel, 50 Jordanian NCOs and the bulk of troops were Omanis, Iranians, Indians and Pakistanis all under the control and command of 30 British officers Head Quartered at Sharjah [since 1951 and equipped with armoured cars British weapons Landrovers Bedford trucks.


The only major military operation the Trucial Oman Scouts were involved in was the October 1956 clash at the disputed Buraimi Oasis. Two TOS Field Squadrons were used, along with troops from the Sultan of Muscat & Oman personal guard to forcibly evict a 40 strong Saudi Arabian garrison of 40 armed police based in a old fort and a village. The Saudi garrison had been based there since August 1952 when the Saudi Arabian force of 40 armed men forcibly occupied the Buraimi Oasis following a armed clash in which three people were killed In the October, 1956 clash, nine people were killed including seven Saudi policemen/military personnel and two TOS paramilitary troops. In 1971 the TOS was renamed Union Defence Force (U.D.F.) on formation of United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.)

If interested, for another Arabian Penninsula unit, see http://gmic.co.uk/index.php/topic/62534-aden-protectorate-levies/#entry588972

Edited by azyeoman
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  • 8 years later...

G.S.M EIIR 1918-62, bar Arabian Peninsula to 766 Cpl. Ahmad Salim. T.O.S., Sultan’s Distinguished Service Medal 1967, bronze; As-Samood Medal 1976, bronze; Peace Medal, bronze; 10th Anniversary Medal, silvered; Accession Medal 1970, silvered, a rare attributed group mounted as worn

TOS Group Obv.jpeg

TOS Group Rev.jpeg

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