Jump to content
Rusty Greaves

Egypt Khedivate Judge's Badge question

Recommended Posts

Posted (edited)

I have some additional photos and information from the volume Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926 that I wish to share. In this post, I want to include images and information associated with individuals I have mentioned in past posts. I will treat each person that I have found something about in the order that they appeared on this thread. The only individual I have not been able to get any additional information about from this publication is the Greek Judge Apostolo N. Gennaropoulo, whose cased silver judicial badge made by Froment-Meurice and a portrait photo appeared on an eBay auction of September, 2014. I first illustrated Judge Gennaropoulo’s badge and portrait in the final photo of my post of 24 March, 2017, and the reverse of his badge is shown in the 7th photo of judicial badges (the 3rd to last of the illustrations of Froment-Meurice manufacturer’s marks) in my post detailing manufacturer’s and assay hallmarks of 28 February, 2019. It may be that Judge Gennaropoulo was not appointed to the court until after 1926, when the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume was published. So far, I have not found information about this individual in other research sources I have consulted. I have scanned the photos from the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume that I am including below in black and white as that seems to provide better detail of the images. Each of them have the decorative ancient Egyptian frame motifs around the photos in a rose color as shown in the scanned images from my 1 April, 2019 post, although they do not appear in color here. All of the scanned photos from the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume can be zoomed for somewhat greater details.  

Herbert Augustus Hills (1837-1907) I illustrated the obverse of the silver judicial badge identified as belonging to Herbert Hills of Great Britain, in the 1st photo of my post of 24 March, 2017. I illustrated the reverse of that badge that has a hand-written note attributing the badge to Judge Hills in my post of 7 November, 2017. I have included images of both the obverse & reverse of that badge below. Herbert Hills is identified in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume’s appendix listing of personnel for the District Courts. Hills is identified (pg. XII) as having been appointed in November of 1875 as a judge to the District Court in Alexandria, and promoted to Conseiller (legal advisor) to the Court of Appeals in October 1882 (Mark S. W. Hoyle, a moderately prolific recent scholar of the Egyptian Mixed Courts identifies his initial appointment year as 1876, probably an incorrect date, in his 1986 article: The structure and laws of the Mixed Courts of Egypt. Arab Law Quarterly, Vol 1 (3): 327-345). In the appendix list of personnel serving the Appeals Court, Hills is identified (pg. IV) as a former judge in Alexandria, and promoted to the Appeals Court in October, 1882, and he resigned in February, 1904. That section also states he was awarded the 2nd Class Order of Mejidie (he received this in either 1904 or 1905, a note in The Law Times: The Journal of the Law and The Lawyers, Vol CXIII of March 11, 1905, pg. 442 states that "Mr. Herbert Augustus Hill, late Judge in the Egyptian Mixed Court of Appeal at Alexandria, has received the Royal license and authority to accept and wear the Insignia of the Second Class of the Imperial Ottoman Order of the Medjidieh"). No photo of Judge Hills is included in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume, and I have not found any images of him in y other research. This information does not resolve the question I mentioned in both posts about why Judge Hills would have a silver badge when his appointment to the District Court of Alexandria should have meant his regalia included a gold and silver badge. It also puzzles me whether as a Conseiller in his later appointment to the Appeals Court he might have worn a gold judicial badges (the design for the Appeals Court), or retained a previous badge (again what should have been a gold & silver badge from his service on the District Court) as he was not a judge on that highest court. In both cases, this silver badge remains either an anomalous example of regalia associated with his identified roles on the Mixed Courts or a problematic attribution to Judge Hills. large.2037873250_JudgeHerbertMillsbadgeobversecopy.jpg.3e77ae4abdb536f06cbcf9a97cfae509.jpg

Obverse of the silver judicial badge attributed to Judge Herbert A. Hills of Great Britain (From a June 2015 auction : Dreweatts Bloomsbury Auctions; lot 175; formerly listed at: http://www.dreweatts.com/cms/pages/lot/13863/175, but archived on The Saleroom website: https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-gb/auction-catalogues/dreweatts/catalogue-id-drewea10199/lot-d2a1fe08-3bbf-4c29-a53d-a4aa00a27910). Identified as made by Froment-Meurice and measuring 12 cm high X 8.5 cm wide and weighing 173 g.  

 

large.1710667625_HerbertHillsbadgereverse.jpg.c04ca56707cc3ae3ec21b9012c0a4ae5.jpg

Reverse of the badge attributed to Judge Hills, showing the note that is the basis for identifying this badge with Herbert Hills. It is uncertain whether the reverse has any hallmarks for Froment-Meurice. This image is a higher-resolution photo of the reverse than the version I uploaded in my may 7 November, 2017 post on this thread and can be zoomed for better details of the attached note. 

Alexander Cockburn McBarnet (1867-1934) Egyptian Zogist posted a link (in his post of 4 November, 2017) to an auction by Brightwells of November, 2017 that is archived on The Saleroom website (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-us/auction-catalogues/brightwells/catalogue-id-srbr10077/lot-b19bfcb8-19b4-41fd-808e-a81900b1168c) of medals and clothing belonging to Alexander Cockburn McBarnet. I commented on the information about the judicial badge in this lot (282) in my 2 posts of 6 December, 2017 but did not illustrate the badge as it is a very low-resolution image. Owain commented on potential dating of some of McBarnet’s other awards in his post of 7 November, 2017 on this thread. The Brightwells’ auction of November 2017 identifies McBarnet as having been appointed as a District Judge in to the Indigenous (“Native”) Court of Appeals in 1913, as a judge in the District Court of Asyut (also indigenous?) in 1906, and as holding various other legal offices in Egypt subsequently. The appendices in Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume that identify past & current officials of the Appeals Court lists McBarnet (pg. V), of Great Britain, former Conseiller (legal advisor) to the Indigenous Court of Appeals (no starting date is given in this entry), but does identify him as having been appointed in December 1920 to the Mixed Appeals Court, and working in that office at the time of the 1926 publication. McBarnet is not in the photograph of the Appeals Court that I posted on April 1, 2019 in this thread. No photos of Judge McBarnet are featured in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume, and I have not yet encountered any others in my research. In regard to the question about McBarnet’s other awards discussed by me in both my posts of 6 November, 2017 and by Owain on 7 November, 2017, I previously overlooked the information in the Brightwells’ auction listing the original bestowal documents as April 14, 1914 for receipt of the 3rd Class Order of Medjidie, and the August 7, 1917 receipt of the 3rd Class Order of the Nile (additionally, his OBE was awarded on March 30, 1920 and CBE on March 24, 1922). Jasper Yeates Brinton's comment about restrictions on serving judges from receiving honors from the Egyptian government during their service (Brinton, Jasper Yeates, 1968. The Mixed Courts of Egypt, 2nd Edition. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp. 53-54) may not have been fully in effect at this time, or McBarnet may have received these during intervals between his different court service. I have photographs for future posts of earlier Mixed Courts judges wearing medals along with their judicial costumes, a practice that appears to have ended sometime in the earliest 1900s. Note in my discussion above that Judge Herbert A. Hills was not awarded the Order of Mejidie until after his retirement from the Egyptian Mixed Courts. Also in relation to this question, the entry for Pierre Crabitès in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume appendix listing personnel of the District Courts (pg. XI) does not identify his reciept of the Grand Officer Class of the Order of Ismail, consistent with Brinton's statement that, at least at this time, honors and awards were not given to sitting judges until the end of their tenure on the bench. 

           large.57432926_A.McBarnetmedalscopy.jpg.cc9b531f352355396a49ffae4c293262.jpg

Low-resolution image of awards of Alexander Cockburn McBarnet from the November 2017 Brightwells’ auction. From top to bottom: McBarnet’s judicial badge (identified in the auction description as 115 mm high X 85 mm wide, silver, & silver gilt), 3rd Class neck badge of the Order of Medjidie, 3rd Class neck badge of the Order of the Nile, Commander’s neck badge of the British CBE (civil). On the bottom left are his OBE breast badge and miniature of that award lacking its ribbon. On the lower right are miniatures of his OBE, Order of the Nile, and Order of Medjidie. 

Santos Manoël Jaoquim Rodrigues Monteiro (1879-1952) I illustrated a Portuguese commemorative medal celebrating the life of Dr. Manual Monteiro (of Portugal) in my post of 26 April, 2018 that identified him as a former judge on the Egyptian Mixed Courts. In the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume, Santos Manoël Jaoquim Rodrigues Monteiro is identified as a judge in the District Court of Mansourah beginning in October, 1916 and was transferred to the District Court of Alexandria in February of 1921. He was still serving in that office at the time of the 1926 publication (pg. XV). Additional information about Dr. Monteiro is in my 26 April, 2018 post (i.e., he was made Vice-President of the Alexandria District Court in 1930, and resigned in 1940 to return to Portugal). 

large.1618342153_Monteiroobverse.jpg.d59bc5b8be91dac900f5963ae10c71ca.jpg 

Obverse of the table medal commemorating the life of former Mixed Courts Judge Dr. Manuel Montero, who also was an historical archaeologist, ethnologist, and art historian of Romanesque Portuguese art. 

large.834347578_Alexandria1926.jpg.583f9bfeed2ea5aeb643a405450bcc9b.jpg

Photo of the District Court officials of Alexandria, probably from 1925 from the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume (pg. 192). This image can be zoomed for better details. Judge Monteiro is seated second from the viewer's right of the Court President, seated at the head of the far end of the table. The judges in this photo include, from the foreground left running clockwise around the table: Paul Joseph Randet (France); Dr. Alvaro da Costa Machado Villela (Portugal): Stavros Ange Vlachos (Greece); Adrian Theodor Louis Allard Heyligers (Netherlands); Dr. Jonkheer Hubert Williem van Asch van Wyck (Netherlands); Salvatore Messina (Italy); Paul Beneducci (Russia); Ragheb Bey Ghali (Egypt); Don Alfonso Aguirre y Carrer, Comte de Andino (Vice-President, Spain); Erling Qvale (President, Norway); Ahmed Fayek Bey (Chief of the Parquet, Egypt); Manuel Monteiro (Portugal); William Hobart Houghton Thorne (Britain); Antoine R. Keldany Bey (Egypt); Youssef Zulificar Bey (Egypt, later Pasha as he was the father of Queen Farida & father-in-law to King Farouk I, Youssef Zulificar also married the sister of fellow Mixed Court judge and Egyptian modernist artist Mahmoud Said); Mohamed Tewfik Zaher Bey (Egypt); Khalil Ghazalat Bey (Egypt); Mohammed Aly Zaki Bey (Egypt); and Rober Llewllyn Henry, Jr. (USA). The Chief Clerk, M. Adib Maakad Bey (Egypt), is shown sitting at the right away from the main assembly table.

Michael Hansson (1875-1944) I illustrated a photo of the Norwegian Judge Michael Hansson wearing his judicial costume in my post of 3 May, 2018. This photo came from a Norwegian biographical website (https://nbl.snl.no/Michael_Hansson). This same portrait also appears in Hansson’s posthumously-published popular book on this life in Egypt: 25 år i Egypt, 1946. Forlagt Av. H. Aschehoug & Co., (W. Nygaard), Oslo (opposite page 17). I am including again this 1912 photo of Michael Hansson in his judicial costume below. He was apparently a prominent member of the Courts, and several additional photos and information are available in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume. In the listings of personnel in the District Courts, Hansson is identified (pg. XIV) as having been appointed in January 1907 to the District Court in Mansourah, transferred to District Court of Alexandria in October 1913, and promoted to Conseiller (legal advisor) to the Mixed Court if Appeals in April 1915. He is identified in the appendix listing personnel of the Appeals Court (pg. V) as a former judge to the Mixed Tribunals of Alexandria from April 1915, as Vice-President of the Mixed Court of Appeals in October 1924, and in 1926 he was still serving as Vice-President of the Appeals Court. Additional information on Hansson is in my 3 May, 2018 post; including his promotion to President of the Court of Appeals in 1927, his retirement from the Courts in 1931, and subsequent career with the the Permanent Court of Arbitration at the Hague, other international arbitration commissions, and 1938 Nobel Prize acceptance speech on behalf of the Nansen International Office for Refugees. Hansson also was probably awarded his Grand Cordon Class Order of Ismail and Order of the Nile after his retirement from the International Mixed Courts in Egypt, neither of this honors are mentioned in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume's descriptions of his career in Egypt.

large.1439163555_michael-hansson1912portrait.jpg.17bffbba5622fa0ff6f845032379c800.jpg

Portrait of Michael Hansson, from 1912 as a District Court Judge in Mansourah. In relation to the question I had about whether his sash is a single color or bi-colored, the appointment information in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume indicates his sash is a solid red as he was appointed to the District Courts at the time of this portrait. 

large.651096534_Hansson2d.jpg.de139ecaf357586838bbeea52c5662e6.jpg

Portrait of Michael Hansson from a section in Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume listing past presidents of the Tribunal of Mansourah (pg. 50). The dates 1911-1913 identify his term as President of the District Court of Mansourah. The pleats in the sash in this image show that this was a feature of the District Courts sash as well, an aspect not always visible in other images of the Mixed District Court judges. 

large.1294250049_Mansourah19072.jpg.467fd93979398483b39e5bb2e0b3be99.jpg

Hansson also is illustrated in the above photo from pg. 190 of the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume with the Tribunal in Mansourah in 1907, with all judges wearing their Court attire. Hansson is the 4th judge from the L in the back row. A much younger Mahmoud El Toayar Bey (thinner & with much more robust mustaches, compared with the 3rd and 4th photos in my post on this thread of 1 April, 2019, that I believe help identify him as the unnamed judge in the first 2 photos in that post) is standing next to him (identified as the Substitut du Procureur Général), the 3rd judge from the L in the back row. Mahmoud El Toayar Bey would have been at least 15 years younger in this image than the studio portraits I believe show him near the time of his initial appointment to the Court of Appeals (1922) and almost 19 years younger than the photos from the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume identifying him in the assembly and in court that I posted on 1 April. This image can be zoomed for greater detail. When enlarged, this photo shows nicely the single color of the judges sashes (red) and the contrasting gold & silver coloration of the District Court badges. The other individuals are: Front row L-R: Youssouf Soliman Bey (Egypt); Anastase N. Stoupis (Greece); Luis Comulada (President, Spain); Boutros Youssef Bey (Egypt); Ovidio de Cergueira-Borges Cabral d’Alpoïm (Portugal). Back row L-R: an unnamed Egyptian guard; Moustapha Fathy Bey (Egypt); Axel Johan Patrick Adlercreutz (Sweden); Mahmoud El Toayar Bey (Egypt); Michael Hansson (Norway); Hussein Kamel Sourour Bey (substitute for the Procureur Général, Egypt); and an unnamed Egyptian guard.

large.525641252_Hanssona.jpg.34b13f6ba8c1ad56d771e5317542b811.jpg

Portrait from the front matter of the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume listing current high officers of the Mixed Courts (pg. 12). As Vice-President of the Court of Appeals, Hansson’s sash in this image should be green. It is a bit unclear whether he also would is wearing the gold badge of the Appeals Court, rather than what should have been the gold and silver badge of the District Courts. However, when enlarged this photo appears to show a badge of a single hue, lacking contrasting dark and lighter areas such as are visible as in the previous image of the badges worn by the Mansourah Court judges in 1907. 

Joseph Timmermans (born=?/d. 1897) On 31 October, 2018 I illustrated a Mixed Courts judicial badge that was from a September, 2014 auction by Jean Elsen & ses Fils archived on the acsearch.info website (https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=3990624). This badge was identified as having been used in the Courts of Alexandria and belonging to Joseph Timmermans who was correctly identified in the auction information as a Belgian who served as the Procureur Général prés les Juridictions mixtes á AlexandrieAnother part of the auction description gave his name as “Jules” Timmermans. His name is correctly Joseph Timmermans. He is identified in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume’s appendix listing of personnel on the District Courts (pg. IX) as Belgian, appointed as a judge to the District Court in Alexandria in April 1883, as a past Procureur Général prés les Jurisdictions Mixtes in June 1892, and in February 1894 was re-appointed as Judge in Alexandria. He died in Alexandria on 10 February, 1897. On pg XXII (in the listing for personnel of the Parquet) Timmermans’ entry confirms his positions as a former judge of the Mixed Tribunal of Alexandria, his appointment as Procurer Général starting in June, 1892, and resumption of his position as a judge on the Mixed District Court in Alexandira in February, 1894. In the Parquet listing on pg. XXII he also is identified as a recipient of the Order of Osmanieh, 3rdClass. 

large.263723834_MixedDistrictCourtsjudicialbadgecopy.jpg.9f5fee90968c79f1d53751e56e5c3adc.jpg

The gold & silver District Court badge made by Froment-Meurice from the Jean Elsen & ses Fils auction of September 2014 attributed to Joseph Timmermans. The auction lot also included the award letter of Timmermans’ 3rd Class Order of Osmanieh, dated 16 March, 1893, apparently with a hand-written translation by the Khedive Abbas Hilmi II. In my post of 31 October, 2018 I was curious whether the appropriate badge for a Procureur Général associated with the office of the Parquet, should have been a silver badge. This question is resolved, at least partially, by the fact that Timmermans spent a significant amount of his career serving on the District Court of Alexandria. He would have appropriately been issued the gold & silver District Court badge for his initial appointment to the court in Alexandria, and may have used it (or another?) for his final 3 years on the District Court in Alexandria. Whether he retained this gold & silver badge during his time serving as Procurer, or whether he would have been issued another different badge (all silver) is still unclear to me, but perhaps the role of Procureur associated with bringing cases before the District Courts might have arrayed him in the regalia of the District Courts (gold and silver badge, but what color sash?)

large.227986902_Timmermans2.jpg.73917d19750ce6ba84551c4fb75c4d72.jpg

Portrait from the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume identifying past Procureur Généraux of the Mixed Courts (pg. 42). The dates 1892-1894 are those of his service as a prosecutor.   

Carl Valdemar Kraft (1849-1924) In the 2nd photo of my post of 5 March, 2019 I included a postcard image of the Danish Judge Carl Valdemar Kraft. Additional images and a small amount of information about him also are available in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume. Kraft is identified as having been named to the District Court in Mansourah in January, 1896. He was transferred to District Court of Cairo in June of 1901. He reached the age of majority for court service in 1920. He was awarded the Grand Officer Class of the Order of the Nile (pg. X).

large.1560523826_CarlKraftcopy.jpg.ed40d9e95090314bae27ccde6e74ec65.jpg

Postcard portrait of Carl Valedemar Kraft found tucked into a copy of Michael Hansson’s: 25 år i Egypt, 1946. Forlagt Av. H. Aschehoug & Co., (W. Nygaard), Oslo that was owned by Rudolph Kraft (a brother of Carl Valdemar Kraft), that has Rudolph Kraft's name inside the front cover, dated 1948. See my post of 5 March that provides bracketing dates for why this portrait probably was made between Kraft's initial appointment in Mansourah in 1896 and 1914 when Atelier Reiser was relocated to Munich, either just before or after WWI broke out. This portrait was made in Reiser's studio in Alexandria (another was located in Cairo). 

large.1478025489_Kraft2b.jpg.73791a139d17df7f0272ffb04ed304cc.jpg

Portrait of Carl Valdemar Kraft from the section of the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume identifying past Presidents of the Mixed Tribunals of Cairo (pg. 48). The dates 1916-1920 are the period of his tenure as President of the District Court of Cairo. The Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume spells his name “Karl”, which appears to be incorrect. All other sources I have located spell his name “Carl”, including hand-written information on the back of the Reiser postcard portrait of Kraft (shown above) in the handwriting of his brother Rudolph Kraft. The Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume does have some discrepancies in the spelling of Egyptian and foreign names between the legends on portraits, group photos of courts and functionaries, and the listing of career highlights in the appendices. I have used the spellings in the appendices, as they provide the full names of individuals who often are listed by the letter of their first names and surnames, surnames only (almost exclusively for foreign personnel only), partial honorific, or with alternative spellings to those in some of the figure captions.   

large.942195109_Cairo1909.jpg.b6ab38178fbda2e6c50b671437a770db.jpg

Carl Valdemar Kraft is shown in the above group photo in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume (pg. 189) of the Cairo Tribunal in 1909, seated second from L in the first row. This image can be zoomed for better details. The other individuals in the photo are, front row L–R: Mohamed Sadek Bey (Egypt); Carl Valedemar Kraft (Denmark); Dr. Frédéric Herzbruck (President, Germany); Diderik-Galtrup-Gjedde Nyholm (Denmark); and Achille Adolph Eeman (Belgium). 2nd row L-R: Herbert Welk Halton (Britain); Youssouf Aziz Bey (Egypt); Cornelis Bernardus Johannes Aloysius Wierdels (Netherlands); Walter Van Renssalaer Berry (USA); Francis Laloë (France); and Julius Cornélis Théodorus Heyligers (Netherlands). Back row L-R: Luis Comulada (Spain); Mohammed El Naggari Bey (Egypt); Fuad Gress Bey (Egypt); and Ahmed Raguib Badre Bey (Egypt). 

Edited by Rusty Greaves
trying to eliminate white highlighted text

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Posted (edited)

An example of a Mixed Courts judicial silver badges manufactured by a jeweler I have not seen represented before is listed (Lot 74177) on a current auction by Heritage Auctions (https://fineart.ha.com/itm/silver-smalls/an-egyptian-silver-magistrate-s-badge-from-the-reign-of-abbas-ii-egypt-circa-1900marks-unidentified-cipher-zivy-fr/a/5403-74177.s) and also listed on liveauctioneers.com website  (https://www.liveauctioneers.com/item/70835139_74177-an-egyptian-silver-magistrate-s-badge-from-the-r). This badge was made by Zivy Frères & Cie., a Swiss jewelry house, watchmaker, and goldsmith with addresses in Paris and at 10 rue Chèrif Pacha, Alexandria (the same street where Horovitz  had a storefront at 26 rue Chèrif Pacha, see my post of 1 December, 2018 where I illustrated a silver badge made by Horovitz, and the last image in that shows a photo from ~1900 of the rue Chèrif Pacha). In addition to being the only badge made by Zivy Frères & Cie. that I have found photos of, this example has some interesting differences in the detail of its execution, and one very odd missing symbolic element.

 667798761_ZivyFrereobverse.thumb.jpg.3a4a2f4283c444b1acc5280038c432f9.jpg

Obverse of the Mixed Courts badge made by Zivy Frères & Cie., Alexandria. The auction description calls this a "Magistrates badge from the reign of Abbas Hilmi II", identifies the manufacturer as Zivy Frères, considers the hallmark ("cipher") as unidentified, and gives the measurement as 4-5/8" (117.5 mm) high X 3-5/8" (~92 mm) wide, and provides a very approximate date of c.1900. 

The Zivy Frères & Cie. example shows some very significant variation in many details of its design compared with other Mixed Courts badges. The above image can be zoomed for additional detail. A couple aspects appear more detailed and three-dimensional; specifically, the depth of relief in the crown (although the superior crescent appears to be less detailed, the inferior band of the crown also shows less crisp definition of its design elements, and possibly other crown components are slightly different) and the execution of the tasseled cords at each of the upper corners of the mantle in the coat of arms. The interior loops (those on the crown side of the mantle corners) of the tasseled cords each form heart-shaped loops, compared with the more triangular ovals seen on all other examples. The exterior loops of these two cord elements also show somewhat greater detail (especially the left exterior loop) and relief. There is a raised "cord" border to the fringe and interior of the mantle that I also have not seen on other badges. Such a cord is present on the exterior portions of the mantle in other badges, between the embroidered portion of the mantle and the fringe, but not on the interior. The Zivy Frères badge also has a raised cord border on the two superior lateral exterior drapery folds of the mantle between the first (lower) panel of spiral "embroidery" next to the fringe and the more superior embroidery panel of triangular designs, also not seen on other examples. In contrast, many other elements of this Zivy Frères badge are much less detailed in their design. All 4 tassels are rendered in lower relief and detail, and each of the interior tassels lacks the longer, straight section of cord seen in all other examples. Both finials of the two tughs, as well as the horsetail embellishments, are executed in less detail, especially compared with the Froment-Meurice and Stobbe examples, and even compared with the Horovitz badge (the one Horovitz example I have seen photos of seems to be made with less careful craftsmanship than Froment-Meurice or Stobbe, but still is much more detailed the this Zivy Frères badge) that I illustrated in my post of 1 December, 2018 on this thread. The oak leaves on the L and the laurel leaves on the R of the tablet with inscription are much less detailed than on other examples, even less so than the Horovitz example. The superior star and rays above the inscription tablet may be lower relief and appear less finely designed. The ermine tail relief elements distributed across the interior of the mantle are executed in larger and much coarser fashion than on any other examples, and several that normally appear across other designs are missing (i.e., the two that appear below the oak & laurel branches and above the margins of the Order of Medjidie badge element; the 2 just below the cut ends of the oak & laurel branches; and the two on either side of the hand of justice on the superior finial of the L tugh, all of which are visible even on the less-detailed Horovitz example. The most dramatic differences from other badges are apparent in the lower portion of the badge. Below the union of the union of the oak & laurel branches, a ring is present, but the crescent and star is completely missing. This seems quite an odd omission of an important symbolic element. No other example I have seen lacks this Ottoman emblem. The Order of Medjidie is missing the full circumference of the 7-pointed, multi-rayed, star embellishment, and the central medallion frame is much thinner than on other badges. Its surrounding wreath also appears to be much less detailed in its execution. The auction description notes some damage to the enamel (of the central tablet’s inscriptions), but in comparing the inscription with other examples, there appears to be some lower elegance in the calligraphy of this example even before such damage occurred. 

Although the height dimension of this badge is not that anomalous (117.5 mm, compared with more common measurements of 115, or 116 mm, although at least one other example is identified as 117 mm), the width of 92.07 mm is slightly larger than almost all other examples from auction sites providing measurements that generally are 85 mm or maximally identified as 88 mm. The multi-rayed embellishment does appear to extend further beyond the mantle margins than on other manufacturer's examples. 

925177606_ZivyFrereobverseinferiormarginclose-upB.jpg.657f99d3f3ad377ec8d699c8869739f1.jpg

Close-up of the inferior portion of the Zivy Frères badge showing the missing crescent & star element below the tied oak & laurel branches and the much less detailed execution of the Order of Medjidie symbol. The coarser ermine tail decorations, the less well-modeled "fur" relief of the mantle interior, and less well-executed oak & laurel leaves also are apparent in this view. 

image.png.089014b2751d391c826dcb003ffedb59.png

For comparison, above is the inferior design portion of the silver judicial badge made by Froment-Meurice and attributed to Judge Herbert Hills (http://www.dreweatts.com/auctions/lot-details/?saleId=13863&lotId=175). 

 247224898_ZivyFrerereverse.thumb.jpg.c3196da97e6b4fe9ff7ed307f8dd667f.jpg

Reverse of the Mixed Courts badge made by Zivy Frères & Cie., Alexandria. Note that the 5 rivet fasteners normally visible on the reverse where the mantle component is attached to the multi-rayed embellishment are not present on this example, suggesting a soldered attachment rather than rivets (areas of solder may be visible along the joint between the central shield-shaped portion and the multi-rayed embellishment). . 

1002564688_ZivyFrerereverse2.thumb.jpg.192291429d737e7d38f2a61d55aa0a5b.jpg

Reverse of the Mixed Courts badge made by Zivy Frères & Cie. with the tunic pin opened showing the placement of the name "ZIVY FRERES" and their manufacturer's hallmark. No silver assay hallmarks are visible on the reverse.

973993563_ZivyFrerehallmark.thumb.jpg.2532c31db3b25e63461b6d2cad799c5b.jpg 

Close-up view of the name "ZIVY FRERES" and probably their manufacturer's hallmark (unfortunately not detailed enough to be able to see clearly, but it does not appear to be a silver purity hallmark). The Zivy Frères name shows a double strike in its application. I have found very few internet images of Zivy Frères silver pieces, and none so far that show the firm's hallmark. 

25209863512_e7e4ef3ce7_o.thumb.jpg.8e3cd957d0a9018724e7b3892af2a072.jpg

Business card of Zivy Frères & Cie. (https://www.flickr.com/photos/kelisli/25209863512/in/dateposted/). Examples of this card also are currently offered on an eBay auction (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-FRANCE-Zivy-Freres-Co-The-provider-of-Jewelries-to-HM-King-of-EGYPT/303120051239?hash=item46935cec27:g:YCIAAOSwWrNcFTNE). The crown in the upper left of the card is a version of the Egyptian Royal Crown.

654853041_ZivyFreresadvertinAlexandrie1928No1.thumb.jpg.839e603b825dce5013f477c666ab5455.jpg

Advertisement for Zivy Frères & Cie. from pg. XX of Alexandrie: Reine de la Mèditeranèe, No 1, Juillet 1928, 1ère Partie (http://www.cealex.org/pfe/diffusion/PFEWeb/pfe_068/PFE_068_002_1_w.pdf(http://www.cealex.org/pfe/diffusion/PFEWeb/pfe_068/PFE_068_002_1_w.pdf). 

 

 

Edited by Rusty Greaves
correcting spell check changes

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Posted (edited)

I have several additional photos from the volume Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926 that relate to aspects of the costumes of individuals associated with different court bodies and roles in the Egyptian Mixed Courts system. I will first post a couple portraits of individuals whose roles in the Mixed Courts are identified in 1926 and show them in their court dress. The second set of 4 images include some group portraits of judges in the District Courts of Alexandria in 1909, one of the Parquet in 1891, court functionaries associated with the District Court of Mansourah (mostly clerks and interpreters, showing clerks wearing the bicolored sash and judicial badges but not other court functionaries), and a group photo of lawyers from Port Said in their court garb along with one clerk wearing the bicolored sash and "judicial" badge. These images principally address how sash colors (that have been slightly complicated given that only some of the roles of particular judges or other functionaries are identified in other literature and may not match available photos of those individuals) and judicial badges were worn by personnel of the Mixed Courts who were not judges. These images do help resolve some of the questions I have had about variation in sash colors and whether individuals other than judges also wore the large Mixed Courts badge. This information also may help explain the greater abundance of silver badges on auction sites, that my previous research information suggested were principally associated with prosecutors of the Parquet. It is apparent from these photographs that clerks serving the Appeals Court, the District Courts, and the Parquet also wore bi-colored sashes and judicial badges (probably all silver), potentially identifying these functionaries as other sources for many auction badges that are usually attributed to judges of the Mixed Courts.  All of these images can be enlarged for greater details.

large.40514504_Cambas2.jpg.02d7c484b129f9d89389663910ecd899.jpg

The above photo shows Judge Nicolas Cambas (Greece) in his judicial costume as president of the Mixed Court of Appeals in 1926. He wears the green sash of the Appeals Court and his judicial badge should be gold. Cambas was elected as Vice-President of the Appeals Court in January 1922, and named President of that court in October 1924. From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 11. 

I have previously  illustrated Judge Michael Hansson (Norway) in his judicial costume as the Vice-President of the Mixed Court of Appeals in the 9th photo of my post of 18 April, 2019 on this thread (wearing the green sash and probably a gold badge) and dressed as the President of the District Court of Mansourah in the 7th photo of that 18 April post (wearing a red sash and a what should be the gold & silver badge, although his badge is not visible in that portrait). That costume, as President of the Mansourah District Court, would be the same as the other portrait of Hansson in his red sash and what is likely a gold & silver badge in the 6th photo of the 18 April post. 

large.1091904138_Qvale2.jpg.5bdf46ce183031c55d83f2f2a5d9c1e0.jpg

Above is a portrait of Erling Qvale (Norway) President of the District Court of Alexandria in 1926. His sash is solid red and the badge should be gold & silver (the central tablet with inscription does appear to be a darker color than some of the surrounding silver of the badge in this photo). Judge Qvale was named to the District Court of Mansourah in October of 1913, he transferred to the District Court of Alexandria in January of 1917, and was made president of the District Court of Alexandria in February of 1925.  He is shown seated at the head of the table of judges, all in civilian dress, in the 5th photo of my post of 18 April, 2019 on this thread showing the personnel of the District Court of Alexandria serving in 1926. From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 35.  

large.1781458163_Bechmann2.jpg.43b3742b47c01605af82d22afc4bb8f2.jpg

Above is an image of Hangs Gram Bechmann (Denmark) as President of the District Court of Mansourah in 1926. His sash is solid red and the badge (not very visible) should be gold & silver. Beckmann was named a judge on the District Court of Mansourah in October 1922, delegated to the District Court of Alexandria in October of 1922, returned to the District Court of Mansourah in November of 1922, and elected President of  the District Court of Mansourah in November 1925. Judge Bechmann is shown as the President of the District Court of Mansourah (either in 1925 or 1926) with the other judges on that court in the 1st photo of my post of 5 March, 2019 on this thread. From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 36. 

large.1406115959_VandenBosch2.jpg.474bc9e691b5de7c6e46bb44ac340ceb.jpg

The above portrait is of Firmin Van Den Bosch (Belgium) in his role as the Procureur Général (the Chief Prosecutor) associated with the office of the Parquet in 1926. In this portrait, Van Den Bosch is wearing a European-style evening jacket (possibly a tailcoat?) along with white tie and a white vest, rather than the Egyptian long tunic with a high collar (the stambouline, the former costume of all employees of the Ottoman Turkish Government, the name derived from Stamboul/Stambul as in Istanbul). This image shows clearly that he is wearing bi-colored sash as a member of the Parquet (with a green stripe in the superior position and a red stripe on the inferior portion of the sash) and what should be a silver badge. This is one of the photos from this anniversary reference volume showing an individual sporting medals in association with his judicial regalia. Van Den Bosch's portrait is bit unusual as most of the photos of men wearing medals with their judicial garb date to earlier periods of the Mixed Courts' existence, not at the 1926 time of this publication. Jasper Yeates Brinton (1930, The Mixed Courts of Egypt, Yale University Press, New Haven; pg. 87, note 14) states that there was a general proviso that judges not receive any honorary or material distinctions from the Egyptian Government during their tenure on the bar. However, a formal proposal was made in 1927 to codify this practice and include other officials on the Mixed Courts, especially in relation to the awarding of the tiles of "Bey" to recognize long service. At the time of the publication of Brinton's book, this proposal by the Egyptian government had not yet been voted on by the different foreign governments with legal representatives on the Courts, and apparently was not supported by many members of the Courts. It appears that Van Den Bosch is wearing insignia of the 2nd Class Grand Officer of the Order of the Nile (neck badge and breast star) and his other neck badge appears to be the 3rd Class Commander's Cross of the Belgian Order of Leopold. His two chest medals include: a 4th Class Officer's Cross (civil division) of the Belgian Order of Leopold; and probably the 4th Class Officer's Cross of the Belgian Order of the Crown. Van Den Bosch previously served as a judge on the District Court of Mansourah from October 1910 until February 1916 when he was transferred to the District Court of Cairo. He was named to the Procureur Général role on the Parquet in April of 1920. From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 11. 

large.1263534858_Aldercreutz2.jpg.7ca7e90eeca2bf3d628ca4dffd037d53.jpg

Portrait of Axel Johan Patrick Adlercreutz (Sweden) as former President of the District Court of Mansourah from 1910-1911. He is wearing a solid red sash and, although only partially visible, his badge should be gold & silver. Adlercreutz was named to the District Court of Mansourah in January 1907. After serving as President he was transferred to the District Court of Cairo in April 1912 and retired from the Courts in February of 1917. From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 49. 

large.766697285_ArdittiBey2.jpg.7ad714323119b3d70b880cfc67eb4375.jpg

A. Arditti Bey (Egypt), the Chief Clerk of the District Court of Mansourah in 1926. This image shows that not only judges, but some of the high functionaries of the courts also wore similar regalia. Arditti Bey wears the tarboosh, high-collared tunic, as well as a sash and judicial badge.  His sash is similar to that of the Parquet, with a green superior stripe and a red inferior stripe, and his badge should be silver. From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg.389.

large.517630585_Alexandria19092b.jpg.842f19c82c36643be3bf1df01fe92f82.jpg

The District Court of Alexandria in 1909 showing judges in their judicial regalia that should be the solid red sash and a gold & silver badge. While most individuals are wearing the high-collared Egyptian tunic coat, a few judges are wearing European style jackets. The individuals in the front row are, from L-R: Mohamed Mustafa Bey (Egypt), Aly Mazloum Bey (Egypt), Ismail Maher Bey (Egypt), Adalbert Bela de Zoltan (Austria-Hungary), Ernest Eeman (President, Belgium), Carlo Otto Montan (Sweden), Manoël Augusto Pereira e Cunha (Portugal), and Marius Joseph Paulin Suzanne (France) and Othon de Bulow (Germany). The back row includes, from L-R: Dimiltriades (Greece, no first name given in any part of this volume), an unnamed guard, Alexandre Sorokin (Russia), Halvard Nicolai Heggen (Norway), Fedor Andrew Satow (Britain), Giovanni Paulucci de Calboli (Italy), Soubhi Ghali Bey (Egypt), Abdel Messih Simaika Bey (Egypt), William-Grant Van Horne (USA), Raghb Ghali Bey (Egypt), an unnamed guard, and Salone (the Chief Clerk, also wearing a sash [I cannot tell if it is a solid red or possibly bi-colored in this poorer quality photograph] and Mixed Court badge, his nationality is not identified). From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 189.

large.236758588_Parquet1891_2.jpg.7b33f2268cf40eca34cb0532b465041b.jpgFunctionaries of the Parquet in 189, showing these prosecutors wearing regalia similar to that of judges, but wearing the bi-colored sash and probably the all-silver badge. While several photos of individuals serving in the Parquet show them wearing their sashes with the green stripe uppermost (i.e., Firman Van Den Bosch above; Mahmoud Said as Chief of the Parquet in the first photo of my post of 5 March 2019 shown get District Court of Mansourah in ~1926; and Ismail Gazzarine in that same photo as the Subsitute for the the Procureur Général), almost all of these individuals above are wearing theirs so that the red stripe appears to be superior and the green stripe is inferior. Note the 3 individuals who are wearing decorations on their jackets at this date along with the official Parquet regalia. The individuals in the front row L-R are: Lemaire Bey (Inspector of the Clerk, nationality not identified), Guillaume Edward Emile Marie de Brower (Procurer GeneralBelgium), Emin Ghali Pacha (Chief of the Parquet of Alexandria, Egypt), In the back row are L-R: Luigi Colucci Bey (nationality not identified), Edgar Mercinier (Secretary, nationality not identified, who may be wearing a solid red-colored sash), Soubhil Ghlai Bey (who appears to be wearing his sash oriented with the green stripe uppermost and the red stripe in the inferior position, Egypt), Ahmed Zulificar Bey (Egypt), Ismail Chimi Bey (Subsitute for the the Procurer GeneralEgypt), From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926,  pg. 190.

large.1692813089_Mansourahfuncitonaries2.jpg.53874a9ea27a150f18f36c555a3b1064.jpg

Functionaries serving the District Court of Mansourah in 1926 showing the use of similar regalia to that worn by judges for individuals serving the courts in other capacities. Most of these individuals appear to be wearing bi-colored sashes as do the personnel on the Parquet, and probably should be wearing all-silver badges. Almost all of the men are wearing their sashes oriented with the green stripe in the superior position and the red stripe in the inferior position. All of the interpreters in this photo are not wearing sashes and badges. The other individuals not wearing sashes and badges include the Chief Bailiff (5th from L in front row) and the Secretary to the President (3rd from L in the middle row). The first names and nationalities of most of these individuals are not given. The individuals in the front row are L-R: G Cassis (Clerk), Yacoub Salib (interpreter), Zaki Saleh (Clerk), G. Sabeh (Conservator of Mortgages), Poli (Chief Bailiff), Cosséry (Clerk), and Garzoni (Clerk). In the middle row from L-R are: B. Finan (Clerk, apparently wearing his sash with the red stripe uppermost and the green stripe in the inferior position, unlike all the other bi-colored sashes in this photo), Boutari (Clerk), Jourdan (Secretary to the President),  Vibert-Roulet (Clerk), and Chibli (Clerk). The back row includes L-R: Bonnicci (interpreter), Habib Salem (Clerk, his sash may be solid red rather than bi-colored), Faiez Gress (interpreter), and Youssef Boutros (interpreter). From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 394.

large.1636548881_AdvocatsPort-Said2.jpg.0411420b89876437434d25bd65f42dd6.jpg

Portrait of the lawyers (avocats) serving the District Court of Port Said showing one individual who is a clerk with garb similar to judges or functionaries of the Parquet and the court costume for the lawyers. The lawyers wear silk robes, the legal cap (beretta), and the white scarf (rabat) based on that of the French bar. The first name of the clerk of interest in the first row wearing a sash and "judicial" badge is not identified and the nationalities of these men are not given. The individuals not identified with other roles all are lawyers. The individuals in the front row are L-R: Christo Medinas (wearing a beretta), Joseph Zalout, George Mouchbahani, (Delegate), Spagnolaki (Clerk in the bi-colored green & red sash and probably silver "judicial" badge), and George Anasassiadis. In the middle are L-R: Pascal Gabelli, Nicolas Zizinia, and Domenico Mascagni. The back row includes L-R: Jean Papayoannou, Charles Bacos, Kimon Valendi, and Camillo Corsetti. Also see the 4th photo in my post of 1 April, 2019 showing lawyers in the courtroom of the Appeals Court in 1926 wearing their legal costumes, including the French epitoge, the French version of the academic hood, partially visible on the backs of the 3 lawyers in the right foreground of the photo. From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 206. 

Edited by Rusty Greaves

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Pardon a bit of levity, but I saw this photo (on a well-known auction site) of what is probably the son of a very proud Egyptian judge, and couldn't help but think of this topic...

s-l1600.jpg

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Posted (edited)

Chris, yes this image is still for sale on eBay and I posted this same image in my second post of 31 October, 2018 (4th photo). Although the seller titles this "The Little Judge", the accessory on the boy's left shoulder is actually an epitoge, the French academic equivalent of the British & American hood for academic costumes. In Egypt, this is worn by lawyers, not judges. I noted in that post of 31 October that this image represents a hybrid costume, but did not state that the tarboosh should be a biretta for a lawyer's costume. See the 4th photo of my post of 1 April 2019 showing several lawyers in front of judges in the Court of Appeals in February, 1926, showing several wearing the epitoge and some wearing the biretta. I have a few images of lawyers in the Mixed Courts that I am organizing to post in this thread soon, in relation to additional images associated with Mahmoud Saïd, the judge and Egyptian modernist painter. 

Edited by Rusty Greaves

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

I just came across 2 examples of Mixed Tribunals judges' badges from a recent auction (June 2019) by Lugdunum GmbH that is archived on the CoinArchives.com website. One of these is a silver badge made by Froment-Meurice. The other badge is bit odd. It is described as made of bronze, and all elements of its design are executed in much less detail than any badge I have illustrated in this thread, except the strange "pin" version in my post of 8 December, 2018. All of these photos can be enlarged to see them in greater detail. 

large.1071247032_Coinarchivessilverjudgesbadgeobv8_2019copy.jpg.286bde0a2753e32affbf2f5aeeef817a.jpg

Obverse of a silver Mixed Courts judges badge (possibly from the Parquet) made by Froment-Meurice from a 19 June, 2019 auction by Lugdunum GmbH (Auction 16, Lot 288) archived on the CoinArchives.com website. The description states that this badge is from Alexandria and gives an approximate date of 1892 (probably "identified" simple as it is the year Abbas Hilmi II became Khedive of Egypt), although no basis for this identification is provided. As noted in my post of 28 February, 2019 on this thread, the auction house Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG's auction description of a Stobbe-manufactured District Court judge’s badge made of gold  and silver identified 1907 as the date of this commission by Khedive Abbas Hilmi II (a highly problematic date for this commission as the badges appear to have been in use by 1875 under the reign of Khedive Isma'il Pasha, who authorized the creation of the Mixed Courts-see my next post of 15 August). The creation of this badge for the Mixed Courts’ judges may have been associated with a judicial costume change from the earliest practice of each judge (foreign and Egyptian) wearing their own country’s judicial robes to a standardized Egyptian costume of tarboosh, stamboul coat, along with the differently-colored sashes and this large badge (also see my discussion in the 4th paragraph of my 24 March, 2017 post in this thread, but also the updated information in my next post of 15 August). The auction description says it is silver plated, however these badges are solid silver.  The badge measures 85 mm wide x 115 mm high and weighs 141.76 g. (From: https://www.coinarchives.com/w/lotviewer.php?LotID=3972878&AucID=4100&Lot=288&Val=f97e5c722c28c73add7c029f374c845e)

large.645716087_Coinarchivessilverjudgesbadgerev8_2019copy.jpg.2475de38adad85c20f2eaa9b4972f399.jpg

Reverse of the same silver badge from the June 2019 auction of Lugdunum GmbH showing the Froment-Meurice name in the lower third of the central depression and the diamond-shaped Froment-Meurice maker's hallmark just above the fasteners for the obverse tablet inscription piece and to the right of the tunic pin (the image is not high-enough resolution to see this hallmark even when enlarged). This is only the second example I have seen photos of that has this diamond-shaped hallmark and the "FROMENT-MEURICE" name in this lower position. The other example with the diamond-shaped hallmark and lower stamped name is shown in a higher resolution image on the 12th image of my post of 28 February, 2019 on this thread; on a named badge belonging to the Greek Judge Apostolo N. Gennaropoulo of the Mixed Tribunals' Parquet of Alexandria. Below is the illustration of this hallmark that I included in that 28 February post showing the design with the "FROMENT" name above a stylized rose with the bud toward the right, and "MEURICE" below the rose. As can be seen on this thread, all other examples of Froment-Meurice manufactured judges badges that have available photos of their reverse have the name FROMENT-MEURICE" stamped above the central fasteners. There appear to be metal tool marks visible on the lower left rivet, and possibly on the upper left rivet as well. This may suggest an attempt to disassemble the badge elements. No assay marks are present, but I have not seen any on other photos of the reverse of Froment-Meurice made badges. 

345723189_froment_meurice_hallmarkcropped.png.9391c0ab49e88e60e539773783731bf7.png

Drawing of the Froment-Meurice rose hallmark used by Maison Froment-Meurice. As noted in my original post of this hallmark on 28 February, 2019, I do not know the date ranges for the use of this hallmark, nor whether temporal use or other reasons are responsible for the lack of this hallmark and the higher position of the "FROMENT-MEURICE"  stamped name on most examples of the judicial badge made by this Parisian workshop that created the original design of this badge.  (From: https://www.langantiques.com/university/Froment-Meurice_Jewelry_Maker%27s_Mark)

large.662485586_Coinarchivesbronzejudgesbadgeobv8_2019copy.jpg.e5532c418447c8f699dc091fcaadeb85.jpg

Obverse view of this unusual version of the Egyptian Mixed Courts judicial badge. This example also is from a 19 June, 2019 auction by Lugdunum GmbH (Auction 16, Lot 289) archived on the CoinArchives.com website. The auction description identifies the metal as bronze, a material not used for any authentic judicial badges of the International Tribunals (gold was used for the Appeals Court; silver & gold for the District Courts; and silver was used for the Parquet, but also see some complexities of costume outlined in previous posts on this thread). The description repeats the probably spurious association with Alexandria and a date of c.1892. This piece is the same size as all other judicial badges (85 mm wide x 115 mm high) and weighs 196.22 g. The offering is associated with a case identified as the original box of issue, but no manufacturer is identified. It is apparent that almost all aspects of the design of this badge are of much lower craftsmanship than any other genuine badges, with the possible exception of the rays forming the base embellishment. Even the example I posted on April 24, 2019 made by Zivy Frères & Cie. that exhibits the lowest level of detail of any badge is not of such poor artistry as this badge from the Lugdunum GmbH. The obvious jewelry mimic "pin" mentioned above and shown in my post of 8 December, 2018 in this thread was apparently never intended to be taken as a genuine judge's insignia of office, and is merely inspired by the form of the Mixed Court badges. The calligraphy on the central tablet above shows a number of differences and omissions compared with all other badges. The ornamental design in the folds of the drapery of the mantle are highly abbreviated and incompletely present on the long vertical folds. The laurel leaves on the right side of the tablet are hollowed and lack any realistic execution. The oak leaves on the left side of the tablet also are very poorly formed in comparison with all other examples. The horses' tails on the tughs (at each of the upper corners of the central inscribed tablet), the tasseled cords, the exterior mantle folds, the superior crown, the Order of Medjidie symbol, and even the star and its radiant surround above the tablet, all are much less detailed. Many of the small ermine tail embellishments on the interior of the mantle are missing, and all are made with no detail beyond mimicking the shape on other badges. The interior of the mantle is simply a rugose pattern, with no attempt to make it resemble the furred interior. It is clear this is not a genuine example used by a member of the Mixed Courts judiciary or other officials occasionally shown wearing this badge. The bronze material and poor detail are inconsistent with the range of variability seen across the several manufacturers of this insignia. I believe this could be an Egyptian manufactured replica for the tourist trade, but whether it comes from the early 20th century or was made more recently is unclear. This mock badge and the very abbreviated "pin" example shown in my 8 December, 2018 post are the only examples I have encountered of full-sized pieces based on the design of this judicial badge that are clearly not authentic regalia of the Mixed Courts. (From: https://www.coinarchives.com/w/lotviewer.php?LotID=3972879&AucID=4100&Lot=289&Val=efc6a2fa2700e6a994f8217cb7d28a9c)

large.1233154660_Coinarchivesbronzejudgesbadgerev8_2019copy.jpg.662facf58cba0855748e9cc4b06898d4.jpg

Reverse of the same bronze badge from the June 2019 auction of Lugdunum GmbH. The central fasteners may be somewhat different than most examples, but the broad and flat tunic pin is clearly unusual compared with all others seen on these badges (even the "pin' version has the narrower tunic pin seen on all other examples). There are no manufacture's or assay hallmarks (Egyptian bronze was probably excluded from the need to have assay, Egyptian manufacture, and date hallmarks as were required for gold, silver, and platinum). The two engraved letters, "A." and either "I." or "J.", "S.", "T.", or possibly "G.", likely are initials of an owner, or alleged owner, of this piece. 

Edited by Rusty Greaves

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

I came across the portrait of Émile Froment-Meurice shown below from the French language Wikipédia site this February, but have been so busy I never posted it. I have wanted to include it here, as small homage to the man who designed this beautiful badge for Khedive Isma'il Pasha. As I noted in my 28 February 2019 post on this thread about details hallmarks on the Egyptian Mixed Court badges (principally from available photographs and information on auction listings), Maison Froment-Meurice originated as a goldsmith workshop founded by François Froment (1773-1803) in 1801. The name Froment-Meurice derives from Émile’s paternal grandmother having married her husband’s (François Froment) partner (the goldsmith Pierre-Jaques Meurice) following her husband's death in 1804, changing the workshop name to Froment-Meurice. Émile’s father, François-Désiré Froment-Meurice took over the shop in 1832. He became a very successful goldsmith and jeweler. Most sources indicate that Émile Froment-Meurice took over the workshop following the death of his father, François-Désiré Froment-Meurice (born 1802), in 1855 (some sources suggest he assumed ownership in 1859). 1907 is the date when Émile Froment-Meurice retired and sold his business (although some sources indicate that he continued to run Atelier Froment-Meurice until 1913, this almost certainly is not true). His sons did not wish to continue in the business. When Émile Froment-Meurice ran the atelier he lived at 46 rue d'Anjou in Paris. He sold the workshop and his clientele to Georges Auger in 1907, a goldsmith-jeweler living in Paris. Maison Augere was founded by Alphonse Auger (1837-1904) and the shop was moved to 54 rue Etienne-Marcel in approximately 1890. Many of Alphonse Auger's jewelry pieces are markedly art deco in design, or French Art Nouveau. George Auger began to work with Alphonse in 1900. His workshops products after 1907 are known to bear the mark "Auger-Froment Meurice" for an unspecified time (it appears that later work is simply identified as "Auger"), although I have not seen any of the Mixed Court badges with this hallmark. The address 372 rue Saint-Honoré, 75001, Paris is the one that appears in all the the photos of cases I have seen images of (11th and 13th photos in my 28 February post). This location of the atelier dates to at least 1859 (see the advertisement below). 

The date when Émile Foment-Meurice retired (1907) raises several questions about when Maison Froment-Meurice actually received the commission to design this badge and how long the workshop produced them. Although several sources (including Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG's auction description of a Stobbe-manufactured District Court judge’s badge made of gold and silver) identified 1907 as the date of this commission by Khedive Abbas Hilmi II, this date must be incorrect.  First, It would have been impossible for Froment-Meurice to have been commissioned to produce the badges in 1907 and create a sufficient number before he retired in that same year to represent the number currently available in auctions. Second, the Mixed Courts were created by Khedive Isma'il Pasha (Abbas Hilmi II's grandfather) in 1875 following the skillful and long campaign of judicial reform by his Foreign Minister Nubar Pasha. I have not yet found a reliable reference about the date when this badge was designed by Émile Froment-Meurice as a commission from Khedive Isma'il Pasha. However, it could not have been in 1907 when Émile Froment-Meurice retired. I noted in my second post on this thread on 21 November, 2016 that Richard Beardsley, (the Consul General for the US in Cairo from 1870 -1876) described the judicial costume of the Mixed Courts in a letter of 15 July, 1875 to Hamilton Fish (the US Secretary of State from 1869-1877) including the use of these judicial badges: "...Over the shoulder and around the body is worn a broad scarf, to which is attached a large and very handsome badge of office. The badge consists of a shield resting upon a drapery, bearing various appropriate devices, from beneath which radiate the rays of a many-pointed star. On the shield is engraved in Arabic 'Law is the foundation of justice.'..." (From: EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 1875-'76. WASHINGTON:  GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 1876; PAPERS RELATED TO FOREIGN RELATIONS The United States, TRANSMITTED TO CONGRESS, WITH THE ANNUAL MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT,  DECEMBER 6, 1875. PRECEDED BY A LIST OF PAPERS AND FOLLOWED BY AN INDEX OF PERSONS AND SUBJECTS. VOLUME II. WASHINGTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 1875. pp. 1347-1348). Egyptian Zogist provided a better translation of this motto in his post of 23 November, 2016 on this thread as "Justice is the foundation of kingship/governance". This indicates that the Froment-Meurice designed judicial badge was in use almost from the origin of the Mixed Courts. I also noted in my second post on 21 November, 2016 that another source (Wilner, Gabriel M. 1975. The Mixed Courts of Egypt: a study on the use of natural law and equity. Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law vol 5 (no 2): pp. 407-430) quoted a statement by W. Burdick (W. Burdick,1939. Bench and Bar of Other Lands, pp. 495-496) which claimed that the costume of judges in the International Mixed Courts (Egyptian and foreign) were the judicial robes of their home countries (on pg. 412). However, Beardsley provides an eyewitness account in July1875 of the uses of a standardized national costume for judges of the Mixed Courts and the use of these large and beautiful judicial badges. At the time that Burdick was writing in 1939, photographic evidence clearly indicates that both Egyptian and foreign judges wore the standard stamboul coat, tarboosh, sash, and the heavy judicial badge of the Froment-Meurice design. I do not know whether the other manufacturers of these badges (Stobbe of Alexandria, Horovitz of Alexandria, M. Laurencin & Cie. of Alexandria, and Zivy Frères & Cie. of Alexandria) began to make them before Froment-Meurice's retirement in 1907, or only after this date. The Mixed Courts' judicial badges were apparently not made by his successor after Froment-Meurice sold the business to Auger. As noted above, following Georges Auger's purchase of the atelier, his pieces were marked "Auger-Froment Meurice" (see the last photo of this post showing an example with that name on the inside of the presentation case of a Laotian Order of the of the Million Elephants and White Parasol). The period when Froment-Meurice manufactured these badges is most likely between 1875 and 1907.

Émile Froment-Meurice and his wife Rose Tassin de Moncourt (1839-1913) both died in the catastrophic collapse of their mansion, located at No. 46 rue d'Anjou in Paris. Their son, Jacques Charles Francois Marie Froment-Meurice (1864-1947) was a sculptor who studied with Henri Michel Antoine Chapu, the celebrated French sculptor and medalist (1833-1891). 

large.929306312_Froment-Meurice_(Monde_illustr_1885-10-03).jpg.30531849d18c777981a746af1c410f3e.jpg

Pierre Henri Émile Froment-Meurice at the age of 48 (born 21 March, 1837 in Paris, died 21 April, 1913 in Paris) from Le mode illustré, 3 October, 1885. His profession is described as a goldsmith and jeweler, and both his father and grandfather also were goldsmiths. (From: https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Émile_Froment-Meurice)

large.675266287_1859courrierdescheminsdeFercopy.jpg.b1bd2df269df5a906cb135232291ee12.jpg

Advertisement by Émile Froment-Meurice from 1859 in the Courrier des Chemins de Fer identifying the 372 rue Saint-Honoré, Paris address for the workshop that appears on the case linings for the Mixed Court judges' badges made by Froment-Meurice. (From: https://www.richardjeanjacques.com/2019/02/les-froment-meurice-2-eme-partie-emile.html)

large.1142560417_1869LegDhoemile.jpg.a72b0bd72f6829b429dc181eaa32cf3b.jpg

Page from Émile Froment Meurice's award as a Knight of the légion d honneur in 1869, following winning the gold medal in the  1867 Exposition universelle de Paris. His father had been awarded a Knighthood in the légion d honneur in 1832.  (From: https://www.richardjeanjacques.com/2019/02/les-froment-meurice-2-eme-partie-emile.html)

large.1587397260_1877reconstitutionEmile.jpg.bcc5a9d7a51a3c4fd9faf70183bac43f.jpg

One of the extant pages from the reconstitution of Émile Froment Maurice's to the légion d honneur in 1877. (From: https://www.richardjeanjacques.com/2019/02/les-froment-meurice-2-eme-partie-emile.html)

large.1185444801_1913Le_Petit_Parisien__francoisFroment.jpg.46d937fbc3d2eea408838fe13666101d.jpg

Front page of Le Petit Parisien of 26 April, 1913 carrying the story of the collapse of Froment-Meurice's mansion and Émile Froment Maurice's death. (From: https://www.richardjeanjacques.com/2019/02/les-froment-meurice-2-eme-partie-emile.html)

large.1055941808_1913maisonmeuriceecroule.jpg.b7951d8023a6df4d8eafcbbfc9682795.jpgPhoto of the collapsed Froment-Meurice mansion at 46 rue d'Anjou in Paris (From: https://www.richardjeanjacques.com/2019/02/les-froment-meurice-2-eme-partie-emile.html)

large.284392883_1913avisdcsemile.FromentMeu.jpg.13244f4cddb1147ee71f697444378ba5.jpgDeath certificate of Émile Froment Meurice (From: https://www.richardjeanjacques.com/2019/02/les-froment-meurice-2-eme-partie-emile.html)

large.708412285_1913-04-26Le_Petit_Parisienfrancoisfroment.jpg.1e9f1c8473f30cef1da5a5aee799cf80.jpg

Newspaper photo from Le Petit Parisian of François Foment-Meurice, the 20 year-old grandson of Émile Froment Meurice, who was the only other person also buried in the mansion's collapse but survived. A cook and a valet de chamber in another part of the house also survived the disaster. (From: https://www.richardjeanjacques.com/2019/02/les-froment-meurice-2-eme-partie-emile.html)

large.154456475_AugerFromentMeurice.jpg.17e40f3f0c0f184ffb51ccd787a68bcd.jpg

An example of a medal created by Maison Auger-Froment Meurice following Georges Auger's purchase of Maison Froment-Meurice: the Laotian Order of the Million Elephants and White Parasol made by Auger-Froment Meurice. I know nothing about  this award, (but see GMIC links:

 

 

but it apparently was created on 1 May, 1909, by Royal Order of Laos, and amended 18 August, 1923 (or in 1927?) as 4 classes. On 10 October, 1936 a 5th class and a collar was added. The Order was abolished in 1975. It was awarded for civil and military merit relating to the Kingdom's development and dedication to France. The 1923 (1927?) amendment allowed the Order to be given to individuals with 10 years of military or civilian service in France, Indochina, or other French colonies. The address Place des Victories on the inside lid is simply a portion of the same address that Auger opened in 1900 at 54 rue Etienne-Marcel, place des Victories. (From: https://www.richardjeanjacques.com/2014/10/la-maison-de-joaillerie-auger-alphonse.html; copyright: David Fay-www.indochinamedals.com))

Edited by Rusty Greaves
continual struggles with auto-spell correct...

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Join the conversation

You can post now and register later. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.

Guest
Reply to this topic...

×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

  Only 75 emoji are allowed.

×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.


×
×
  • Create New...