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Egypt Khedivate Judge's Badge question


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I have some additional photos and information from the volume Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926 that I wish to share. In this post, I want to include images and information associated with individuals I have mentioned in past posts. I will treat each person that I have found something about in the order that they appeared on this thread. The only individual I have not been able to get any additional information about from this publication is the Greek Judge Apostolo N. Gennaropoulo, whose cased silver judicial badge made by Froment-Meurice and a portrait photo appeared on an eBay auction of September, 2014. I first illustrated Judge Gennaropoulo’s badge and portrait in the final photo of my post of 24 March, 2017, and the reverse of his badge is shown in the 7th photo of judicial badges (the 3rd to last of the illustrations of Froment-Meurice manufacturer’s marks) in my post detailing manufacturer’s and assay hallmarks of 28 February, 2019. It may be that Judge Gennaropoulo was not appointed to the court until after 1926, when the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume was published. So far, I have not found information about this individual in other research sources I have consulted. I have scanned the photos from the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume that I am including below in black and white as that seems to provide better detail of the images. Each of them have the decorative ancient Egyptian frame motifs around the photos in a rose color as shown in the scanned images from my 1 April, 2019 post, although they do not appear in color here. All of the scanned photos from the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume can be zoomed for somewhat greater details.  

Herbert Augustus Hills (1837-1907) I illustrated the obverse of the silver judicial badge identified as belonging to Herbert Hills of Great Britain, in the 1st photo of my post of 24 March, 2017. I illustrated the reverse of that badge that has a hand-written note attributing the badge to Judge Hills in my post of 7 November, 2017. I have included images of both the obverse & reverse of that badge below. Herbert Hills is identified in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume’s appendix listing of personnel for the District Courts. Hills is identified (pg. XII) as having been appointed in November of 1875 as a judge to the District Court in Alexandria, and promoted to Conseiller (legal advisor) to the Court of Appeals in October 1882 (Mark S. W. Hoyle, a moderately prolific recent scholar of the Egyptian Mixed Courts identifies his initial appointment year as 1876, probably an incorrect date, in his 1986 article: The structure and laws of the Mixed Courts of Egypt. Arab Law Quarterly, Vol 1 (3): 327-345). In the appendix list of personnel serving the Appeals Court, Hills is identified (pg. IV) as a former judge in Alexandria, and promoted to the Appeals Court in October, 1882, and he resigned in February, 1904. That section also states he was awarded the 2nd Class Order of Mejidie (he received this in either 1904 or 1905, a note in The Law Times: The Journal of the Law and The Lawyers, Vol CXIII of March 11, 1905, pg. 442 states that "Mr. Herbert Augustus Hill, late Judge in the Egyptian Mixed Court of Appeal at Alexandria, has received the Royal license and authority to accept and wear the Insignia of the Second Class of the Imperial Ottoman Order of the Medjidieh"). No photo of Judge Hills is included in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume, and I have not found any images of him in y other research. This information does not resolve the question I mentioned in both posts about why Judge Hills would have a silver badge when his appointment to the District Court of Alexandria should have meant his regalia included a gold and silver badge. It also puzzles me whether as a Conseiller in his later appointment to the Appeals Court he might have worn a gold judicial badges (the design for the Appeals Court), or retained a previous badge (again what should have been a gold & silver badge from his service on the District Court) as he was not a judge on that highest court. In both cases, this silver badge remains either an anomalous example of regalia associated with his identified roles on the Mixed Courts or a problematic attribution to Judge Hills. large.2037873250_JudgeHerbertMillsbadgeobversecopy.jpg.3e77ae4abdb536f06cbcf9a97cfae509.jpg

Obverse of the silver judicial badge attributed to Judge Herbert A. Hills of Great Britain (From a June 2015 auction : Dreweatts Bloomsbury Auctions; lot 175; formerly listed at: http://www.dreweatts.com/cms/pages/lot/13863/175, but archived on The Saleroom website: https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-gb/auction-catalogues/dreweatts/catalogue-id-drewea10199/lot-d2a1fe08-3bbf-4c29-a53d-a4aa00a27910). Identified as made by Froment-Meurice and measuring 12 cm high X 8.5 cm wide and weighing 173 g.  

 

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Reverse of the badge attributed to Judge Hills, showing the note that is the basis for identifying this badge with Herbert Hills. It is uncertain whether the reverse has any hallmarks for Froment-Meurice. This image is a higher-resolution photo of the reverse than the version I uploaded in my may 7 November, 2017 post on this thread and can be zoomed for better details of the attached note. 

Alexander Cockburn McBarnet (1867-1934) Egyptian Zogist posted a link (in his post of 4 November, 2017) to an auction by Brightwells of November, 2017 that is archived on The Saleroom website (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-us/auction-catalogues/brightwells/catalogue-id-srbr10077/lot-b19bfcb8-19b4-41fd-808e-a81900b1168c) of medals and clothing belonging to Alexander Cockburn McBarnet. I commented on the information about the judicial badge in this lot (282) in my 2 posts of 6 December, 2017 but did not illustrate the badge as it is a very low-resolution image. Owain commented on potential dating of some of McBarnet’s other awards in his post of 7 November, 2017 on this thread. The Brightwells’ auction of November 2017 identifies McBarnet as having been appointed as a District Judge in to the Indigenous (“Native”) Court of Appeals in 1913, as a judge in the District Court of Asyut (also indigenous?) in 1906, and as holding various other legal offices in Egypt subsequently. The appendices in Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume that identify past & current officials of the Appeals Court lists McBarnet (pg. V), of Great Britain, former Conseiller (legal advisor) to the Indigenous Court of Appeals (no starting date is given in this entry), but does identify him as having been appointed in December 1920 to the Mixed Appeals Court, and working in that office at the time of the 1926 publication. McBarnet is not in the photograph of the Appeals Court that I posted on April 1, 2019 in this thread. No photos of Judge McBarnet are featured in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume, and I have not yet encountered any others in my research. In regard to the question about McBarnet’s other awards discussed by me in both my posts of 6 November, 2017 and by Owain on 7 November, 2017, I previously overlooked the information in the Brightwells’ auction listing the original bestowal documents as April 14, 1914 for receipt of the 3rd Class Order of Medjidie, and the August 7, 1917 receipt of the 3rd Class Order of the Nile (additionally, his OBE was awarded on March 30, 1920 and CBE on March 24, 1922). Jasper Yeates Brinton's comment about restrictions on serving judges from receiving honors from the Egyptian government during their service (Brinton, Jasper Yeates, 1968. The Mixed Courts of Egypt, 2nd Edition. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp. 53-54) may not have been fully in effect at this time, or McBarnet may have received these during intervals between his different court service. I have photographs for future posts of earlier Mixed Courts judges wearing medals along with their judicial costumes, a practice that appears to have ended sometime in the earliest 1900s. Note in my discussion above that Judge Herbert A. Hills was not awarded the Order of Mejidie until after his retirement from the Egyptian Mixed Courts. Also in relation to this question, the entry for Pierre Crabitès in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume appendix listing personnel of the District Courts (pg. XI) does not identify his reciept of the Grand Officer Class of the Order of Ismail, consistent with Brinton's statement that, at least at this time, honors and awards were not given to sitting judges until the end of their tenure on the bench. 

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Low-resolution image of awards of Alexander Cockburn McBarnet from the November 2017 Brightwells’ auction. From top to bottom: McBarnet’s judicial badge (identified in the auction description as 115 mm high X 85 mm wide, silver, & silver gilt), 3rd Class neck badge of the Order of Medjidie, 3rd Class neck badge of the Order of the Nile, Commander’s neck badge of the British CBE (civil). On the bottom left are his OBE breast badge and miniature of that award lacking its ribbon. On the lower right are miniatures of his OBE, Order of the Nile, and Order of Medjidie. 

Santos Manoël Jaoquim Rodrigues Monteiro (1879-1952) I illustrated a Portuguese commemorative medal celebrating the life of Dr. Manual Monteiro (of Portugal) in my post of 26 April, 2018 that identified him as a former judge on the Egyptian Mixed Courts. In the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume, Santos Manoël Jaoquim Rodrigues Monteiro is identified as a judge in the District Court of Mansourah beginning in October, 1916 and was transferred to the District Court of Alexandria in February of 1921. He was still serving in that office at the time of the 1926 publication (pg. XV). Additional information about Dr. Monteiro is in my 26 April, 2018 post (i.e., he was made Vice-President of the Alexandria District Court in 1930, and resigned in 1940 to return to Portugal). 

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Obverse of the table medal commemorating the life of former Mixed Courts Judge Dr. Manuel Montero, who also was an historical archaeologist, ethnologist, and art historian of Romanesque Portuguese art. 

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Photo of the District Court officials of Alexandria, probably from 1925 from the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume (pg. 192). This image can be zoomed for better details. Judge Monteiro is seated second from the viewer's right of the Court President, seated at the head of the far end of the table. The judges in this photo include, from the foreground left running clockwise around the table: Paul Joseph Randet (France); Dr. Alvaro da Costa Machado Villela (Portugal): Stavros Ange Vlachos (Greece); Adrian Theodor Louis Allard Heyligers (Netherlands); Dr. Jonkheer Hubert Williem van Asch van Wyck (Netherlands); Salvatore Messina (Italy); Paul Beneducci (Russia); Ragheb Bey Ghali (Egypt); Don Alfonso Aguirre y Carrer, Comte de Andino (Vice-President, Spain); Erling Qvale (President, Norway); Ahmed Fayek Bey (Chief of the Parquet, Egypt); Manuel Monteiro (Portugal); William Hobart Houghton Thorne (Britain); Antoine R. Keldany Bey (Egypt); Youssef Zulificar Bey (Egypt, later Pasha as he was the father of Queen Farida & father-in-law to King Farouk I, Youssef Zulificar also married the sister of fellow Mixed Court judge and Egyptian modernist artist Mahmoud Said); Mohamed Tewfik Zaher Bey (Egypt); Khalil Ghazalat Bey (Egypt); Mohammed Aly Zaki Bey (Egypt); and Rober Llewllyn Henry, Jr. (USA). The Chief Clerk, M. Adib Maakad Bey (Egypt), is shown sitting at the right away from the main assembly table.

Michael Hansson (1875-1944) I illustrated a photo of the Norwegian Judge Michael Hansson wearing his judicial costume in my post of 3 May, 2018. This photo came from a Norwegian biographical website (https://nbl.snl.no/Michael_Hansson). This same portrait also appears in Hansson’s posthumously-published popular book on this life in Egypt: 25 år i Egypt, 1946. Forlagt Av. H. Aschehoug & Co., (W. Nygaard), Oslo (opposite page 17). I am including again this 1912 photo of Michael Hansson in his judicial costume below. He was apparently a prominent member of the Courts, and several additional photos and information are available in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume. In the listings of personnel in the District Courts, Hansson is identified (pg. XIV) as having been appointed in January 1907 to the District Court in Mansourah, transferred to District Court of Alexandria in October 1913, and promoted to Conseiller (legal advisor) to the Mixed Court if Appeals in April 1915. He is identified in the appendix listing personnel of the Appeals Court (pg. V) as a former judge to the Mixed Tribunals of Alexandria from April 1915, as Vice-President of the Mixed Court of Appeals in October 1924, and in 1926 he was still serving as Vice-President of the Appeals Court. Additional information on Hansson is in my 3 May, 2018 post; including his promotion to President of the Court of Appeals in 1927, his retirement from the Courts in 1931, and subsequent career with the the Permanent Court of Arbitration at the Hague, other international arbitration commissions, and 1938 Nobel Prize acceptance speech on behalf of the Nansen International Office for Refugees. Hansson also was probably awarded his Grand Cordon Class Order of Ismail and Order of the Nile after his retirement from the International Mixed Courts in Egypt, neither of this honors are mentioned in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume's descriptions of his career in Egypt.

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Portrait of Michael Hansson, from 1912 as a District Court Judge in Mansourah. In relation to the question I had about whether his sash is a single color or bi-colored, the appointment information in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume indicates his sash is a solid red as he was appointed to the District Courts at the time of this portrait. 

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Portrait of Michael Hansson from a section in Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume listing past presidents of the Tribunal of Mansourah (pg. 50). The dates 1911-1913 identify his term as President of the District Court of Mansourah. The pleats in the sash in this image show that this was a feature of the District Courts sash as well, an aspect not always visible in other images of the Mixed District Court judges. 

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Hansson also is illustrated in the above photo from pg. 190 of the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume with the Tribunal in Mansourah in 1907, with all judges wearing their Court attire. Hansson is the 4th judge from the L in the back row. A much younger Mahmoud El Toayar Bey (thinner & with much more robust mustaches, compared with the 3rd and 4th photos in my post on this thread of 1 April, 2019, that I believe help identify him as the unnamed judge in the first 2 photos in that post) is standing next to him (identified as the Substitut du Procureur Général), the 3rd judge from the L in the back row. Mahmoud El Toayar Bey would have been at least 15 years younger in this image than the studio portraits I believe show him near the time of his initial appointment to the Court of Appeals (1922) and almost 19 years younger than the photos from the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume identifying him in the assembly and in court that I posted on 1 April. This image can be zoomed for greater detail. When enlarged, this photo shows nicely the single color of the judges sashes (red) and the contrasting gold & silver coloration of the District Court badges. The other individuals are: Front row L-R: Youssouf Soliman Bey (Egypt); Anastase N. Stoupis (Greece); Luis Comulada (President, Spain); Boutros Youssef Bey (Egypt); Ovidio de Cergueira-Borges Cabral d’Alpoïm (Portugal). Back row L-R: an unnamed Egyptian guard; Moustapha Fathy Bey (Egypt); Axel Johan Patrick Adlercreutz (Sweden); Mahmoud El Toayar Bey (Egypt); Michael Hansson (Norway); Hussein Kamel Sourour Bey (substitute for the Procureur Général, Egypt); and an unnamed Egyptian guard.

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Portrait from the front matter of the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume listing current high officers of the Mixed Courts (pg. 12). As Vice-President of the Court of Appeals, Hansson’s sash in this image should be green. It is a bit unclear whether he also would is wearing the gold badge of the Appeals Court, rather than what should have been the gold and silver badge of the District Courts. However, when enlarged this photo appears to show a badge of a single hue, lacking contrasting dark and lighter areas such as are visible as in the previous image of the badges worn by the Mansourah Court judges in 1907. 

Joseph Timmermans (born=?/d. 1897) On 31 October, 2018 I illustrated a Mixed Courts judicial badge that was from a September, 2014 auction by Jean Elsen & ses Fils archived on the acsearch.info website (https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=3990624). This badge was identified as having been used in the Courts of Alexandria and belonging to Joseph Timmermans who was correctly identified in the auction information as a Belgian who served as the Procureur Général prés les Juridictions mixtes á AlexandrieAnother part of the auction description gave his name as “Jules” Timmermans. His name is correctly Joseph Timmermans. He is identified in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume’s appendix listing of personnel on the District Courts (pg. IX) as Belgian, appointed as a judge to the District Court in Alexandria in April 1883, as a past Procureur Général prés les Jurisdictions Mixtes in June 1892, and in February 1894 was re-appointed as Judge in Alexandria. He died in Alexandria on 10 February, 1897. On pg XXII (in the listing for personnel of the Parquet) Timmermans’ entry confirms his positions as a former judge of the Mixed Tribunal of Alexandria, his appointment as Procurer Général starting in June, 1892, and resumption of his position as a judge on the Mixed District Court in Alexandira in February, 1894. In the Parquet listing on pg. XXII he also is identified as a recipient of the Order of Osmanieh, 3rdClass. 

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The gold & silver District Court badge made by Froment-Meurice from the Jean Elsen & ses Fils auction of September 2014 attributed to Joseph Timmermans. The auction lot also included the award letter of Timmermans’ 3rd Class Order of Osmanieh, dated 16 March, 1893, apparently with a hand-written translation by the Khedive Abbas Hilmi II. In my post of 31 October, 2018 I was curious whether the appropriate badge for a Procureur Général associated with the office of the Parquet, should have been a silver badge. This question is resolved, at least partially, by the fact that Timmermans spent a significant amount of his career serving on the District Court of Alexandria. He would have appropriately been issued the gold & silver District Court badge for his initial appointment to the court in Alexandria, and may have used it (or another?) for his final 3 years on the District Court in Alexandria. Whether he retained this gold & silver badge during his time serving as Procurer, or whether he would have been issued another different badge (all silver) is still unclear to me, but perhaps the role of Procureur associated with bringing cases before the District Courts might have arrayed him in the regalia of the District Courts (gold and silver badge, but what color sash?)

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Portrait from the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume identifying past Procureur Généraux of the Mixed Courts (pg. 42). The dates 1892-1894 are those of his service as a prosecutor.   

Carl Valdemar Kraft (1849-1924) In the 2nd photo of my post of 5 March, 2019 I included a postcard image of the Danish Judge Carl Valdemar Kraft. Additional images and a small amount of information about him also are available in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume. Kraft is identified as having been named to the District Court in Mansourah in January, 1896. He was transferred to District Court of Cairo in June of 1901. He reached the age of majority for court service in 1920. He was awarded the Grand Officer Class of the Order of the Nile (pg. X).

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Postcard portrait of Carl Valedemar Kraft found tucked into a copy of Michael Hansson’s: 25 år i Egypt, 1946. Forlagt Av. H. Aschehoug & Co., (W. Nygaard), Oslo that was owned by Rudolph Kraft (a brother of Carl Valdemar Kraft), that has Rudolph Kraft's name inside the front cover, dated 1948. See my post of 5 March that provides bracketing dates for why this portrait probably was made between Kraft's initial appointment in Mansourah in 1896 and 1914 when Atelier Reiser was relocated to Munich, either just before or after WWI broke out. This portrait was made in Reiser's studio in Alexandria (another was located in Cairo). 

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Portrait of Carl Valdemar Kraft from the section of the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume identifying past Presidents of the Mixed Tribunals of Cairo (pg. 48). The dates 1916-1920 are the period of his tenure as President of the District Court of Cairo. The Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume spells his name “Karl”, which appears to be incorrect. All other sources I have located spell his name “Carl”, including hand-written information on the back of the Reiser postcard portrait of Kraft (shown above) in the handwriting of his brother Rudolph Kraft. The Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume does have some discrepancies in the spelling of Egyptian and foreign names between the legends on portraits, group photos of courts and functionaries, and the listing of career highlights in the appendices. I have used the spellings in the appendices, as they provide the full names of individuals who often are listed by the letter of their first names and surnames, surnames only (almost exclusively for foreign personnel only), partial honorific, or with alternative spellings to those in some of the figure captions.   

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Carl Valdemar Kraft is shown in the above group photo in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume (pg. 189) of the Cairo Tribunal in 1909, seated second from L in the first row. This image can be zoomed for better details. The other individuals in the photo are, front row L–R: Mohamed Sadek Bey (Egypt); Carl Valedemar Kraft (Denmark); Dr. Frédéric Herzbruck (President, Germany); Diderik-Galtrup-Gjedde Nyholm (Denmark); and Achille Adolph Eeman (Belgium). 2nd row L-R: Herbert Welk Halton (Britain); Youssouf Aziz Bey (Egypt); Cornelis Bernardus Johannes Aloysius Wierdels (Netherlands); Walter Van Renssalaer Berry (USA); Francis Laloë (France); and Julius Cornélis Théodorus Heyligers (Netherlands). Back row L-R: Luis Comulada (Spain); Mohammed El Naggari Bey (Egypt); Fuad Gress Bey (Egypt); and Ahmed Raguib Badre Bey (Egypt). 

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An example of a Mixed Courts judicial silver badges manufactured by a jeweler I have not seen represented before is listed (Lot 74177) on a current auction by Heritage Auctions (https://fineart.ha.com/itm/silver-smalls/an-egyptian-silver-magistrate-s-badge-from-the-reign-of-abbas-ii-egypt-circa-1900marks-unidentified-cipher-zivy-fr/a/5403-74177.s) and also listed on liveauctioneers.com website  (https://www.liveauctioneers.com/item/70835139_74177-an-egyptian-silver-magistrate-s-badge-from-the-r). This badge was made by Zivy Frères & Cie., a Swiss jewelry house, watchmaker, and goldsmith with addresses in Paris and at 10 rue Chèrif Pacha, Alexandria (the same street where Horovitz  had a storefront at 26 rue Chèrif Pacha, see my post of 1 December, 2018 where I illustrated a silver badge made by Horovitz, and the last image in that shows a photo from ~1900 of the rue Chèrif Pacha). In addition to being the only badge made by Zivy Frères & Cie. that I have found photos of, this example has some interesting differences in the detail of its execution, and one very odd missing symbolic element.

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Obverse of the Mixed Courts badge made by Zivy Frères & Cie., Alexandria. The auction description calls this a "Magistrates badge from the reign of Abbas Hilmi II", identifies the manufacturer as Zivy Frères, considers the hallmark ("cipher") as unidentified, and gives the measurement as 4-5/8" (117.5 mm) high X 3-5/8" (~92 mm) wide, and provides a very approximate date of c.1900. 

The Zivy Frères & Cie. example shows some very significant variation in many details of its design compared with other Mixed Courts badges. The above image can be zoomed for additional detail. A couple aspects appear more detailed and three-dimensional; specifically, the depth of relief in the crown (although the superior crescent appears to be less detailed, the inferior band of the crown also shows less crisp definition of its design elements, and possibly other crown components are slightly different) and the execution of the tasseled cords at each of the upper corners of the mantle in the coat of arms. The interior loops (those on the crown side of the mantle corners) of the tasseled cords each form heart-shaped loops, compared with the more triangular ovals seen on all other examples. The exterior loops of these two cord elements also show somewhat greater detail (especially the left exterior loop) and relief. There is a raised "cord" border to the fringe and interior of the mantle that I also have not seen on other badges. Such a cord is present on the exterior portions of the mantle in other badges, between the embroidered portion of the mantle and the fringe, but not on the interior. The Zivy Frères badge also has a raised cord border on the two superior lateral exterior drapery folds of the mantle between the first (lower) panel of spiral "embroidery" next to the fringe and the more superior embroidery panel of triangular designs, also not seen on other examples. In contrast, many other elements of this Zivy Frères badge are much less detailed in their design. All 4 tassels are rendered in lower relief and detail, and each of the interior tassels lacks the longer, straight section of cord seen in all other examples. Both finials of the two tughs, as well as the horsetail embellishments, are executed in less detail, especially compared with the Froment-Meurice and Stobbe examples, and even compared with the Horovitz badge (the one Horovitz example I have seen photos of seems to be made with less careful craftsmanship than Froment-Meurice or Stobbe, but still is much more detailed the this Zivy Frères badge) that I illustrated in my post of 1 December, 2018 on this thread. The oak leaves on the L and the laurel leaves on the R of the tablet with inscription are much less detailed than on other examples, even less so than the Horovitz example. The superior star and rays above the inscription tablet may be lower relief and appear less finely designed. The ermine tail relief elements distributed across the interior of the mantle are executed in larger and much coarser fashion than on any other examples, and several that normally appear across other designs are missing (i.e., the two that appear below the oak & laurel branches and above the margins of the Order of Medjidie badge element; the 2 just below the cut ends of the oak & laurel branches; and the two on either side of the hand of justice on the superior finial of the L tugh, all of which are visible even on the less-detailed Horovitz example. The most dramatic differences from other badges are apparent in the lower portion of the badge. Below the union of the union of the oak & laurel branches, a ring is present, but the crescent and star is completely missing. This seems quite an odd omission of an important symbolic element. No other example I have seen lacks this Ottoman emblem. The Order of Medjidie is missing the full circumference of the 7-pointed, multi-rayed, star embellishment, and the central medallion frame is much thinner than on other badges. Its surrounding wreath also appears to be much less detailed in its execution. The auction description notes some damage to the enamel (of the central tablet’s inscriptions), but in comparing the inscription with other examples, there appears to be some lower elegance in the calligraphy of this example even before such damage occurred. 

Although the height dimension of this badge is not that anomalous (117.5 mm, compared with more common measurements of 115, or 116 mm, although at least one other example is identified as 117 mm), the width of 92.07 mm is slightly larger than almost all other examples from auction sites providing measurements that generally are 85 mm or maximally identified as 88 mm. The multi-rayed embellishment does appear to extend further beyond the mantle margins than on other manufacturer's examples. 

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Close-up of the inferior portion of the Zivy Frères badge showing the missing crescent & star element below the tied oak & laurel branches and the much less detailed execution of the Order of Medjidie symbol. The coarser ermine tail decorations, the less well-modeled "fur" relief of the mantle interior, and less well-executed oak & laurel leaves also are apparent in this view. 

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For comparison, above is the inferior design portion of the silver judicial badge made by Froment-Meurice and attributed to Judge Herbert Hills (http://www.dreweatts.com/auctions/lot-details/?saleId=13863&lotId=175). 

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Reverse of the Mixed Courts badge made by Zivy Frères & Cie., Alexandria. Note that the 5 rivet fasteners normally visible on the reverse where the mantle component is attached to the multi-rayed embellishment are not present on this example, suggesting a soldered attachment rather than rivets (areas of solder may be visible along the joint between the central shield-shaped portion and the multi-rayed embellishment). . 

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Reverse of the Mixed Courts badge made by Zivy Frères & Cie. with the tunic pin opened showing the placement of the name "ZIVY FRERES" and their manufacturer's hallmark. No silver assay hallmarks are visible on the reverse.

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Close-up view of the name "ZIVY FRERES" and probably their manufacturer's hallmark (unfortunately not detailed enough to be able to see clearly, but it does not appear to be a silver purity hallmark). The Zivy Frères name shows a double strike in its application. I have found very few internet images of Zivy Frères silver pieces, and none so far that show the firm's hallmark. 

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Business card of Zivy Frères & Cie. (https://www.flickr.com/photos/kelisli/25209863512/in/dateposted/). Examples of this card also are currently offered on an eBay auction (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-FRANCE-Zivy-Freres-Co-The-provider-of-Jewelries-to-HM-King-of-EGYPT/303120051239?hash=item46935cec27:g:YCIAAOSwWrNcFTNE). The crown in the upper left of the card is a version of the Egyptian Royal Crown.

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Advertisement for Zivy Frères & Cie. from pg. XX of Alexandrie: Reine de la Mèditeranèe, No 1, Juillet 1928, 1ère Partie (http://www.cealex.org/pfe/diffusion/PFEWeb/pfe_068/PFE_068_002_1_w.pdf(http://www.cealex.org/pfe/diffusion/PFEWeb/pfe_068/PFE_068_002_1_w.pdf). 

 

 

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I have several additional photos from the volume Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926 that relate to aspects of the costumes of individuals associated with different court bodies and roles in the Egyptian Mixed Courts system. I will first post a couple portraits of individuals whose roles in the Mixed Courts are identified in 1926 and show them in their court dress. The second set of 4 images include some group portraits of judges in the District Courts of Alexandria in 1909, one of the Parquet in 1891, court functionaries associated with the District Court of Mansourah (mostly clerks and interpreters, showing clerks wearing the bicolored sash and judicial badges but not other court functionaries), and a group photo of lawyers from Port Said in their court garb along with one clerk wearing the bicolored sash and "judicial" badge. These images principally address how sash colors (that have been slightly complicated given that only some of the roles of particular judges or other functionaries are identified in other literature and may not match available photos of those individuals) and judicial badges were worn by personnel of the Mixed Courts who were not judges. These images do help resolve some of the questions I have had about variation in sash colors and whether individuals other than judges also wore the large Mixed Courts badge. This information also may help explain the greater abundance of silver badges on auction sites, that my previous research information suggested were principally associated with prosecutors of the Parquet. It is apparent from these photographs that clerks serving the Appeals Court, the District Courts, and the Parquet also wore bi-colored sashes and judicial badges (probably all silver), potentially identifying these functionaries as other sources for many auction badges that are usually attributed to judges of the Mixed Courts.  All of these images can be enlarged for greater details.

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The above photo shows Judge Nicolas Cambas (Greece) in his judicial costume as president of the Mixed Court of Appeals in 1926. He wears the green sash of the Appeals Court and his judicial badge should be gold. Cambas was elected as Vice-President of the Appeals Court in January 1922, and named President of that court in October 1924. From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 11. 

I have previously  illustrated Judge Michael Hansson (Norway) in his judicial costume as the Vice-President of the Mixed Court of Appeals in the 9th photo of my post of 18 April, 2019 on this thread (wearing the green sash and probably a gold badge) and dressed as the President of the District Court of Mansourah in the 7th photo of that 18 April post (wearing a red sash and a what should be the gold & silver badge, although his badge is not visible in that portrait). That costume, as President of the Mansourah District Court, would be the same as the other portrait of Hansson in his red sash and what is likely a gold & silver badge in the 6th photo of the 18 April post. 

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Above is a portrait of Erling Qvale (Norway) President of the District Court of Alexandria in 1926. His sash is solid red and the badge should be gold & silver (the central tablet with inscription does appear to be a darker color than some of the surrounding silver of the badge in this photo). Judge Qvale was named to the District Court of Mansourah in October of 1913, he transferred to the District Court of Alexandria in January of 1917, and was made president of the District Court of Alexandria in February of 1925.  He is shown seated at the head of the table of judges, all in civilian dress, in the 5th photo of my post of 18 April, 2019 on this thread showing the personnel of the District Court of Alexandria serving in 1926. From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 35.  

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Above is an image of Hangs Gram Bechmann (Denmark) as President of the District Court of Mansourah in 1926. His sash is solid red and the badge (not very visible) should be gold & silver. Beckmann was named a judge on the District Court of Mansourah in October 1922, delegated to the District Court of Alexandria in October of 1922, returned to the District Court of Mansourah in November of 1922, and elected President of  the District Court of Mansourah in November 1925. Judge Bechmann is shown as the President of the District Court of Mansourah (either in 1925 or 1926) with the other judges on that court in the 1st photo of my post of 5 March, 2019 on this thread. From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 36. 

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The above portrait is of Firmin Van Den Bosch (Belgium) in his role as the Procureur Général (the Chief Prosecutor) associated with the office of the Parquet in 1926. In this portrait, Van Den Bosch is wearing a European-style evening jacket (possibly a tailcoat?) along with white tie and a white vest, rather than the Egyptian long tunic with a high collar (the stambouline, the former costume of all employees of the Ottoman Turkish Government, the name derived from Stamboul/Stambul as in Istanbul). This image shows clearly that he is wearing bi-colored sash as a member of the Parquet (with a green stripe in the superior position and a red stripe on the inferior portion of the sash) and what should be a silver badge. This is one of the photos from this anniversary reference volume showing an individual sporting medals in association with his judicial regalia. Van Den Bosch's portrait is bit unusual as most of the photos of men wearing medals with their judicial garb date to earlier periods of the Mixed Courts' existence, not at the 1926 time of this publication. Jasper Yeates Brinton (1930, The Mixed Courts of Egypt, Yale University Press, New Haven; pg. 87, note 14) states that there was a general proviso that judges not receive any honorary or material distinctions from the Egyptian Government during their tenure on the bar. However, a formal proposal was made in 1927 to codify this practice and include other officials on the Mixed Courts, especially in relation to the awarding of the tiles of "Bey" to recognize long service. At the time of the publication of Brinton's book, this proposal by the Egyptian government had not yet been voted on by the different foreign governments with legal representatives on the Courts, and apparently was not supported by many members of the Courts. It appears that Van Den Bosch is wearing insignia of the 2nd Class Grand Officer of the Order of the Nile (neck badge and breast star) and his other neck badge appears to be the 3rd Class Commander's Cross of the Belgian Order of Leopold. His two chest medals include: a 4th Class Officer's Cross (civil division) of the Belgian Order of Leopold; and probably the 4th Class Officer's Cross of the Belgian Order of the Crown. Van Den Bosch previously served as a judge on the District Court of Mansourah from October 1910 until February 1916 when he was transferred to the District Court of Cairo. He was named to the Procureur Général role on the Parquet in April of 1920. From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 11. 

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Portrait of Axel Johan Patrick Adlercreutz (Sweden) as former President of the District Court of Mansourah from 1910-1911. He is wearing a solid red sash and, although only partially visible, his badge should be gold & silver. Adlercreutz was named to the District Court of Mansourah in January 1907. After serving as President he was transferred to the District Court of Cairo in April 1912 and retired from the Courts in February of 1917. From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 49. 

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A. Arditti Bey (Egypt), the Chief Clerk of the District Court of Mansourah in 1926. This image shows that not only judges, but some of the high functionaries of the courts also wore similar regalia. Arditti Bey wears the tarboosh, high-collared tunic, as well as a sash and judicial badge.  His sash is similar to that of the Parquet, with a green superior stripe and a red inferior stripe, and his badge should be silver. From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg.389.

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The District Court of Alexandria in 1909 showing judges in their judicial regalia that should be the solid red sash and a gold & silver badge. While most individuals are wearing the high-collared Egyptian tunic coat, a few judges are wearing European style jackets. The individuals in the front row are, from L-R: Mohamed Mustafa Bey (Egypt), Aly Mazloum Bey (Egypt), Ismail Maher Bey (Egypt), Adalbert Bela de Zoltan (Austria-Hungary), Ernest Eeman (President, Belgium), Carlo Otto Montan (Sweden), Manoël Augusto Pereira e Cunha (Portugal), and Marius Joseph Paulin Suzanne (France) and Othon de Bulow (Germany). The back row includes, from L-R: Dimiltriades (Greece, no first name given in any part of this volume), an unnamed guard, Alexandre Sorokin (Russia), Halvard Nicolai Heggen (Norway), Fedor Andrew Satow (Britain), Giovanni Paulucci de Calboli (Italy), Soubhi Ghali Bey (Egypt), Abdel Messih Simaika Bey (Egypt), William-Grant Van Horne (USA), Raghb Ghali Bey (Egypt), an unnamed guard, and Salone (the Chief Clerk, also wearing a sash [I cannot tell if it is a solid red or possibly bi-colored in this poorer quality photograph] and Mixed Court badge, his nationality is not identified). From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 189.

large.236758588_Parquet1891_2.jpg.7b33f2268cf40eca34cb0532b465041b.jpgFunctionaries of the Parquet in 189, showing these prosecutors wearing regalia similar to that of judges, but wearing the bi-colored sash and probably the all-silver badge. While several photos of individuals serving in the Parquet show them wearing their sashes with the green stripe uppermost (i.e., Firman Van Den Bosch above; Mahmoud Said as Chief of the Parquet in the first photo of my post of 5 March 2019 shown get District Court of Mansourah in ~1926; and Ismail Gazzarine in that same photo as the Subsitute for the the Procureur Général), almost all of these individuals above are wearing theirs so that the red stripe appears to be superior and the green stripe is inferior. Note the 3 individuals who are wearing decorations on their jackets at this date along with the official Parquet regalia. The individuals in the front row L-R are: Lemaire Bey (Inspector of the Clerk, nationality not identified), Guillaume Edward Emile Marie de Brower (Procurer GeneralBelgium), Emin Ghali Pacha (Chief of the Parquet of Alexandria, Egypt), In the back row are L-R: Luigi Colucci Bey (nationality not identified), Edgar Mercinier (Secretary, nationality not identified, who may be wearing a solid red-colored sash), Soubhil Ghlai Bey (who appears to be wearing his sash oriented with the green stripe uppermost and the red stripe in the inferior position, Egypt), Ahmed Zulificar Bey (Egypt), Ismail Chimi Bey (Subsitute for the the Procurer GeneralEgypt), From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926,  pg. 190.

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Functionaries serving the District Court of Mansourah in 1926 showing the use of similar regalia to that worn by judges for individuals serving the courts in other capacities. Most of these individuals appear to be wearing bi-colored sashes as do the personnel on the Parquet, and probably should be wearing all-silver badges. Almost all of the men are wearing their sashes oriented with the green stripe in the superior position and the red stripe in the inferior position. All of the interpreters in this photo are not wearing sashes and badges. The other individuals not wearing sashes and badges include the Chief Bailiff (5th from L in front row) and the Secretary to the President (3rd from L in the middle row). The first names and nationalities of most of these individuals are not given. The individuals in the front row are L-R: G Cassis (Clerk), Yacoub Salib (interpreter), Zaki Saleh (Clerk), G. Sabeh (Conservator of Mortgages), Poli (Chief Bailiff), Cosséry (Clerk), and Garzoni (Clerk). In the middle row from L-R are: B. Finan (Clerk, apparently wearing his sash with the red stripe uppermost and the green stripe in the inferior position, unlike all the other bi-colored sashes in this photo), Boutari (Clerk), Jourdan (Secretary to the President),  Vibert-Roulet (Clerk), and Chibli (Clerk). The back row includes L-R: Bonnicci (interpreter), Habib Salem (Clerk, his sash may be solid red rather than bi-colored), Faiez Gress (interpreter), and Youssef Boutros (interpreter). From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 394.

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Portrait of the lawyers (avocats) serving the District Court of Port Said showing one individual who is a clerk with garb similar to judges or functionaries of the Parquet and the court costume for the lawyers. The lawyers wear silk robes, the legal cap (beretta), and the white scarf (rabat) based on that of the French bar. The first name of the clerk of interest in the first row wearing a sash and "judicial" badge is not identified and the nationalities of these men are not given. The individuals not identified with other roles all are lawyers. The individuals in the front row are L-R: Christo Medinas (wearing a beretta), Joseph Zalout, George Mouchbahani, (Delegate), Spagnolaki (Clerk in the bi-colored green & red sash and probably silver "judicial" badge), and George Anasassiadis. In the middle are L-R: Pascal Gabelli, Nicolas Zizinia, and Domenico Mascagni. The back row includes L-R: Jean Papayoannou, Charles Bacos, Kimon Valendi, and Camillo Corsetti. Also see the 4th photo in my post of 1 April, 2019 showing lawyers in the courtroom of the Appeals Court in 1926 wearing their legal costumes, including the French epitoge, the French version of the academic hood, partially visible on the backs of the 3 lawyers in the right foreground of the photo. From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 206. 

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Chris, yes this image is still for sale on eBay and I posted this same image in my second post of 31 October, 2018 (4th photo). Although the seller titles this "The Little Judge", the accessory on the boy's left shoulder is actually an epitoge, the French academic equivalent of the British & American hood for academic costumes. In Egypt, this is worn by lawyers, not judges. I noted in that post of 31 October that this image represents a hybrid costume, but did not state that the tarboosh should be a biretta for a lawyer's costume. See the 4th photo of my post of 1 April 2019 showing several lawyers in front of judges in the Court of Appeals in February, 1926, showing several wearing the epitoge and some wearing the biretta. I have a few images of lawyers in the Mixed Courts that I am organizing to post in this thread soon, in relation to additional images associated with Mahmoud Saïd, the judge and Egyptian modernist painter. 

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I just came across 2 examples of Mixed Tribunals judges' badges from a recent auction (June 2019) by Lugdunum GmbH that is archived on the CoinArchives.com website. One of these is a silver badge made by Froment-Meurice. The other badge is bit odd. It is described as made of bronze, and all elements of its design are executed in much less detail than any badge I have illustrated in this thread, except the strange "pin" version in my post of 8 December, 2018. All of these photos can be enlarged to see them in greater detail. 

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Obverse of a silver Mixed Courts judges badge (possibly from the Parquet) made by Froment-Meurice from a 19 June, 2019 auction by Lugdunum GmbH (Auction 16, Lot 288) archived on the CoinArchives.com website. The description states that this badge is from Alexandria and gives an approximate date of 1892 (probably "identified" simple as it is the year Abbas Hilmi II became Khedive of Egypt), although no basis for this identification is provided. As noted in my post of 28 February, 2019 on this thread, the auction house Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG's auction description of a Stobbe-manufactured District Court judge’s badge made of gold  and silver identified 1907 as the date of this commission by Khedive Abbas Hilmi II (a highly problematic date for this commission as the badges appear to have been in use by 1875 under the reign of Khedive Isma'il Pasha, who authorized the creation of the Mixed Courts-see my next post of 15 August). The creation of this badge for the Mixed Courts’ judges may have been associated with a judicial costume change from the earliest practice of each judge (foreign and Egyptian) wearing their own country’s judicial robes to a standardized Egyptian costume of tarboosh, stamboul coat, along with the differently-colored sashes and this large badge (also see my discussion in the 4th paragraph of my 24 March, 2017 post in this thread, but also the updated information in my next post of 15 August). The auction description says it is silver plated, however these badges are solid silver.  The badge measures 85 mm wide x 115 mm high and weighs 141.76 g. (From: https://www.coinarchives.com/w/lotviewer.php?LotID=3972878&AucID=4100&Lot=288&Val=f97e5c722c28c73add7c029f374c845e)

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Reverse of the same silver badge from the June 2019 auction of Lugdunum GmbH showing the Froment-Meurice name in the lower third of the central depression and the diamond-shaped Froment-Meurice maker's hallmark just above the fasteners for the obverse tablet inscription piece and to the right of the tunic pin (the image is not high-enough resolution to see this hallmark even when enlarged). This is only the second example I have seen photos of that has this diamond-shaped hallmark and the "FROMENT-MEURICE" name in this lower position. The other example with the diamond-shaped hallmark and lower stamped name is shown in a higher resolution image on the 12th image of my post of 28 February, 2019 on this thread; on a named badge belonging to the Greek Judge Apostolo N. Gennaropoulo of the Mixed Tribunals' Parquet of Alexandria. Below is the illustration of this hallmark that I included in that 28 February post showing the design with the "FROMENT" name above a stylized rose with the bud toward the right, and "MEURICE" below the rose. As can be seen on this thread, all other examples of Froment-Meurice manufactured judges badges that have available photos of their reverse have the name FROMENT-MEURICE" stamped above the central fasteners. There appear to be metal tool marks visible on the lower left rivet, and possibly on the upper left rivet as well. This may suggest an attempt to disassemble the badge elements. No assay marks are present, but I have not seen any on other photos of the reverse of Froment-Meurice made badges. 

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Drawing of the Froment-Meurice rose hallmark used by Maison Froment-Meurice. As noted in my original post of this hallmark on 28 February, 2019, I do not know the date ranges for the use of this hallmark, nor whether temporal use or other reasons are responsible for the lack of this hallmark and the higher position of the "FROMENT-MEURICE"  stamped name on most examples of the judicial badge made by this Parisian workshop that created the original design of this badge.  (From: https://www.langantiques.com/university/Froment-Meurice_Jewelry_Maker%27s_Mark)

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Obverse view of this unusual version of the Egyptian Mixed Courts judicial badge. This example also is from a 19 June, 2019 auction by Lugdunum GmbH (Auction 16, Lot 289) archived on the CoinArchives.com website. The auction description identifies the metal as bronze, a material not used for any authentic judicial badges of the International Tribunals (gold was used for the Appeals Court; silver & gold for the District Courts; and silver was used for the Parquet, but also see some complexities of costume outlined in previous posts on this thread). The description repeats the probably spurious association with Alexandria and a date of c.1892. This piece is the same size as all other judicial badges (85 mm wide x 115 mm high) and weighs 196.22 g. The offering is associated with a case identified as the original box of issue, but no manufacturer is identified. It is apparent that almost all aspects of the design of this badge are of much lower craftsmanship than any other genuine badges, with the possible exception of the rays forming the base embellishment. Even the example I posted on April 24, 2019 made by Zivy Frères & Cie. that exhibits the lowest level of detail of any badge is not of such poor artistry as this badge from the Lugdunum GmbH. The obvious jewelry mimic "pin" mentioned above and shown in my post of 8 December, 2018 in this thread was apparently never intended to be taken as a genuine judge's insignia of office, and is merely inspired by the form of the Mixed Court badges. The calligraphy on the central tablet above shows a number of differences and omissions compared with all other badges. The ornamental design in the folds of the drapery of the mantle are highly abbreviated and incompletely present on the long vertical folds. The laurel leaves on the right side of the tablet are hollowed and lack any realistic execution. The oak leaves on the left side of the tablet also are very poorly formed in comparison with all other examples. The horses' tails on the tughs (at each of the upper corners of the central inscribed tablet), the tasseled cords, the exterior mantle folds, the superior crown, the Order of Medjidie symbol, and even the star and its radiant surround above the tablet, all are much less detailed. Many of the small ermine tail embellishments on the interior of the mantle are missing, and all are made with no detail beyond mimicking the shape on other badges. The interior of the mantle is simply a rugose pattern, with no attempt to make it resemble the furred interior. It is clear this is not a genuine example used by a member of the Mixed Courts judiciary or other officials occasionally shown wearing this badge. The bronze material and poor detail are inconsistent with the range of variability seen across the several manufacturers of this insignia. I believe this could be an Egyptian manufactured replica for the tourist trade, but whether it comes from the early 20th century or was made more recently is unclear. This mock badge and the very abbreviated "pin" example shown in my 8 December, 2018 post are the only examples I have encountered of full-sized pieces based on the design of this judicial badge that are clearly not authentic regalia of the Mixed Courts. (From: https://www.coinarchives.com/w/lotviewer.php?LotID=3972879&AucID=4100&Lot=289&Val=efc6a2fa2700e6a994f8217cb7d28a9c)

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Reverse of the same bronze badge from the June 2019 auction of Lugdunum GmbH. The central fasteners may be somewhat different than most examples, but the broad and flat tunic pin is clearly unusual compared with all others seen on these badges (even the "pin' version has the narrower tunic pin seen on all other examples). There are no manufacture's or assay hallmarks (Egyptian bronze was probably excluded from the need to have assay, Egyptian manufacture, and date hallmarks as were required for gold, silver, and platinum). The two engraved letters, "A." and either "I." or "J.", "S.", "T.", or possibly "G.", likely are initials of an owner, or alleged owner, of this piece. 

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I came across the portrait of Émile Froment-Meurice shown below from the French language Wikipédia site this February, but have been so busy I never posted it. I have wanted to include it here, as small homage to the man who designed this beautiful badge for Khedive Isma'il Pasha. As I noted in my 28 February 2019 post on this thread about details hallmarks on the Egyptian Mixed Court badges (principally from available photographs and information on auction listings), Maison Froment-Meurice originated as a goldsmith workshop founded by François Froment (1773-1803) in 1801. The name Froment-Meurice derives from Émile’s paternal grandmother having married her husband’s (François Froment) partner (the goldsmith Pierre-Jaques Meurice) following her husband's death in 1804, changing the workshop name to Froment-Meurice. Émile’s father, François-Désiré Froment-Meurice took over the shop in 1832. He became a very successful goldsmith and jeweler. Most sources indicate that Émile Froment-Meurice took over the workshop following the death of his father, François-Désiré Froment-Meurice (born 1802), in 1855 (some sources suggest he assumed ownership in 1859). 1907 is the date when Émile Froment-Meurice retired and sold his business (although some sources indicate that he continued to run Atelier Froment-Meurice until 1913, this almost certainly is not true). His sons did not wish to continue in the business. When Émile Froment-Meurice ran the atelier he lived at 46 rue d'Anjou in Paris. He sold the workshop and his clientele to Georges Auger in 1907, a goldsmith-jeweler living in Paris. Maison Augere was founded by Alphonse Auger (1837-1904) and the shop was moved to 54 rue Etienne-Marcel in approximately 1890. Many of Alphonse Auger's jewelry pieces are markedly art deco in design, or French Art Nouveau. George Auger began to work with Alphonse in 1900. His workshops products after 1907 are known to bear the mark "Auger-Froment Meurice" for an unspecified time (it appears that later work is simply identified as "Auger"), although I have not seen any of the Mixed Court badges with this hallmark. The address 372 rue Saint-Honoré, 75001, Paris is the one that appears in all the the photos of cases I have seen images of (11th and 13th photos in my 28 February post). This location of the atelier dates to at least 1859 (see the advertisement below). 

The date when Émile Foment-Meurice retired (1907) raises several questions about when Maison Froment-Meurice actually received the commission to design this badge and how long the workshop produced them. Although several sources (including Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG's auction description of a Stobbe-manufactured District Court judge’s badge made of gold and silver) identified 1907 as the date of this commission by Khedive Abbas Hilmi II, this date must be incorrect.  First, It would have been impossible for Froment-Meurice to have been commissioned to produce the badges in 1907 and create a sufficient number before he retired in that same year to represent the number currently available in auctions. Second, the Mixed Courts were created by Khedive Isma'il Pasha (Abbas Hilmi II's grandfather) in 1875 following the skillful and long campaign of judicial reform by his Foreign Minister Nubar Pasha. I have not yet found a reliable reference about the date when this badge was designed by Émile Froment-Meurice as a commission from Khedive Isma'il Pasha. However, it could not have been in 1907 when Émile Froment-Meurice retired. I noted in my second post on this thread on 21 November, 2016 that Richard Beardsley, (the Consul General for the US in Cairo from 1870 -1876) described the judicial costume of the Mixed Courts in a letter of 15 July, 1875 to Hamilton Fish (the US Secretary of State from 1869-1877) including the use of these judicial badges: "...Over the shoulder and around the body is worn a broad scarf, to which is attached a large and very handsome badge of office. The badge consists of a shield resting upon a drapery, bearing various appropriate devices, from beneath which radiate the rays of a many-pointed star. On the shield is engraved in Arabic 'Law is the foundation of justice.'..." (From: EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 1875-'76. WASHINGTON:  GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 1876; PAPERS RELATED TO FOREIGN RELATIONS The United States, TRANSMITTED TO CONGRESS, WITH THE ANNUAL MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT,  DECEMBER 6, 1875. PRECEDED BY A LIST OF PAPERS AND FOLLOWED BY AN INDEX OF PERSONS AND SUBJECTS. VOLUME II. WASHINGTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 1875. pp. 1347-1348). Egyptian Zogist provided a better translation of this motto in his post of 23 November, 2016 on this thread as "Justice is the foundation of kingship/governance". This indicates that the Froment-Meurice designed judicial badge was in use almost from the origin of the Mixed Courts. I also noted in my second post on 21 November, 2016 that another source (Wilner, Gabriel M. 1975. The Mixed Courts of Egypt: a study on the use of natural law and equity. Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law vol 5 (no 2): pp. 407-430) quoted a statement by W. Burdick (W. Burdick,1939. Bench and Bar of Other Lands, pp. 495-496) which claimed that the costume of judges in the International Mixed Courts (Egyptian and foreign) were the judicial robes of their home countries (on pg. 412). However, Beardsley provides an eyewitness account in July1875 of the uses of a standardized national costume for judges of the Mixed Courts and the use of these large and beautiful judicial badges. At the time that Burdick was writing in 1939, photographic evidence clearly indicates that both Egyptian and foreign judges wore the standard stamboul coat, tarboosh, sash, and the heavy judicial badge of the Froment-Meurice design. I do not know whether the other manufacturers of these badges (Stobbe of Alexandria, Horovitz of Alexandria, M. Laurencin & Cie. of Alexandria, and Zivy Frères & Cie. of Alexandria) began to make them before Froment-Meurice's retirement in 1907, or only after this date. The Mixed Courts' judicial badges were apparently not made by his successor after Froment-Meurice sold the business to Auger. As noted above, following Georges Auger's purchase of the atelier, his pieces were marked "Auger-Froment Meurice" (see the last photo of this post showing an example with that name on the inside of the presentation case of a Laotian Order of the of the Million Elephants and White Parasol). The period when Froment-Meurice manufactured these badges is most likely between 1875 and 1907.

Émile Froment-Meurice and his wife Rose Tassin de Moncourt (1839-1913) both died in the catastrophic collapse of their mansion, located at No. 46 rue d'Anjou in Paris. Their son, Jacques Charles Francois Marie Froment-Meurice (1864-1947) was a sculptor who studied with Henri Michel Antoine Chapu, the celebrated French sculptor and medalist (1833-1891). 

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Pierre Henri Émile Froment-Meurice at the age of 48 (born 21 March, 1837 in Paris, died 21 April, 1913 in Paris) from Le mode illustré, 3 October, 1885. His profession is described as a goldsmith and jeweler, and both his father and grandfather also were goldsmiths. (From: https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Émile_Froment-Meurice)

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Advertisement by Émile Froment-Meurice from 1859 in the Courrier des Chemins de Fer identifying the 372 rue Saint-Honoré, Paris address for the workshop that appears on the case linings for the Mixed Court judges' badges made by Froment-Meurice. (From: https://www.richardjeanjacques.com/2019/02/les-froment-meurice-2-eme-partie-emile.html)

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Page from Émile Froment Meurice's award as a Knight of the légion d honneur in 1869, following winning the gold medal in the  1867 Exposition universelle de Paris. His father had been awarded a Knighthood in the légion d honneur in 1832.  (From: https://www.richardjeanjacques.com/2019/02/les-froment-meurice-2-eme-partie-emile.html)

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One of the extant pages from the reconstitution of Émile Froment Maurice's to the légion d honneur in 1877. (From: https://www.richardjeanjacques.com/2019/02/les-froment-meurice-2-eme-partie-emile.html)

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Front page of Le Petit Parisien of 26 April, 1913 carrying the story of the collapse of Froment-Meurice's mansion and Émile Froment Maurice's death. (From: https://www.richardjeanjacques.com/2019/02/les-froment-meurice-2-eme-partie-emile.html)

large.1055941808_1913maisonmeuriceecroule.jpg.b7951d8023a6df4d8eafcbbfc9682795.jpgPhoto of the collapsed Froment-Meurice mansion at 46 rue d'Anjou in Paris (From: https://www.richardjeanjacques.com/2019/02/les-froment-meurice-2-eme-partie-emile.html)

large.284392883_1913avisdcsemile.FromentMeu.jpg.13244f4cddb1147ee71f697444378ba5.jpgDeath certificate of Émile Froment Meurice (From: https://www.richardjeanjacques.com/2019/02/les-froment-meurice-2-eme-partie-emile.html)

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Newspaper photo from Le Petit Parisian of François Foment-Meurice, the 20 year-old grandson of Émile Froment Meurice, who was the only other person also buried in the mansion's collapse but survived. A cook and a valet de chamber in another part of the house also survived the disaster. (From: https://www.richardjeanjacques.com/2019/02/les-froment-meurice-2-eme-partie-emile.html)

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An example of a medal created by Maison Auger-Froment Meurice following Georges Auger's purchase of Maison Froment-Meurice: the Laotian Order of the Million Elephants and White Parasol made by Auger-Froment Meurice. I know nothing about  this award, (but see GMIC links:

 

 

but it apparently was created on 1 May, 1909, by Royal Order of Laos, and amended 18 August, 1923 (or in 1927?) as 4 classes. On 10 October, 1936 a 5th class and a collar was added. The Order was abolished in 1975. It was awarded for civil and military merit relating to the Kingdom's development and dedication to France. The 1923 (1927?) amendment allowed the Order to be given to individuals with 10 years of military or civilian service in France, Indochina, or other French colonies. The address Place des Victories on the inside lid is simply a portion of the same address that Auger opened in 1900 at 54 rue Etienne-Marcel, place des Victories. (From: https://www.richardjeanjacques.com/2014/10/la-maison-de-joaillerie-auger-alphonse.html; copyright: David Fay-www.indochinamedals.com))

Edited by Rusty Greaves
continual struggles with auto-spell correct...
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I have promised for some time to provide a higher resolution image of Judge Mahmoud Saïd in the District Court of Mansourah, and some other associated materials about Mahmoud Saïd. Although not famous for his legal career, Saïd was the son of a former Prime Minister of Egypt, Mohamed Saïd Pasha (1863-1928, served 1910-1914 and again for a short term in 1919), the uncle of Queen Farida of Egypt (Safnaz Zulificar, 1921-1988), Mahmoud Saïd is best remembered today as an important Egyptian modernist painter. He is most well-known for his works depicting rural scenes in early-mid 20thcentury Egypt, female nudes, and some portraits. A couple of simple websites about Mahmoud Saïd are: http://www.mahmoud-said.com/aboutMS.html and https://www.christies.com/features/10-things-to-know-about-Mahmoud-Said-8134-1.aspx. Many examples of his artwork, memorabilia, his judicial badge (shown below), his Order of the Nile, and his Order of Independence of the Republic (sans ribbon), in addition to several art medals awarded to him by Egypt and France are housed in the Mahmoud Saïd Museum in Gianaclis, Alexandria. The museum is located at 6 Sharia Mohammed Pasha Saïd (6 Mahmoud Saïd Pasha Street), Gianaclis; tlf: 03-582-1688. The hours are 10am-6pm Tue-Thu & Sat-Sun, visitors need to show a passport to get in.

As noted in my post of 5 March 2019,  I do not yet have all aspects of Saïd's legal career identified securely. He worked principally in the Parquet, the prosecutor's office. He was appointed the deputy district prosecutor (Parquet) in 1921 (substitute) and promoted in that position in 1922. He was named Chief of the Parquet in Mansourah in 1925, and probably served on the district Courts in Alexandria starting in 1937, and retired from his legal career in 1949, the year of the closing of the Mixed Courts. Saïd was awarded the Egyptian Kingdom Order of the Nile (4th Class) probably after his retirement in 1949, the Republic-era Order of Independence of the Republic, the Egyptian State Merit Award for Arts in 1960  and the French Légion d'honneur in 1951 (although some biographical sources identify it as the "Medal for Honorary Merit"). 

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Above is a higher resolution image of the District Court of Mansourah compared with the one I posted on 5 March, 2019 on this thread showing Mahmoud Saïd (1st row, 2nd from left, Egypt, Chef du Parquet, wearing what appears to be a bicolored sash, green uppermost and red below, that is appropriate for the Parquet, in contrast with what appear to be single color sashes, red, worn by all the other judges of District Court of Mansourah shown here), Ahmed Mazloum Bey (1st row, furthest right, Egypt), and Maurice de Wee (1st row, 2nd from left, (Belgium, Vice-Président). The names of the other judges in this image are provided in that post of 5 March. This and most of the images in this post can be zoomed for greater detail. (From Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg.194)

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This is the portrait Mahmoud Saïd painted of Ahmed Mazloum Bey titled Portrait d’Ahmed Mazloum Pacha, 1917. From a private collection. As identified above, Judge Mazloum is seated in the first row, at the furthest right in the above photo of Le Tribunal de Mansourah, 1926 portrait. Please note that this portrait, and all the images from the two Didier Hess & Rashwan 2016 publications that I have included here, are copyrighted images and are presented on GMIC strictly for research purposes on the topic of the Egyptian Mixed Courts. (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 1. Paintings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate 7, pg 232. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editore)

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This is the Portrait of Maurice de Wee probably in 1924-26, titled Portrait de Mr. Maurice de Wee, painted by Mahmoud Saïd. This portrait is probably in the possession of the family of Maurice de Wee. Mahmoud Saïd’s signature is visible in the lower left of the painting. In the above photo of the District Court of Mansourah, Judge de Wee is seated in the 1st row, 3rd from left in the above photographic portrait of the Le Tribunal de Mansourah. (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 1. Paintings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate 79, pg. 278. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editore)

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I have previously posted this portrait of Jasper Yeates Brinton by Mahmoud Saïd in the 1st photo of my post of 1 December, 2016, but here is a higher resolution image of the only portrait by Saïd of a judge of the Mixed Courts in his regalia, titled Portrait du president: Jasper Brinton, 1944. This portrait is in the collection of the Museum of Modern Art, Cairo, and it has been on loan to the Mahmoud Saïd Museum, Alexandria. (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 1. Paintings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate 237, pg. 442. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editore)

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Above is a portrait photo of Jasper Yeates Brinton from the Yale University Press, in 1930 (used in his book: Brinton, Jasper Yeates, 1931 Revised Edition. The Mixed Courts of Egypt, 1931 Yale University Press, New Haven. Opposite page 340). Brinton also is shown in the 3rd photo of my post of 1 April, 2019 of the Mixed Court of Appeals in general assembly, seated at the table, 3rd from the right). 

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Mahmoud Saïd’s silver judicial badge (from the Mahmoud Saïd Museum, Alexandria). The bookplate legend incorrectly identifies this as a “Medal of Justice.” Mahmoud Saïd’s badge is silver because almost all of his court assignments that I can identify pertain to the Parquet, the prosecutor's office. No information is provided about the manufacturer of this badge. (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate A 177, pg. 865. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editore)

large.938456344_MahmoudSaidOrderoftheNile1.jpg.fc5124ce66df33187e5d68e681bec5db.jpgMahmoud Saïd’s Order of the Nile, 4th Class, Officer (from the Mahmoud Saïd Museum, Alexandria). (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate A 179, pg. 865. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editore)

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Mahmoud Saïd’s Order of Independence of the Republic (Order of Istiklal), probably the 1st Class, Grand Cordon. The suspension clip fitted onto the larger superior suspension ring (attached to the reverse of the triangular suspension device that is ornamented in blue enamel bands with the Eagle of Saladin on the obverse but is not shown in this photo) that is partially visible, but obscured by the red embellishment ray in the 11:00 o’clock position, appears to be that used to suspend the sash badge of the Grand Cordon Class of this award (from the Mahmoud Saïd Museum, Alexandria). The bookplate incorrectly identifies this as the “Medal of Merit” (from the Mahmoud Saïd Museum, Alexandria). (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate A 176, pg. 865. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editore)

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Award brevet for Mahmoud Saïd’s Order of Independence of the Republic, identified in the bookplate description as a “1st Class” award, probably meaning the Grand Cordon (but perhaps one of the GMIC experts who reads Arabic may clarify the class of this award?), dated 1960 (from the Mahmoud Saïd Museum, Alexandria). (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate A 30, pg. 794. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editors)  

Mahmoud Saïd did often make pencil sketches during his time in the courts. Some of these I am reproducing below that depict particular identified individuals (mostly lawyers) or provide some images of the lawyer's costumes. These sketches are apparently undated, and all are identified in the Didier Hess and Raswan volume only as having been made sometime probably in the 1920s. Mahmoud Saïd also sketched some general depictions of the activity in the District Courts. Most of these are probably from the District Court of Alexandria. I am not including them here as they provide only minimal detail of judges' or lawyers' costumes, but I may post some in the future. 

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Above is a drawing by Mahmoud Saïd, that is identified as a study of a judge or lawyer. The name “Thorn” on the sketch suggests it is probably the Judge William Hobart Houghton Thorne of Britain, shown in the 5th photo of my post of 18 April, 2019 on this thread (depicting the Mixed District Court of Alexandria in general assembly, from the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume pg. 192) sitting to the viewer’s right of Manuel Monteiro. The sash shown in the drawing is consistent with the judges’ costume, however as shown in my previous post of, some court functionaries also wore bi-colored sashes and the “judicial” badge. Judge Thorne was named to the District Court of Alexandria in October, 1916, he resigned in March of 1917, and re-appointed to the District Court of Alexandria in February, 1919 and was serving that court in 1926 at the time of the 50th Anniversary volume’s publication. (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate D 163, pg. 729. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editors)  

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The photo of the District Court of Alexandria in general assembly that I included as the 5th photo in my post of 18 April, 2019 on this thread. Judge William Hobart Houghton Thorne of Britain is seated 3rd from the viewer's right of the person seated at the far head of the table, Judge Erling Qvale, from Norway, the President of the District Court of Alexandria at the time. The names of the other individuals are provided in the caption to this image in my post of 18 April. (From Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg.194)

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This is a caricature drawing by Mahmoud Saïd titled “Maître Alfred” showing a lawyer serving the Mixed Courts. This appears to be Alfred Tilche, who also appears in some of the photos in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume. (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate D 175, pg. 732. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editors) 

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This is a portrait of Alfred Tilche in a section of photos of former and current heads (Bâtonnières) of the bar of the Mixed Courts, identifying Tilche as the Bâtonnière from 1911-1913. This photograph shows him at similar age to the sketch by Mahmoud Saïd shown above. (From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 211.)

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Alfred Tilche also is shown as an older man than in the above portrait in this photo that documents the full Appeals Court in session in February of 1926 (I previously included this as the 4th photo I posted on 1 April, 2019 in this thread). Tilche is in the row of lawyers nearest the semi-circular judges bench, 2nd from the left, with gray moustaches & glasses (in front of Judge Michael Hansson) wearing his lawyer’s gown, rabat, and beretta. The other lawyers in this row are identified as, left-right: M. Pupikofer, Alfred Tilche, Alberto Lusena, P. Colucci, & David Hazan. The names of the judges in this courtroom image are provided in my post of 1 April, 2019. (From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 198). 

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Alfred Tilche also is again shown as an older individual in the above photo of the Board of legal Advisors to the Mixed Courts lawyers on page 199 of that anniversary publication, which is reproduced above. Tilche is the 5th lawyer from the foreground seated on the left side of the table. The other lawyers, seated from left to right around the table are: A. Scordino, R. Chalom Bey, F. Bakhoum, Alfred Tilche (former Bâtonnière), Théodore Lebsohn (former Bâtonnière), M. Tatarakis (Subistitute), Giuseppe de Semo (Bâtonnière), Alfred Catzefils (former Bâtonnière), G. Merzbach Bey (Chef del la Délégaction du Caire), N. Orfall, S. Antoine, M. Pupikofer, C. Casdagli, & R. Schemeil.  Alfred Tilche also is identified in a large, official group photo of lawyers who worked in Alexandria, wearing their court robes, rabat, and some wearing the beretta, on page 204 of the the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume (it provides only low resolution of any individuals features because of the large number of lawyers in the photo, so I am not reproducing it here). Above image from: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 199).

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The above illustration shows Giuseppe de Semo, the Bâtonnière of the bar of the Mixed Courtsin 1926, shown seated at the head of the table in the previous photo of the advisory lawyers to the Mixed Courts in chambers. This image shows some details of his lawyer’s costume, including the robe, rabat (scarf), and beretta (legal cap). It is unclear whether some of the variation in lawyers' costumes shown in their 50th Anniversary volume may be associated with lawyers of different nationalities retaining their national legal regalia (see some of the variation in lawyers' costumes in the  second picture above showing the full Appeals Court in session in February of 1926). If this is a possibility, it might explain the apparently erroneous statement by W. Burdick (W. Burdick,1939. Bench and Bar of Other Lands, pp. 495-496) stating that the costume of judges in the International Mixed Courts (both Egyptian and foreign) wore the judicial robes of their home countries (on pg. 412) that I mentioned again in my recent post of 15 August, 2019. He may have mistaken judicial for lawyers' robes in whatever observational basis he had for that statement that cannot be true of judges regalia at the period when he wrote that article. (From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 11).

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This is a drawing by Mahmoud Saïd made in the courts titled “Maître Cuzzer”, referring to Giulio Cuzzer. (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate D 198, pg. 737. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editors) 

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This is a portrait of Giulio Cuzzer in a section of photos of former and current heads (Bâtonnières) of the bar of the Mixed Courts. Cuzzer was a former Bâtonnière of the Mixed Courts’ Bar from 1903-1905. (From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 210). 

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Court sketch by Mahmoud Saïd of the lawyer titled “Maître Cassis Alex”. Two lawyers with the surname Cassis were serving as lawyers to the District Court of Mansourah in ~1926, and are shown in a photo from the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume (see photo the next photo shown below). One, named S. Cassis, exhibits a white mustache in the photograph of this corps of lawyers and the other is a younger man with smaller, dark mustaches named A. Cassis, who closely resembles this sketch portrait above. (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate D 177, pg. 732. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editors)

 

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 A. Cassis shown in 50th Anniversary volume  as one of the group of lawyers of the Court of Mansourah (1st row, 1st from left=S. Cassis; 2nd row 6th from left=A. Cassis). The other individuals are names as (1st row, left-right: A. Gohargui, Camel Boutrous Bey, G. Mabardi, M. Michlopoulo, A. Maksud, A. Kindynékos, P. G. Bouboulis, Abdel Guélil Samra Bey, and S. Cassis; 2nd row left-right:H. Farag, A. Fadel, Z. Gaballa, J. Gouriotis, A. El Biali, A. Cassis, N. Bouez, S. Antoine, W. Salib, F. Michel, and R. Guirguis ; 3rd row left-right: S. Ekdaoui, D. de Botton, S. Lévy, A. Belloti, E. Daoud, Abdel Fattah Fahey, K. Tewfik, Abdel Bail Raglan , E. Sammé, B. Ghaliounghi, and M. Ebbo; 4th row left-right: P.  Kindynécos, H. Maksud, B. Abboudy, M. Papadakis, Z. Picramenos, N. Kaznetsis, and C. Cottan. No roles or country affiliations are provided for these lawyers. (From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg.206).  

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Sketches by Mahmoud Saïd of a greffier "Chibli", possibly identified as serving in "Mansourah"(?) on the left and a goateed man identified as Maître “Massayardi (?) in the Didier Hess and Raswan volume 2 publication. “Massayardi’" is almost certainly Enrico Manusardi, identified in the 50th Anniversary volume as a Vétéran du Barreau on pg. 32 (with goatee). An Antonio Manusardi with a dark mustaches and no chin beard is shown as a former Bâtonnière of the Mixed Courts from the 1880s (pg. 207). Chibli is probably shown in 50th Anniversary volume in a photo on pg. 394 that I posted the 9th photo of my post of 29 April, 2019 as a Cis-Geffier of the Court of Mansourah (see the 3rd image below this one). (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate D 179, pg. 732. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editors)

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Another courtroom sketch by Mahmoud Saïd of Enrico Mansard (left, again with the idiosyncratic spelling or handwriting that Didier Hess and Rashwan transcribe as “Massayardi’") and of another individual named Maitre Belleli (right). The lawyer A. Belleli is shown in a large group photo of low resolution of Avocats to the Mixed Court in Alexandria on pg. 204 of the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume (2nd row 3rd from the left), showing the same style goatee sketched here by Saïd. (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate D 178, pg. 732. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editors)

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Portrait of Enrico Manusardi in a section of the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume showing Vétéran du Barreau. (From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 32)

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Portrait of functionaries serving the District Court of Mansourah in 1926 that I posted as the 9th photo of my post of 29 April, 2019 on this thread that shows an individual identified as Chibli (Cis-Greffier, no first initial or name given) in the second row, furthest to the right. It is unclear if this is the same individual sketched by Mahmoud Saïd in the 3rd picture above this photo. The names of the other individuals are provide in the legend to this image in my 29 April post. The functionary (Cis-Greffier) G. Cassis is shown in the 1st row, furthest left. (From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 394)

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Mahmoud Saïd caricature sketch of unidentified lawyer (Alfred Tilche?) showing his robe and rabat. The curling lines and straight sketch lines on the lawyers left shoulder (the viewer's right) are probably the épitoge portion of the legal costume, rather than the braided cord shown on the same shoulder of Giuseppe de Semo's costume shown above. (identified by Didier Hess and Rashwan as a study of a lawyer or judge). (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate D 172, pg. 731. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editors)

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Mahmoud Saïd sketch of unidentified lawyer showing his robe and rabat. Corrctly identified as a lawyer. (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate D 252, pg. 746. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editors) 

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Mahmoud Saïd sketch of unidentified lawyer showing his robe and rabat. (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate D 189, pg. 735. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editors) 

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Mahmoud Saïd sketch of unidentified lawyer showing his robe, rabat, and possibly part of the épitoge on his back. (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate D 164, pg. 730. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editors)

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Undated photo of an Egyptian lawyer from a May-July, 2019 eBay auction showing the lawyer's costume of the robe, rabat (scarf), beretta (cap), and the épitoge on the wearer's left shoulder The portion draped down his arm should normally be worn over the wearer's back (see the illustration of the full Appeals Court in session in February of 1926 posted above to show Alfred Tilche in court). The costume is derived from French legal and academic regalia. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-The-young-judge-with-the-scarf-PHOTO-KEROP/312570975092?hash=item48c6ae9374:g:BvgAAOSwumxcslyl)

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Undated photo of a woman lawyer in Egypt showing the épitoge on the wearer's left shoulder, in this case with the crescent and one star seen in other images I have posted, probably suggesting early republic era legal regalia. The crescent and star attached to the épitoge also is shown in the picture of the young boy from the eBay auction (incorrectly titled "The Little Judge", showing 3 stars above the crescent) that Chris W posted on 8 August, 2019 and I posted on 31 October, 2018, both on this thread. These are the only images I have seen of these insignia attached to the French academic scarf (épitoge) and not on a sash, as several images I have uploaded here in this thread show (possibly for some judges and also for lawyers after the Mixed court was abolished in 1949 and before the eagle of Saladin was attached to judicial sashes, sometime after he 1952 revolution). (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-CUTE-LAWYER-WITH-THE-SCARF-HAND-COLORED-/273361632578?nma=true&si=mpDX%2FvmJ3j93DINpvfI%2FS1m09vQ%3D&orig_cvip=true&nordt=true&rt=nc&_trksid=p2047675.l2557)

 

Edited by Rusty Greaves
correcting spell check changes
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Above is a picture of one of the Egyptian Mixed District Courts from a flickr photostream of EivArch (https://www.flickr.com/photos/78721541@N00/8584780971/in/photostream/). This photo can be zoomed for greater detail. The photostream identifies the 3rd man from the left in the 1st row as Halvard Heggen. It appears this may be the District Court of Mansourah, taken sometime before 1926, probably between 1922 and 1925 (see the images of their court from 1926 in my post of 5 March, 2019, with all individuals identified, but at a lower resolution that the version I posted on in my last post here of August 2019; and in my post of 21 August, 2019, a higher resolution image bit with all the individuals identified). The Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume identifies Halvard Nicolaï (or Nikolaï) Heggen as a judge from Norway who was appointed to the District Court of Mansourah in January of 1903, and was transferred to the Court in Alexandria in November, 1906. He was re-appointed to the District Court of Mansourah in August of 1922, then transferred to Cairo in November of 1925. Heggen died in Cairo in January of 1926. I believe this is the District Court of Mansourah because at lest 3 individuals are present in this image who also appear in the 2 versions of the image of the Court of Mansourah that I have posted before (that probably was taken in 1926). The first person on the left in the 1st row is Julien Sheridan of Belgium (he is wearing the same vest as in the 1926 photo of the Court of Mansourah). The second man from the left in the 1st row is Ahmed Mazloum Bey (also shown in the Mahmoud Saïd portrait illustrated as the 2nd image of the of 21 August, 2019 post) and the 4th man from the left in the 2nd row appears to be Maurice de Wee of Belgium, who was the Vice-President of the Mansourah Court beginning in 1925 (also shown in a sketch portrait by Mahmoud Saïd in the 3rd image of my 21 August, 2019 post). In the second row, the man 2nd from the left may be Hassan Kamel (Egypt, Substitut du Procurer Général), who is standing in the same position in the 1926 photo shown above in the 1st photo of my 21 August, 2019 post). The apparently Egyptian man seated at the far right in the 1st row is the only individual with a bicolored sash, suggesting he may be a member of the Parquet or a functionary of the Mansourah Court. All of the other individuals in this photo are wearing a single color sash (red) and the badges of several men appear to be gold & silver, the design for the District Court judges' badges. 

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I recently came across several photographs from the Egyptian Mixed Courts in a group of photos being auctioned on eBay since May, 2019. These all are related to functionaries (many of them greffiers) serving the Court of Appeals and the District Court of Alexandria. All of these photos are matted and have some level of information hand-written on the mats. The calligraphy of the handwriting in white or silver ink on all of these mats is not completely identical, however it is quite similar. The kinds of information, presence of dates, names on some mats, and calligraphic embellishments do suggest they are an associated collection. I am providing additional data about each of these photos based on my personal research of the Mixed Courts. Both the Appeals Court and the District Court represented in several photos were located in Alexandria and several photos come from the well-known Alban Studio in Alexandria. Two of these are photos that were used in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 50th Anniversary volume that I have used in previous posts on this thread. The auctioneer has obtained a number of photos in this assortment that feature one particular individual, Adib Maakad Bey. The predominance of images of Maakad Bey (as well as very similar handwriting on all examples) may suggest this is a grouping that was at one point owned by Makaad Bey or his family. 

I have in the past used the term “clerks” to refer to the roles of greffiers in the Mixed Courts, but perhaps the translation offered by S. W. Hoyle in his 1986 article (The structure and laws of the Mixed Courts of Egypt, Arab Law Quarterly, vol 1 (3): 327-345), of “registrar” is more apt. These individuals handled a range of skilled and complex paperwork, including listing cases, supervising trials, countersigning the judges’ signatures, and formally published case results. Initially this demanding role was filled exclusively with foreigners who had served in comparable positions abroad, but eventually a significant number were drawn from Egyptian applicants. Greffiers had to be at least 24 years old, have a good knowledge of Arabic French, or Italian (most apparently spoke at least 2 of these languages). Applicants had to pass a rigorous exam in law and be approved by a panel of judges and the Greffier en Chef (Chief Registrar). Greffiers also assumed duties dealing with deeds and notary tasks. Other staff described by Hoyle include huissiers, a combined role of bailiff and usher. These individuals also had to be 24 or older, pass an exam to demonstrate they could read and write at least one judicial language, and had to provide a cash or securities guarantee in case of claims made against them in their professional work. Interpreters also formed a large group of court officials, subject to the same age requirement and needed to be fluent in Arabic and one other judicial language. They mostly worked with litigants because of the requirement that most huissers,greffiers, and judges were able to communicate in multiple languages. The courts also had their own guards, caretakers, and messengers (Hoyle 1986: pp. 341-342).

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Example of one of the photographs in this eBay offering that is a picture of the District Court of Alexandria that I have previously posted as the 5th photo in my post of April 18, 2019 in this thread (with all the individuals identified in that post) and in the 11th  image of my post of 21 August 2019 (to illustrate Judge William Hobart Houghton Thorne of Britain). Those illustrations using this same photo came from the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926 volume (pg 192). In my original post of this image I did not know when this photo was taken, this example identifies February 1926, the same month the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume was published. The seller identifies this as an original print, sized 17 cm x 12 cm, from the “Photo Dores Studio” in Alexandria. This is the Aziz & Dorés Studio, one of the most important early studios in Alexandria run by Aziz Bandarli and Umberto Dorés, located at 3 rue de l’hopital grec, Alexandrie (this is now Istanbul Street). This studio may have opened in 1907 and also was involved in early cinema in Alexandria. I have previously identified the judges and the Greffier en Chefin this photo in my April 18 post. In relation to several photos reproduced below, note the individual at a writing desk to the far right away from the table where the judges are seated. This is the Greffier en Chef, Adib Maakad Bey, who is shown below in several photos outlining his career roles with the District Court of Alexandria and his earlier role as a greffierwith the Court of Appeals. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-1926-PHOTO-DORES-ALEX/312613193983?_trkparms=aid%3D333200%26algo%3DCOMP.MBE%26ao%3D1%26asc%3D20190129125700%26meid%3D384b24d149c54feabe53a40b67859832%26pid%3D100752%26rk%3D5%26rkt%3D12%26sd%3D312613211731%26itm%3D312613193983&_trksid=p2047675.c100752.m1982)

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Greffiers of the Court of Appeal, December 1910. Some of these individuals are shown in a photo in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume titled “Les Functionnaires de la Cour D’Appel” on page, pg 391. I have identified their 1926 roles from the legend to that photo in the listed identities below, however their assignments in 1910 are not known to me. 1st row = L. Camiglieri (Greffier contrôleur des taxations); A.(?) Gregnac; Gregnas; E. della Rovere Rey (Greffier Comptable de la Cour et du Tribunal d’Alexandrie). 2nd row = M. Biagini; Adib Maakad; an unnamed court functionary, and M. Buccianti (Secrétaire de Greffier en Chef) - the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume identifies his first initial as “M.” although it appears to be “F.” in the written legend on this photo). This is the earliest image I have seen of Adib Maakad. As noted this auction group contains several additional images of Adib Maakad (later Adib Maakad Bey) in group photos and single portraits associated with his work as a greffier in the Appeals Court and later the District Court of Alexandria. In this photo, only L. Camiglieri  and E. della Rovere wear the judicial costume of the high collared tunic coat (stambouline), tarbush, biclored sash, and judicial badges (probably silver?). Camiglieri’s sash clearly is bicolored, and della Rovere’s sash is probably bicolored. In these photos, and previous black & white images I’ve posted on this thread, I am interpreting the colors of sashes based on comparisons with images of monochrome sashes. Individuals identified as judges with the Appeals Court wore green sashes, and in the black & white photos their sashes appear a lighter gray. Judges of the District Courts (principally serving in Alexandria, Cairo, and Mansourah; and the Mansourah Court personnel visited Port Said once a year) wore red sashes, and these appear much darker in the contemporary black & white photos. I am interpreting the orientation of the green & red stripes of the sashes of the Parquet and other court functionaries based on the contrasting darkness or lightness of each strip compared with the colors seen on sashes of Appeals or District Court judges. According to the protocol that I have been able to find, the bicolored sash of the Parquet is supposed to have been worn with the green stripe uppermost, and presumably that may also be the case for other court functionaries wearing these sashes. As can bee seen in several photos in this post, and in previous posts on this thread, there is some variability in how the sash was actually worn. However, there may be a general preponderance of individuals wearing the bicolored sash with the green stripe uppermost. This image is identified as an original print, but the size of the print and the photo studio (almost certainly in Alexandria) are not identified. It mistakenly identifies the subjects as judges, despite the hand lettered legend on the right of the mat stating “Greffe de la Premier Chambre”. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-1910-Judges-With-medals/273849827037?hash=item3fc2b8bedd:g:wqcAAOSwvX5c3fdB&frcectupt=true)

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Higher resolution of the same photo of this group of Greffiersof the Court of Appeals, December 1910.

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Higher resolution image of the names of those in this photograph (except the 3rd man from the left in the 2nd row wearing an overcoat. 

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Photo of Court of Appeals, 31 December, 1916, by Alban Studio, Alexandria (Greffe de la Deuxième Chambre). Only 3 of these individuals in this photo can be identified using a photo in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume titled “Les Functionnaires de la Cour D’Appel” on page, pg 391 (probably taken in 1925 or 1926). Except for Adib Maakad, I have again identified their 1926 roles from the legend to that 1925 or 1926 photo in the listed identities below, because their court roles in 1910 are unknown to me. 1st row = M. Dadour (Secrétaire de la Commission du Tableau et de l’Assistance Judiciaire); Adib Maakad (probably Greffier en Chef in 1916 given his central position in this portrait, and the larger script identifying his name, as well as both of these things in the 1920 portrait of functionaries of the Court of Appeal shown below; Here, Adib Maakad also is distinguished by being the only greedier wearing the stambouline coat, tarbush, bicolored sash [with the red stripe uppermost] and judicial badge); J. Bichara (Cis-Greffier). 2nd row=unnamed court official; M. Helles(?); P. Seemama; A. Shama, and an unnamed court guard. The auction description identifies this as an original print 22 cm X 17 cm in size from the Photo Alban Studio. Note the signture of Alban in the lower right of the mat. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/Armenian-photographer-in-Egypt-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-PHOTO-ALBAN-1916/273849768153?hash=item3fc2b7d8d9:g:d-UAAOSwCrpc3fMY)

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Cropped enlargement of the same portrait photo of 31 December, 1916.

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Higher resolution cropped image of the names identified on this same 31 December, 1916 photo, excluding the court official 1st on the left  and the court guard 5th from left  in the back row

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Enlargement of the signature of Alban on the lower right of the photo mat. 

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The stamp of Alban Studio in Alexandria on the reverse of this same portrait photo from 31 December, 1916.

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Matted portrait of Greffe de la Comptabilité (Registry of Accounting) of the Court of Appeals in January of 1920. Except for Adib Maakad, I currently have no additional information about any of the greffiers identified in this photo. 1st row (L-R) = G. Nicadimos;  Adib Maakad (probably also Greffier en Chef in 1920 given his central position in this portrait, the more elaborate handwriting of his name, and that he is wearing a tarbush, as well as the position similarity to the 1916 portrait of functionaries of the Court of Appeals shown above); A. Joannides; and A. Bennett.  2nd row = Unnamed court guard; E. Farès; A Sabella; J. Perullo; C. Nakas; E. Joannides; M. Nomicos ; 3rd row (L-R) = 2 unnamed court officials. The auction description identies this an as original photo 23 cm X 18  cm in size, printed by the studio “Nader”. This probably refers to the studio of Nadir. Note the signature on the bottom right of the mat showing the correct spelling of this name. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/Armenian-photographer-in-Egypt-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-PHOTO-NADER-1920/312613214230?hash=item48c9331816:g:GTkAAOSwEeVc3fHF)

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Cropped enlargement of the same portrait photo of the Court of Appeals’ Registry of Accounting, from January, 1920.

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Higher resolution cropped image of the names identified on this same January, 1920 portrait photo, again excluding the court guard 1st on the left in the 2nd row and the two court officials in the back row.

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Photo from 29 December, 1911 that appears to be Adib Maakad, identified serving the    Court of Appeals (as greffier). Only his mustaches are anomalously long in this photo compared with all other images of him in these auction offerings. I am basing the identification on significant facial similarities and the fact that many other photos in this eBay auction listing seem to focus on Adib Maakad. He is wearing the court regalia of the high collared tunic coat, tarbush, bicolored sash (showing the decorative knot very well and worn with the green stripe uppermost), and the judicial badge (probably in silver?). This is an original print, no dimensions are given in the auction description. For obvious reasons given his costume, the eBay seller has identified this individual as a judge of the Mixed Courts. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-1911-Judge-With-medals/312613296488?hash=item48c9345968:g:3DEAAOSw589c3fXS&frcectupt=true)

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Cropped higher resolution image of the same portrait that is probably of Adib Maakad in his roles greffier of the Court of Appeals from 29 December, 1911. 

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Adib Maakad identified as working in the Court of Appeals in a photo taken 1 March. 1915. Although he is not identified by name on the photo, his facial features and the large number of images of Makaad in this group of photos auctioned together on eBay indicates a grouping that included many photos of him throughout his career with the Mixed Courts. This is an original print, no dimensions are provided. For the same reasons as in the above portrait, the eBay description incorrectly identifies Adib Maakad as a judge of the Mixed Tribunals. This portrait again clearly shows the use of the stambouline coat, tarbush, along with a bicolored sash (with the green stripe uppermost) and a (silver?) judicial badge for greffiers serving the Appeals Court although the judicial costume for judges would differ in the use of a single color sash (green) and a gold judicial badge. (From:https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-1915-Judge-With-medals/312613240155?hash=item48c9337d5b:g:H7QAAOSwOTZc3fR5)

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Close-up view of Adib Maakad’s judicial badge from this same 1915 portrait. The image clearly shows that the badge is silver. 

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Studio portrait of Adib Makaad Bey during his time working as Greffier en Chefof the District Court of Alexandria, dated Februrary, 1926. At this time period, the identification of his role from the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume is appropriate for this date. In this image Makaad Bey is wearing white tie and a western style evening jacket with his court regalia that includes a bicolored sash (he appears to be wearing the green portion of the sash downwards) and what appears to be a gold and silver judicial badge (note the darker coloration of the central tablet with the inscription and probably the external rays of the embellishment of the badge). He also wears the 4th Class Officer medal of the Order of the Nile. The auction description identifies this as an original print that is 23 cm X 18 cm, and again identifies Makaad understandably as a judge rather than his correct role in the Alexandrian District Courts. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-1926-Judge-With-medals/312613189879?hash=item48c932b8f7:g:RnwAAOSwgKtc3evi

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A similar portrait to the one above from Februrary, 1926 of Adib Maakad Bey in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926 on page 389 in a section identifying the more senior current functionaries in the Mixed courts. In this similar image Makaad Bey is wearing the stambouline coat and a four-in-hand tie, along with the tarbush, bicolored sash (again apparently with green downwards), what appears to be a gold and silver judicial badge, and the same 4th Class Officer Order of the Nile.  

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Portrait that is almost certainly Adib Makaad Bey taken in January of 1929. This studio portrait again shows him in white tie and a western style evening coat rather than the stambouline coat. He also wears the court regalia of tarbush, bicolored sash (this appears to show the green stripe upwards) and what appears to be a gold and silver judicial badge. Makaad Bey also wears on his coat (from the viewer’s left–right) the 4th Class Officer Order of the Nile, the 4th Class Officer Belgian Order of Leopold II, the 4th Class Officer Italian Order of the Crown, and the Belgian (wartime?) Order of the Crown Palms (I cannot determine if they are gold or silver?). The black and white photography   can make some of the ribbons difficult to identify. For example the central blue stripe of the Order of the Nile is not readily visible, the dark blue of the ribbon of the 4th Class Officer Order of Leopold II with a central black stripe appears lighter than might be expected, and the ribbon of the Belgian Order of the Crown Palms does not show the dark red central stripe in contrast with the white stripes at the edges. The eBay description identifies this as an original print with the dimensions 23 cm X 18 cm. Although a probable studio signature is visible in the upper left corner of the photograph, no studio is identified for this photo and I have not identified this photographer’s name yet. Again, the eBay listing understandably misidentifies Adib Makaad Bey as a judge of the Mixed Tribunals because of his regalia. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-1929-Judge-With-medals/273857487692)

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Two photos of a court official in his office of the District Court of Alexandria, dated 20 May, 1924. Although the individual not identified, it again appears to be Adib Makaad Bey, based on my assessment of this man’s facial similarity to other identified pictures of Makaad Bey (I find his eyebrows and eyes particularly distinctive) as well as the preponderance of images in this collection of photos that were all put up for sale at the same time. The eBay description identifies the individual as a judge of the Mixed Courts in these original prints whose dimensions are not given. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-Judge-in-his-office-1924/312613211731?hash=item48c9330e53:g:XBEAAOSwG2Jc3fCB)

Below are 2 images of the greffiers and other court personnel, of the District Court of Alexandria. Both are dated to 31 January, 1925 (the 1st,  2nd, 4th, and 5th photos below). I am uncertain why different individuals are present in each of these 2 portraits. The second of these group photos shows a judge who is the President of the District Court of Alexandria, and several individuals' sashes in that portrait appear to possibly be a single color (indicating judges may also be present in this photo and not just greffiers or other court officials). I have seen additional images that depict some of the same individuals as in these eBay images. One such group photograph is shown in the 3rd photo below. Other photos of the District Court of Alexandria also feature the same architectural backdrop behind the court officials. 

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Above is the first of 2 matted photos form this same eBay auction of personnel of the District Court of Alexandria dated 31 January, 1925. All of these court officials are wearing the judicial regalia of the high collared long tunic coat, tarbush, sash, and judicial badges. All of the individuals appear to be wearing bicolored sashes, but only 5 are wearing them with the green stripe uppermost (1st row individuals 3rd, 6th and 9th from the left; 2nd row individuals 4th and 5th from the left).The eBay description identifies this as an original print by Alban Studio, Alexandria that measures 22 cm X 15 cm. As noted below, this is very similar to a photo of Functionaries of the District Court of Alexandria, on pg. 392 of the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume (see below). All of the identifications and roles I have included here are based on the information in that 50th Anniversary volume. 1st row (L-R): ?; V. Cuzzer (Cis-Greffier); V. Anhoury (Greffier); A. Cauro (Conservateur des Hypothèques); Adib Maakad Bey (Greffier en Chef); F. Nourisson (Greffier-Notaire); C. Finardi (Greffier); J. Guarino (Cis-Greffier); and S. Mezaber (interprète). 2nd row (L-R)=?; ?; R. Loutfallah (Cis-Greffier)?; U. Finardi (Cis-Greffier); ?: J. Bichara (Cis-Greffier)?; and ? (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/Armenian-photographer-in-Egypt-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-PHOTO-ALBAN-LOT-3/273857487694?ssPageName=STRK%3AMEBIDX%3AIT&_trksid=p2060353.m1438.l2649)

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Cropped higher-resolution image of this same portrait photo of court officials from 31 January, 1925. 

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Above is a similar image of the greffiers of the District Court of Alexandria that is published in Vol 2 of Didier Hess and Rashwan’s 2016 Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné. The caption for this image (Plate A 201, pg. 871) identifies the group as “Members of the Mixed Tribunals, photographed by Alban, early twentieth century”. Given the other dates for the two similar images from the eBay offering, the date must be approximately the same, probably also January of 1925. This same photo is published at a lower resolution on page 392 of the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926 volume. That 50th anniversary publication identifies all of the individuals in the photo as: 1st row (L-R)= V. Cuzzer (Cis-Greffier); I. Rodriguez (Chef-Huissier); V. Anhoury (Greffier); A. Cauro (Conservateur des Hypothèques); Adib Maakad Bey (Greffier en Chef); F. Nourisson (Greffier-Notaire); C. Finardi (Greffier); S. Mezaber (Interprète); and J. Guarino (Cis-Greffier) in those same very natty pants. 2nd row (L-R)=M. Kedemos (Chef Dél. Hypoth. Tantah); G. Garsia (Côntroleur des Taxes); T. Khouzam (Interprète); R. Mercinier (Cis-Greffier); R. Azar (Cis-Greffier); U. Finardi (Cis-Greffier); R. Loutfallah (Cis-Greffier); J. Bichara (Cis-Greffier); C. Madaro (Côntroleur des Taxes); M. Chaoul (Cis-Greffier); and M. Nomicos (Côntroleur des Taxes). 3rd row (L-R)=M. Keif (Secrétaire de la Président); A. Sabella (Cis-Greffier); G. Rathle (Interprète); F. Awad (Interprète); V. Loutfallah (Chef Dèl. Huissiers Tantah); S. Fahmy (Interprète); M. Zalzal (Cis-Greffier); J. Azouz (Interprète); S. Serkis (Sous-Chef-Huissier); and I. Hailpern (Cis-Greffier). (From:Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan [eds.], 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings.Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. (distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editore).

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Portrait photo from the same eBay auction depicting a somewhat different group of court officials of the District Court of Alexandria that also is dated 31 January, 1925. The eBay description indentifies this as an original print by Alban Studio, Alexandria that measures 23 cm X 15 cm. All of the men appear to be wearing the stambouline coats over their suit jackets, but there appears to be mix of different sashes. Only the 6th man in the front row clearly has a red & green sash (red stripe uppermost). In the back row the 6th man appears to have a lighter colored sash. Given that the President of the District Court of Alexandria is in this image (see below), some of these individuals may be judges rather than just greffiers and other court officials. The very few identifications (only 4) I have been able to make of some functionaries in this image are based on comparisons with the versions of the above photo from Vol. 2 of Didier Hess and Rashwan’s 2016Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné (Plate A 201, pg. 871) and the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 50th anniversary volume on page 392 that has a legend listing the court staff and their roles for that image. 1st row 1st from left - Judge Paul Joseph Randet (France); 5th from left - J. Guarino (Cis-Greffier)?. 2nd row=1st from left - Adib Maakad Bey (Greffier en Chef); 5th from left - Judge Erling Qvale of Norway, who was the President of the District Court of Alexandria at this time. Because the the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 50th anniversary volume shows the Court of Alexandria seated around a table (see the 1st photo in this post), it is hard to get a good view of different judges' facial characteristics for comparison with this image. I was able to identify Judge Qvale because that anniversary publication shows him in a separate portrait that I have previously illustrated on this thread as the 2nd photo of my post of 29 April, 2019. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/Armenian-photographer-in-Egypt-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-PHOTO-ALBAN-LOT-2/312613206728?hash=item48c932fac8:g:MGEAAOSwOxZc3e81)

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Cropped higher-resolution image of this same eBay portrait photo of this second group of court officials from 31 January, 1925 by Alban Studio.

Edited by Rusty Greaves
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Peter, I am always happy if this research is of interest to someone else. Many thanks for your kind words. 

I believe I have identified the studio that took the photograph of Adib Makaad Bey in his court regalia and wearing the the 4th Class Officer Order of the Nile, the 4th Class Officer Belgian Order of Leopold II, the 4th Class Officer Italian Order of the Crown, and the Belgian (wartime?) Order of the Crown Palms (shown in the  7th-to-last photo attachment in my most recent post of 6 September, 2019). That portrait photo is dated January 1929. I have included the image below. The eBay seller of the photos shown in my 6 September post responded to my inquiry about whether this group of photos might be from collection associated with Adib Maakad Bey or his family. He obtained them from a local market, probably in Cairo, with no additional documentation. However, as every photo contains an image of Adib Maakad Bey, and they represent matted prints with handwritten legends from multiple photo studios in Alexandria, these likely came from an associated album of images. Most probably, they were at one time the property of Adib Maakad Bey. 

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January, 1929 portrait photo of Adib Makaad Bey, during his tenure as Greffier en Chef of the District Court of Alexandria. The handwritten (or stamped?) studio name in the upper left corner is "Racine", a studio that was located on 13 rue Stamboul, Alexandria. 

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I have identified a similar studio mark to that on the portrait of Adib Makaad Bey from a photograph listed in the "Guide to the Yasser Alwan Collection 1890-1970" of more than 2,000 photographs in the New York University Abu Dhabi, Akkasah: Center for Photography (http://dlib.nyu.edu/findingaids/html/akkasah/alwan/dscref179.html). Yasser Alwan purchased old photographs from flea markets and book merchants in the 1990s, selecting images (principally from the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s) that show the cultural diversity of life in Egypt during the first half of the 20th century.  Above is the studio's embossed name "Racine" on the lower right of an image dated 13 May, 1949 and titled "A young woman in a dress with shoulder detailing" (AD-MC-002_ref611; Box 3, Folder 19). The reverse of the postcard includes the address: "RACINE ALEXANDRIE 13 RUE STAMBOUL". 

I also want to illustrate a judicial badge I just came across from a current auction by Lundin Jewel & Antique that is listed on the worldantiquenet.com website (https://www.worldantique.net/apstort.asp?selbinr=326604&kukat=8715&valuta=USD#valuta). This badge has no maker's hallmark on the reverse. This has piqued my curiosity about better ways to identify the many unmarked Mixed Court judges' badges, and I am starting to compare the calligraphy on the inscriptions of the central tablets of these badges. I will soon post some comparative images of these tablets from badges that either have a maker's hallmark shown in auction photos of the reverse, are associated with cases that name the manufacturer, or seem to have reliable attribution even if no photographs of the reverse of the badges are available. I hope to see if these may provide some use in preliminary identification of the makers of some unmarked badges. 

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Obverse of the Lundin Antique judicial badge (Item no. 326604). It is identified in the auction description as silver, measuring 112 mm X 85 mm, and the translation provided of the inscription is given as "Government is based on Justice". This example shows quite a bit of wear of the upper folds of the mantle drapery and tassels. My current suspicion is that this may be an example made by Stobbe of Alexandria, but I will post the comparisons soon and see if the calligraphy on the central tablets can provide some initial clues to the makers' identities of the many unmarked badges being offered on auction sites. 

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Reverse of the same badge with the tunic pin open showing the lack of any maker's hallmarks or visible silver assay marks. 

Edited by Rusty Greaves
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I want to correct an error I made regarding the hallmark of Stobbe of Alexandria who manufactured some of the Mixed Courts' judicial badges. In my discussion of different hallmarks on these badges on my post of 28 February, 2019 I identified the Stobbe hallmark as including the word "ALEXANDRIE". The French spelling is incorrect for this hallmark, it is actually "ALEXANDRIA" on the 2 examples where I have been able to find photographs of these hallmarks. 

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Above is the Stobbe hallmark on a gold and silver District Courts badge from a Baldwins’ auction of December 2014 (lot 844) archived on The Saleroom.com website that I have illustrated the obverse side of in past posts on this thread. I have previously illustrated the obverse and reverse of this badge in the first photo of my initial post starting this thread on 17 November, 2016, in the 6th photo of post of March 24, 2017, and in my correction of misidentifying this badge as an Appeals Court badge form on my post of April 4, 2017. Although obscured by the tunic pin, it appears in this close-up image of the Stobbe hallmark that the final letter is more probably "A" than "E". As I noted in the hallmark discussion in my post of of 28 February, 2019, the uppermost portion of the hallmark is "STOBBE";  the center inscription is "900" (indicating 900 or 90% silver purity); and the bottom inscription is "ALEXANDRIA". (From https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-gb/auction-catalogues/baldwins/catalogue-id-srbal10006/lot-895754ae-9b9f-4f06-9d11-a3fe00ab0fe1)

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Reverse of a Mixed Courts judicial badge from a May 2015 auction by Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG (Lot 49) that is archived on the acsearch.com website. I previously illustrated the obverse and revers of this badge in my post of 31 October, 2018 on this thread. This badge is described as silver with gold gilding, although the usual locations of the gilding are difficult to distinguish in the image of the obverse of this badge. In my 31 October post I identified this as a silver badge. Although this image is not as high-resolution as the one above, it is fairly clear that the last 3 letters to the right of the tunic pin in the 2nd line of the hallmark inscription are "...DRIA" , with the form of the "A" contrasting with the "E" in "STOBBE".  As described in my 28 February, 2019 post, unlike the Baldwin's example above, this hallmark on this Künker  auction badge has a symbol on the left of the upper inscription line followed by "STOBBE" and then at the right end of the upper line is the "900" silver purity designation. The bottom line reads "ALEXANDRIA". (From:https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=4974323)

I have not found a significant amount of background information yet about Rudolf Stobbe, but he appears to have been a German jeweler. He had a shop at 29 Rue Chérif Pacha near Opera Square in Alexandria, close to where Wolf Horovitz (another manufacturer of judicial badges for the Mixed Courts) had his shop (at 26 Rue Chérif Pacha), and the same street where Zivy Frères & Cie. (at 10 Rue Chérif Pacha) was located as well (I illustrated one example of a judicial badge made by Zivy Frères on 24 April, 2019 in this thread). Below are a few advertisements for Stobbe, apparently from unidentified newspapers. All of these 3 images below are from the website www.925-1000.com, an online hallmarks database and silver research site that includes some information on Egyptian early 20th century jewelers (from: https://www.925-1000.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=53896). 

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Newspaper advertisement identifying Rudolf Stobbe as a jeweler in Alexandria and as a representative in Alexandria of Arthur Krupp, the well-known Austrian metalworker (Berndorfer Metallwarenfabrik Arthur Krupp A.G. Berndorf). This advertisement is identified as from 1904.

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This newspaper advertisement for Rudolf Stobbe is identified as from 1907. 

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The above brief newspaper mention of Rudolf Stobbe also is identified as from 1907. 

 

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The www.925-1000.com website also has an illustration and some information about Wolf Horovitz, who also manufactured Mixed Court judicial badges (see my post of 1 December, 2018 on this thread). Above is a 1935 Horovitz hallmark identifying silver that was made in England for his distribution in Alexandria. This reads: "FABRIQUE EN ANGLETERRE/POUR/W. HOROVITZ/26 RUE CHERIF PACHA/ALEXANDRIE". Horovitz had similar marks for material made in France that he sold in Alexandria labeled:"FABRIQUE EN FRANCE/POUR/W. HOROVITZ/26 RUE CHERIF PACHA/ALEXANDRIE". This website correctly identifies his name as Wolf Zeev Horovitz, and gives his birthdate as 18 August, 1883 in Alexandria, Egypt and his date of death as 16 February, 1959 in Geneva Switzerland. I previously included some incorrect information in my post of 1 December, 2018. I illustrated a Horovitz judicial badge and stated that he was Romanian who had settled in Alexandria to open his business. He may have  been of Romanian descent, but several more recent sources I have found all identify his birthplace as Alexandria. (From: https://www.925-1000.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=38&t=53896&p=171016&hilit=Stobbe#p171016)

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A better resolution image from the Grabek in Lublin Antique Silver website of a hallmark on silver made in France for distribution by Wolf Horovitz in Alexandria. The hallmarks above the Horovitz diamond-shaped mark are presumably French. (From: http://grabekwlublinie.pl/en/305_wolf-horovitz)

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Undated photograph of Wolf Zeev Horovitz from the Geni.com genealogy website (https://www.geni.com/people/Wolf-Zeev-Horovitz/6000000002383946981). Horovitz was known for having a local and more élite clientele, in addition to providing jewelry and possibly other goods to the Royal courts of both King Fuad I and King Farouk I. 

While I am making corrections, I will also rectify a mistake I made in identifying the position of one of the judges in the portrait of the District Court of Mansourah in my post of 21 August, 2019 on this thread. In that post I listed a couple of individuals in the first photo, and identified the position of Judge Maurice de Wee incorrectly. I identified Maurice de Wee (Belgium, Vice-President, and the subject of a portrait painting by Mahmoud Saïd shown in the 3rd photo of that same post) as in the 1st row, seated 2nd from left. That position is where Mahmoud Saïd (Egypt, Chef du Parquet) is seated. Maurice de Wee is seated 2nd from the right in that portrait photo. Judge de Wee also is shown in the portrait of the Mansourah District Court I posted on 3 September, 2019 in this thread. 

 

Edited by Rusty Greaves
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  • 2 months later...

Over the American holiday of Thanksgiving I was visiting a member of my wife's family interested in the Crabitès family history, and he has found the judicial badge worn by Pierre Crabitès (1877-1943) during his time on the District Court of Cairo (1911-1936). He also has found a number of interesting papers and other photographs of Pierre Crabitès, including one taken by someone probably in the US Dept of State of his grave in the British Christian Cemetery in Baghdad, where he died on assignment in 1943. At the graveside service, the Egyptian chargé d’affaires placed a wreath on Crabitès' grave on behalf of King Farouk I. I suspected the family could not have lost Crabitès' magistrate's badge and have shown several family members images of what it looks like, but it has taken 3 years for someone to have the time to start digging through old trunks and boxes over the last year. I am happy to finally be able to include below some photographs of Judge Crabitès' judicial badge. I do apologize for problems with the quality of the photos below. My struggles with the borrowed camera and the unfamiliar setting are probably just my ham-handedness, although I took these before the festivities got too deep into the Thanksgiving offerings of ales, wines, bourbon, and liqueurs...These images can be zoomed to see greater detail. 

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The cased judicial badge of Pierre Crabitès. The inscription on the interior lid identifies the manufacturer as Rudolf Stobbe of Alexandria. 

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Obverse of the Pierre Crabitès judicial badge. The badge measures 114 mm tall X 85 mm wide. It is silver, with gold gilt on the rayed basal embellishment, on the star and its rays above the central tablet with the inscription, on the central tablet, and probably on the tasseled cords tying the upper corners of the mantle. The gilding on the tablet is quite worn from 25 years of use. There appears to be no gilding of the fringe of the mantle as on other examples (see descriptions and references to other images on this thread below). It is unclear whether there may be gold on the 2 tughs that cross behind the central tablet showing horsetails and the hand of justice on the tugh on the L and the crescent on the finial of the tugh on the R. I have only come across a couple additional examples of the gold & silver District Courts' badges. As noted in this thread, the silver magistrates' badges more commonly appear on auction sites probably because not only were they used by the Parquet, but by a number of court officials such as registrars, clerks, and possibly some lawyers. Interestingly, there appears to be a fair bit of variation in which portions of the District Courts' badges were ornamented in gold across the few images I can find showing them. There seems to be differences even between examples of District Court badges made by the same manufacturer. I wonder if the silver badges were the basic construction for most of these, and gilding of the District Courts' badges (and the Appeals Court?) might have been done as needed from the available silver badge stock, resulting in situational difference in which portions of the badge design were gilt?  I have illustrated the obverse of one other gold & silver District Court Badge made by Stobbe in 2 previous posts on this thread (in the 1st photo of my initial post of 17 November, 2016; and the 1st photo of my post of 4 April, 2017 [correcting an erroneous attribution of the badge to the Appeals Court], all are high-resolution images). That badge is from a December 2014 auction listing by Baldwin's (Lot 844), archived on the Saleroom.com website  That Stobbe-made badge shows gilding of the princely crown, the exterior of the mantle (including the tasseled cords tying the upper corners of the mantle and the inferior fringe of the mantle), the star above the central tablet (but not the rays around it), but no gilding is present on the central tablet with its enamel inscription. The District Court badge attributed to Joseph Timmermans from a 2014 auction by Jean Elsen & see Fils, archived on the acsearch.info website is illustrated in the 1st photo (high resolution) of my post of 31 October, 2018 on this thread, and in the 10th photo on the post of 18 April, 2019 discussing Timmerman's career. This badge was made by Froment-Meurice and shows gold ornamentation of the rayed embellishment of the badge, the princely crown, the star above the central tablet, the portion representing the exterior of the mantle where it has the embroidery design and fringe sections of the mantle margins, the tasseled cords at the upper corners of the mantle, the horsetails & finials of the 2 tughs at each upper corner of the central tablet (and probably their lower, proximal ends), the laurel branch on the R of the central tablet and the oak branch on the L of the tablet, and the central medallion of the Order of Medjidie ornament at the center of the inferior portion of the badge. The Timmerman  badge shows the greatest amount of gold ornamentation of different elements of the badge design of any available photos of  District Court badges. I illustrated a badge from a Spink & Son auction in December 2017 (archived on the-salesroom.com website) in the photo (high resolution) on my post of 6 December, 2017 on this thread that appears may be a District Court badge as well. The manufacturer of this badge is not identified in the auction listing, although the undescribed  "pawnbroker's mark" stated to be on the reverse may actually be the maker's hallmark. As noted in my 6 December post, a staff member from medals division of Spink & Son could not confirm whether there was gold on parts of the the obverse design of this badge. It appears to have gold ornamentation of the rayed embellishment, the princely crown, the star above the central tablet and the rays around the star, the tasseled cords tying the upper corners of the mantle, the fringe at the margins of the mantle, probably on the horsetails and finials of the two tughs (as well as their proximal ends of the tughs), and probably at least part of the Order of Medjidie design at the inferior margin of the badge. I Illustrated a close-up of the tablet of this badge in the 6th photo of my post of 17 October, 2018 on this thread that shows details of the gilding of the star above the tablet and the rays surrounding it, possibly on the tasseled cord (although the portion visible appears quite worn), the horsetails, finials, and proximal shafts of the tughs, and the fringe of the mantle. Additionally, the painted portrait of a judge of the District Courts that Egyptian Zogist contributed to this thread in the 2nd photo of his post of 23 November, 2016 (and that I included as the 5th photo in my post of 1 April, 2019, with a probable identification of the sitter as likely the Swiss District Court Judge of Alexandria and Cairo, and later the president of the Cairo Court, Raoul Houriet) that shows gold ornamentation of parts of the badge. Although this is not a photograph, elements of this portrait are shown in realistic detail and may provide an accurate depiction of the gold and silver design scheme on this badge. The portrait shows gold ornamentation on the rayed embellishment, the princely crown, the star and rays above the central tablet, the central tablet with its inscription, the two tugs, the tasseled cord tying the corners of the mantle, the fringe of the mantle, and the entirely of eh Order of Medjidie at the inferior margin of the badge. The photographic portrait of Pierre Crabitès from 1911 that I posted as the 2nd photo in my post of 14 November, 2018 on this thread appears to show some of areas of his badge that may have been gilt: the rayed embellishment, the star above the tablet and rays emanating from it, the central tablet with the inscription. I am posting that portrait again below for comparison with the badge in the above photo. 

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Inscription on the reverse of the Crabitès judicial badge. No manufacturer's marks of Rudolf Stobbe are present on the reverse, and there are no hallmarks that could identify the Egyptian assay purity or the year of manufacture. There are no hallmarks on the tunic pin. The vanity inscription was done after receipt by Crabitès and reads: " PIERRE CRABITÈS, LE CAIRE, LE 19 JUIN 1911". The "Le Caire" identifies Crabitès assignment to the District Court of Cairo. "Le 19 juin 1911" appears to indicate the date of his assuming his judgeship. The Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926 volume identifies the date when he was named to the Cairo court as 8 June, 1911 in the Appendix I listing on page xi of judges on the "Tribunaux de Première Instance" from the United States. Apparently, there was conflict between the US government and Great Britain over Crabitès nomination to the Egyptian government that was only resolved probably on the 19 June, 1911 date (US State Department Document 883.05/49: From Peter A. Jay, Agent and Consul-General in Cairo, to the Secretary of State in Washington D.C. 20 June 1911).

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Portrait of Judge Pierre Crabitès in 1911, at the age of 34, after being appointed to the District Court of Cairo where he served until retiring in 1936. It shows him wearing the silver and gold badge shown above on the red sash over the black stambouline coat, and with his maroon  tarbush (I previously included this portrait as the 2nd photo in my post of 14 November, 2018 on this thread) . 

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Inscription on the inside of the upper lid of the case for the Crabitès badge identifying Rudolf Stobbe as the manufacturer of this badge from 1911. The inscription reads: "R. STOBBE, Joaillier, ALEXANDRIE, L'EGYPTE" ("Joaillier"="jewelery" in English). The lining of the upper lid is a cream-colored satin. This is the only image I have found thus far of the Stobbe name printed inside a case for a judicial badge. Note the French spelling of "Alexandrie", in contrast with at least 2 examples of badges with Stobbe hallmarks on the reverse that use the English spelling of "Alexandria", shown in the 1st two photos of my post of 24 September, 2019 on this thread. .

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Exterior of the uppper lid of the case for the Crabitès judicial badge. The case is wood with the satin lining of the inner lid and a red velvet lining of the medal bed. The case's outer dimensions are 153 mm long x 112 mm wide x 31 mm deep. The upper lid and lower base are wrapped in a red paper covering with a plain, unembellished push release catch. The hinge (paper connecting the medal bed to the upper lid and covered with the satin lining of the upper lid) is broken on this case. 

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The red velvet-lined medal bed of the Stobbe case for the Crabitès judicial badge. The bed is slightly raised at the end nearest the upper case lid, elevating the superior portion the badge slightly as it rests on the bed. The cutout for the tunic pin is visible. This configuration appears very similar to the case interior illustrated in the 5th photo of my post of 1 December, 2018 on this thread, showing the medal bed without the badge for a Horovitz-made judicial badge (with a black exterior and cream colored satin upper lid and cream-colored velvet on the medal bed) from a January 2019 eBay auction. I also have illustrated cases for a gold Appeals Court badge (from a past Flickr posting, no longer online) by an unidentified manufacturer in the 4th image of my post of 24 March, 2017 on this thread (showing a red [velvet?] medal bed and possibly gold-yellow interior satin of the upper lid and of part of the lower case compartment for the medal bed, probably with a dark [black?] exterior); a case for a silver Froment-Meurice badge from an eBay auction (archived on the worthpoint.com website) attributed to the Greek Judge Apostolo N. Gennaropoulo (he may also have been a member of the Parquet, a registrar, or some other official?) in the 9th photo on that same post of 24 March, 2017 (showing a black exterior and maroon satin on the inner portion of the upper lid and a medal bed of maroon velvet); the case of a silver badge made by Froment-Meurice in the 5th photo of my post of 23 July, 2018 from a June 2018 eMedals auction; the case of a Froment-Meurice judicial badge from from a 2015 auction by Clark Auction Gallery in Larchmont, NY, USA (archived on the the LiveAuctioneers website) that I illustrated in my post of 22 January, 2019 on this thread that includes 2 photos of the probable owner (possibly a member of the Parquet or another court official, but probably not a judge) along with an unidentified "Egyptian medal (the case exterior for the magistrate's badge is dark blue and the interior satin of the upper lid and velvet of the medal bed are turquoise blue); and in the 3rd-to-last photo of my post of  28 February, 2019 on this thread showing a silver badge attributed to M. Laurencin & Cie. (whose exterior is black with gold embellishments along the margin at least of the upper lid, dark blue satin inside the upper lid, and a black [velvet?] medal bed).

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Underside of the case for the Crabitès badge. His surname is written on the paper covering, and 2 cloth tape pieces are pasted on the upper an lower margins of the case, both read "17". I do not know what this number refers to in relation to Crabitès appointment. 

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The Crabitès family member who found the badge, photos, and other documents also came across Judge Crabitès' gavel and sound block from his service on the Cairo District Court, illustrated above. I do not know what wood the gavel is made from, but the sound block is ebony. 

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Inscription on a piece of cloth tape affixed to the underside of the Crabitès ebony sound block. It reads: "1923, 440 VOLS". I am uncertain what the 440 "vols (?)" may refer to in this note. 1923 was eventful year in Cairo as the first full season of excavation of the tomb of Tutankhamen, which involved Crabitès in the following year (1924). Crabitès was one of the first persons to learn of the discovery of Tutankhamen's tomb by Howard Carter while he was breakfasting with General McEwing, who intercepted the first communication from Carter to his sponsor in Britain, Lord Carnarvon about the discovery. Crabitès presided over Howard Carter's suit against the Egyptian government (February-March 1924) over tourist visitation to the tomb, an acrimonious and very public feud fueled by British sentiments of autonomy about their actions in Egypt conflicting with nationalist feelings of the Egyptians seeing the conflict as an example of colonial overreach by the British excavators and press. 

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A photograph of Judge Pierre Crabitès at the age of 58 visiting his granddaughters in New Orleans, Louisiana in August, 1935 (the year before he retired from the District Court in Cairo). The girl on the left is my mother-in-law Petie and her late sister Frederica is on the right. Pierre Crabitès was affectionately known to these girls as "Abu" (part of a teknonym [kunya in Arabic] meaning "father of", so technically he should have been called "Abu Henry"; the women also referred to their grandmother Charlotte Crabitès throughout their lives with the equally incomplete kunya "Ummi", meaning "mother of"). This photo is in the family and a copy was in the photographic morgue of the New Orleans Times-Picayune, used in a couple of society page stories.  

Edited by Rusty Greaves
correcting spell check
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I have a few diverse contributions in this post, principally identifying some advertisements for manufacturers of the Mixed Courts' judicial badges. I want to begin with another portrait of Judge Pierre Crabitès during his tenure on the Cairo District Courts. I have finally come up with an additional mention of Laurencin & Cie. who is identified as the manufacturer of one judicial badge shown in a November 2012 auction by La Galerie Numismatique (Lot 323) that is archived on the sixbid.com website (I illustrated this badge in 3rd-to-last image in my post of 28 February, 2019 on this thread). I have found no other information about Laurencin other than this auction mention until I came across the advertising for a well known Cairo Jeweler, L. Kramer, identifying Laurencin & Cie. as an agent of his business. I do not know if this means that the Laurencin & Cie. badge identified in the 2012 La Galerie Numismatique auction may have been made by L. Kramer or by Laurencin. 

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A portrait of Judge Pierre Crabitès from 1930 or earlier used in a plate showing three American judges of the Egyptian Mixed Courts from:  Brinton, Jasper Yeates, 1930. The Mixed Courts of Egypt. Yale University Press, New Haven, opposite page 300.

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An advertisement for Rudolf Stobbe from The Sphinx Vol 13, No. 189, 20 January, 1906, (Societe Orientale de Publicite), page 33 (from the American University of Cairo digital Collections: http://digitalcollections.aucegypt.edu/cdm/ref/collection/sphinx/id/620/). Compare this advertisement with the 3 that I included as the 3rd, 4th, and 5th images of my post of 24 September, 2019 on this thread. 

large.415501652_LaurencinwKramercropped.jpg.543108b864698e82ce36f2fd65c785f8.jpgAdvertisement for the well-known Cairo jeweler L. Kramer that identifies Laurencin & Co. as an agent of this jeweler in Alexandria. Laurencin & Cie. is identified as having a shop on rue Chèrif Pacha, Alexandria, the same street where two other manufacturers of Mixed Court judicial badges had their shops (W. Horowitz and Zivy Frères & Cie.). L. Kramer is one of the most commonly identified jewelers of Cairo from advertising and guide book listings from the late 19th-early 20th century. This advertisement is from: The Sphinx, Vol 26, No. 422, 29 March, 1919, (Societe Orientale de Publicite), page 3 (from the American University of Cairo digital Collections: http://digitalcollections.aucegypt.edu/cdm/ref/collection/sphinx/id/3763/). I have found only one Mixed Court magistrate's badge that is identified as having been "made" by Laurencin & Cie., from a November 2012 auction by La Galerie Numismatique (Lot 323) that is archived on the sixbid.com website (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=515&category=11656&lot=539484). The auction listing identifies the cased badge as being in a case marked “M. Laurencin & Cie, Alexandrie, Egypte”. No photographs are included to determine whether other maker's marks are present of the reverse of the badge nor of the Laurencin & Cie. name in the case for this badge. I included the one photograph from this auction listing as the 3rd-to-last image in my post of 28 February, 2019 on this thread, in a discussion of hallmarks and the different manufacturers identified for these Mixed Court badges. 

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An advertisement for L. Kramer on the same page as the above advertisement for L. Kramer as a watchmaker, from The Sphinx, Vol 26, No. 422, 29 March, 1919, (Societe Orientale de Publicite), page 3 (from the American University of Cairo digital Collections: http://digitalcollections.aucegypt.edu/cdm/ref/collection/sphinx/id/3763/). As noted above, advertisements for the L. Kramer workshop are among the most commonly seen in a range of late 19th - early 20th century online documents about Egypt. It is unclear if Adolphe L. Kramer (see below) is another family member of the Maison Kramer business, but that is also a well recognized name in Cario and Palestine as a jewelry and watch business. In this advertisement, L. Kramer's business is identified in the Muski market region on the same street, el-Manakh Street, where the J. Lattes business was located at address of J. Lattes shop as "Sharia el-Manâkh 30" (see my post of 24 April, 2019 on the thread "Question about the Order of Ismail/Nishan al-Ismail" in the section here on "Middle East & Arab States").

Below are 7 advertisements for L. Kramer spanning 1898-1928. All are from the the www.925-1000.com website, in the the Middle East Trade section (http://www.925-1000.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=38&t=53896&p=170910&hilit=kramer)

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Advertisement for L. Kramer from 1898 with an address at Mousky and Shawadliyah Streets in Cairo. 

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Advertisement for L. Kramer from 1899.

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Advertisement for L. Kramer from 1904, giving the address as rue Mousky, Cairo.

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Advertisement for L. Kramer from 1918 with the shop identified in the Muski at the intersection of Mousky Street and El-Manakh Street, Cairo. 

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Advertisement for L. Kramer from 1923 with shops in Cario, Alexandria, Jerusalem, Jaffa, and Haifa. .

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Advertisement for L. Kramer from 1928 identifying shops in Cairo, Alexandria, Jaffe, Jerusalem, and Haifa.

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Advertisement for L. Kramer as a representative of the Parisian jeweler A. Marchak from 1928, located at 4 rue de la Paix 4 in Cairo with a shop in Alexandria as well.

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Example of an L. Kramer manufacturer's hallmark on a cigarette case with assay hallmarks that are not Egyptian (From: http://www.925-1000.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=38&t=53896&p=170910&hilit=kramer).

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Example of a silver Tavanne Swiss-made chronometric watch marked with the L. Kramer & Co. name as the distributor of this watch. This watch is identified as probably having been made between 1910-1919. It measures 44.45 mm wide and 7.84 mm thick (no height is provided). From a current eBay auction (https://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/Tavanns-chronometer-pocket-watch-L-kramer-co-silver-900-frame-as-coins-Rare/163908716525)

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Image of one of the L. Kramer shops in Cairo, identified as from 1901 on the www.925-1000.com website's Middle East Trade section. The source of the illustration is not identified. (http://925-1000.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=53896#p171422). 

Adolphe L. Kramer, who is identified in the 1943 edition of Le Mondain Egyptienne: The Egyptian Who's Who: L'Annuaire de l'Elite d'Egypte, F. E. Noury & Fils., Le Caire on page 165 as a jeweler located at 6 rue Malek el-Afdal, Zamalek, Cairo who started his business there in 1893, may be a successor to L. Kramer. Adolphe L. Kramer appears to have had several shop locations for selling watches and possibly jewelry other than the rue Malek el-Afdal location as well. Below are a series of 7 different advertisement designs that Adolphe L. Kramer used in the the 1939 edition of Le Mondain Egyptienne: The Egyptian Who's Who: L'Annuaire de l'Elite d'Egypte, F. E. Noury & Fils., Le Caire, as examples of his company's visibility. Kramer paid for the use of these designs multiple times throughout this particular edition, and was the only jeweler to advertise in this Who's Who publication. Only one other watchmaker (Tavannes) advertised in this 1939 social listing. The image of each advertisement shows the page number on which it first appears. All of these advertisements from the 1939 Who's Who identify the el-Mankh Street as Kramer's former business address, with his 1939 address as 41 rue Maleka Farida, Cario. Kramer did not place any advertisements in the 1941 or 1943 editions of Le Mondain Egyptienne, although he is listed in the 1939, 1941, and 1943 editions (complete pdfs of these are available online) and his photo is included in his listing in the 1941 edition. The Adolphe L. Kramer business is noted as formerly having been located on Manakh Street (see below), suggesting he is a successor to L. Kramer. Adolphe L. Kramer is identified in that 1943 Who's Who listing as having been awarded the British War medal and Victory medal with an MiD. 

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From page 35.

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From page 38.

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From page 44.

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From page 53. 

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From page 74.

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From page 79.

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From page 108.

 

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A Zivy Frères & Cie. advertisement for a manufacturer I have seen identified for only one example of the Mixed Courts' judges' badges. This advertisement is identified as from 1918.  See my discussion of this manufacturer in my post of 24 April, 2019 on this thread that a business card and an advertisement for Zivy Frères & Cie. in the 7th and 8th images in that post. Of interest, the above advertisement identifies the date of the establishment of Zivy Frères & Cie. as 1863, something not seen in the materials I posted on 24 April. The above advertisement is from the www.925-1000.com website, in the the Middle East Trade section (http://925-1000.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=53896#p171422).

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Another advertisement for Zivy Frères & Cie. from a 1911 guidebook to Alexandria: A Few Lines About Alexandria: Its Climate, Antiquities, Beauties and Monuments, 1911. Issued by the Municipality of Alexandria, Egypt. Whitehead, Morris & Co. Ltd. Alexandria. (http://www.cealex.org/sitecealex/diffusion/etud_anc_alex/LVR_000039_w.pdf

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Image of the Cesar Zivy jeweler's store from the www.925-1000.com website's Middle East Trade section (http://925-1000.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=53896#p171422). The illustration is identified as having been published in 1901, but the source of the photo is not given. Jules Cesar Zivy, who may be (or have been?) one of the Zivy brothers in the business identified as having made judicial badges for the magistrates and other functionaries of the Mixed Courts. Jules Cesar Zivy is credited with founding the Le Nil Masonic lodge in Alexandria. 

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large.1918911032_LIllustration1896Pg429cropped.jpg.4e6d7fcbba087c5ecf7edf864e9405d5.jpgThe above engraving of a session of the Mixed Courts is from: L’Illustration, No 2778, 23 May, 1896, pg 429.  The article describing this session of the Mixed Court of Cairo is on pg. 436 of this same volume of L’Illustration. The engraving is based on a drawing by P. D. Philippoteaux, whose signature (as M. Philippoteaux) appears in the lower left corner. Paul Dominique Philippoteaux (1846-1923) is best remembered for a cyclorama of the Battle of Gettysburg, depicting Pickett’s charge.  He also was the illustrator for engravings made for Jules Vernes’ 1877 Novel Off on a Comet(French title: Hector Servadac).The signature of the engraver, H. Thiriat, is in the lower right. Henri Amédée Thiriat (1843-1926) made press engravings for several venues, but spent most of his career working at L’Illustration. He experimented with a number of novel engraving techniques, produced one of the first uses of photography in a photo-engraving press image for L’Illustation in 1891, and adapted a similgravure technique on laminated wood. This version is scanned from an original library copy of this French news journal and can be zoomed for greater detail. Scans of this engraving are available online from agefotostock.com (https://www.agefotostock.com/age/en/Stock-Images/french-judge.html?query=french+judge&page=3) and gettyimages.com.

The event described in the story is that of complaints by several European powers, led by France, of using Egyptian funds to finance Britain’s invasion to retake the Sudan a decade after the humiliating loss to Mahdist forces in 1884-1885. Britain authorized an expedition to Dongola in March 1896, following the defeat of Italian forces in the Battle of Adwa. France, Italy, Germany all had interests in the area, and Britain sought the recapture of the Sudan to shore up the Anglo-Egyptian rule and thwart the political interests of other European powers. Some European Commissioners had objections to the ”casual” authorization of the use of 500,000 pounds from the Egyptian Debt Fund on March 26, 1896 to fund the expedition to Dongola. The L’Illustration article specifically mentions objections by the French and Russian Commissioners (although representing a minority of the Commissioners), who brought their complaint against the Egyptian government (run by the British) before the Mixed Courts. The article states that the decision about the case was scheduled to be given by 1 June, 1896. 

The Illustration of the court hearing of the case; “The trial brought by France against the Egyptian debt - a meeting of the Mixed Tribunal” is identified as taking place during one of the hearings on this case in the Mixed Court of Cairo. The description of the illustration on page 436 of this issue also states that the slogan “Justice is the basis of government” is inscribed on the distinctive insignia of the magistrates, and on the wall of the courtroom behind the judges. It describes their costume as the tarbush, stambouline, and a red silk sash, noting that the Advocate (lawyer) General and Registrar (greffier) wear a sash of red and green. It identifies the individuals in the engraving as: The President of the Cairo court, M. Pruniéres (France), is seated at the center of the 5 individuals at the horseshoe-shaped bench, with the judges to his right M. Stopelaar (Holland) and Ismail Bey Serrie (Egypt) and those to President Pruniéres' left are Judges M. de Sande e Castro (Portugal) and Aziz Bey Youssef (Egypt). At the far right of the engraving is Emin Bey Galli, deputy head of the prosecutor’s office, in the seat of the public prosecutor. The standing lawyer at the bar is M. Padoa wearing the lawyer’s berets (cap), rabat (scarf), robe, and épitoge. Seated to his right at the bar are M. de Rocca-Serra (French) wearing a tarbush; M Figari (Italy) the lawyer for the Egyptian government wearing a lawyers scarf and robe; and M. Carton de Wiart (Belgium) wearing a lawyer’s scarf and robe, a biretta rests on the bar between Carton de Wiart and Fiagari. Two lawyers shown to M. Padoa’s left (slightly behind him) are M. Babled (France) wearing a lawyer’s biretta, scarf and robe; M. Athanassaki (Greece), getting up or sitting down wearing a lawyer’s scarf and robe but no biretta, and M. Privat (France) wearing a lawyer’s biretta, scarf and robe. I have found photos and brief biographies for Casimir Pruniere and Albert Padoa Bey in the 50thanniversary of the Mixed courts publication (Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926), but not any information about the other individuals shown in this engraving. 

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A photo of Casimir Pruniéres in the section of the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume picturing former presidents of the Mixed District Court of Cairo (pg. 47), identifying his tenure as president during 1885-1906. Pruniéres also is mentioned in Khedive Abbas Hilmi II’s autobiography (1999. The Last Khedive of Egypt: Memoirs of Abbas Hilmi II. Translated and edited by Amira El-Azhary Sonbol, Ithaca Press, Reading) as a former professor of his and man he greatly respected for his dedication to Egypt.  

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Photo of Albert Padoa Bey from a section of the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume identifying his term as Bâtonnière (head) of lawyers on the Egyptian bar for the Mixed Courts during 1885-1887, page 208. 

 

 

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I recently came across several photographs of judges and lawyers in Egypt from a group of materials curated in the New York University Abu Dhabi, Akkasah, Center for Photography’s Yasser Alwan Collection (http://dlib.nyu.edu/findingaids/html/akkasah/alwan/scopecontent.html). These images were collected by Yasser Alwan, a photographer in Cairo currently teaching photography at the German University in Cairo. The collection includes more than 2,000 photos, principally from the 1920s1940s of a broad array of ethnic and cultural diversity of Egyptian society in the early–mid 20th century. Most of the images come from purchases at flea markets and bookshops in Cairo that Yasser Alwan began collecting in the 1990s. It is an eclectic collection of family photos, studio work, tourist postcards, etc. of a diversity of Egyptian ethnicities and social roles through out he country. Within this collection are several that show individuals in the legal profession. All of those I have reviewed are Egyptians, not foreign judges, lawyers, or court professionals. Of interest, is that some of these have dates.  Several show individuals who are judges wearing the bi-colored sashes (red and green) with the crescent and star emblems, such as several I have posted on this thread. I have generally been unable to identify dates for those images, and have been unsure what roles these legal professionals held. I have made several errors in how I interpreted what those individuals might represent within the Egyptian legal system. With the addition of some dates, I believe that I can more securely infer that individuals wearing this particular regalia are officials of the Indigenous Courts (sometimes called “Native Courts”), that adjudicated cases that were strictly between Egyptian citizens and not the Mixed Courts, that were designed to address a range of legal concerns with the many foreigners living and doing business in Egypt in the late 19th-mid 20thcentury. I have suggested that this need partly arose from the increase in foreign commerce associated with the downturn in the American cotton industry during the American Civil War, and continued to expand through patronage and support infrastructure (i.e., the Suez Canal) promoting continued foreign investment and business activity. I’m sure this is only a cartoon characterization of these complex events. However, while there is good literature about the costume of the judges and other officials of the Egyptian Mixed Courts, I have had a number of ongoing questions about that of the Indigenous Courts. These good-resolution images from the New York University Abu Dhabi, Akkasah, Center for Photography’s Yasser Alwan Collection (some with dates) help to move my understanding of these different judicial regalia just a little bit further. I have previously encountered several low-resolution photos of individuals identified as judges, officials in the prosecutors office (Parquet), and legal advisors, and some of those images have dates (for example a few Facebook posts), but have been unable to get more reliable information about those images. I am presenting these photos as they appear in the New York University Abu Dhabi, Akkasah, Center for Photography’s Yasser Alwan Collection online catalog, not in any chronological, geographic, or especially thematic groupings. The original images in the New York University Abu Dhabi, Akkasah, Center for Photography’s Yasser Alwan Collection online catalog can be zoomed for much greater detail than the versions I was able to download here. All of the photos below are accessed using the following catalog link for Series II: Egypt 1895-1971: (http://dlib.nyu.edu/findingaids/html/akkasah/alwan/dscref179.html). I then have some lower resolution images from a Facebook posting about Egyptian legal history, that provide additional dated images of Indigenous Court officials in their regalia. Finally, I want to try and correct some of the erroneous information I have posted here about other photos I have found of individuals in wearing similar insignia, before I figured some of this out a bit better.

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An undated image of a seated man wearing a bi-colored sash (red and green) with one of the Mixed Courts badges (probably silver). He also wears a 5th Class Knight Order of the Nile badge pinned to a western-style dinner jacket (tailcoat?) with white tie and a white vest (rather than the Egyptian stambouline), and a tarbush. This emphasis on western dress (other than the tabush) is seen worn in all of the photos I am posting here abut the Indigenous Court. While the stamboulin appears to have been intentionally selected or the Mixed Courts to emphasize the Egyptian nature of these Courts that included so many foreign personnel, the Indigenous Court emphasized Egypt's judiciary wearing more European style of dress. (AD-MC-002_ref104, Box 1 Folder 10). The catalog description states “An Egyptian official wearing a sash and medals. 13.6 x 8.5 cm, Unknown (Photographer)”. Below is a version of this same photo that I have enlarged and cropped.  

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Cropped higher resolution version of the same image above. (AD-MC-002_ref104, Box 1 Folder 10).

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The above undated photo shows an Egyptian man wearing a lawyer’s robe (or academic robe) with silk borders on the sleeves and a silk (?) lining visible at the collar, tarbush, and the academic épitoge. He wears a crescent pin and 3 silver star pins, as seen on several images I have posted on this thread, but they are attached to the épitoge, not a sash as most of those images I’ve previously posted show. I am now convinced that the crescent and star(s) are the regalia of offcials in the Indigenous Courts. There is a very strong resemblance between this man and the previous photo (as an older man?), that may suggest this a studio portrait following his graduation from university or earlier practice as a lawyer in the Indigenous Courts before being raised to service in the Mixed Tribunals. (AD-MC-002_ref378, Box 2 Folder 13). This image is identified in the catalog as: “A man in a robe, tarbouche and sash with a crescent moon and three stars. 13.5 x 8.6 cm. London Studio, Cairo (Egypt).”

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A photograph date 31 October, 1941 of a man wearing a single colored (red?) sash with the decorative knot as worn by judges and some officials in the Mixed Courts with gold metallic fringe. He has a crescent and single star pins attached to his sash, indicting service in the Indigenous Courts. He is wearing the tarbush and a western (not stambouline) style coat. this image shows fairly well the same decorative knot and the gold metallic fringe of the sash as those of the Mixed Courts(AD-MC-002-ref407, Box 2 Folder 15). The catalog description states: “A man wearing a sash resting on a tall side table. 13.5 x 8.4 cm. K. Jacob, Egypt (Photographer )”.

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A photo dated 1 January, 1930 of a young lawyer of the Indigenous Courts wearing a legal or academic robe (with silk margins of the sleeves). He wears the épitoge with a crescent pin and 3 star pins, and tarbush. (AD-MC-002-ref1203, Box 6 Folder 11). The catalog description reads: “A young lawyer, wearing a robe and a sash”, 31.8 cm X 22.0 cm, Mitry’s Studio. Cairo.” The studio name is embossed on the mat frame of the photo (not shown in this cropped version), the handwritten name appears to be “H [L or S?] Fariq (?)” along with the date.  

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An undated photo of officials from one of the Indigenous Courts, probably in Mansourah. I cannot tell if they would be judges or other court functionaries. In the back row, the 3 men on the left are probably guards and the other two men are dressed anomalously (the man on the far right has no tie and a more traditional rather than western-form of shirt). Almost all of these med wear bi-colored sashes (green and red) except for the men 2nd and 3rd from the left in the 1strow; and those 2nd and 3rd from the right in the 1st row (whose sashes are likely red). The man 5thfrom the right might have single colored sash (lighter color, green?), and the man 3rdfrom the left in the 2nd row may have a monochrome sash (it appears lighter and may be green?). All of the men wear a crescent and 1 star on their sashes, except the man seated in the middle of the 1st row. Above the crescent on his bicolored sash is a single larger star (same size as worn by the others) surmounted by 2 smaller stars and 2 small stars also are pinned below the crescent, making 5 stars. While all wear tarbush, none are wearing the stambouline high-collared coat, but have western style coats. (AD-MC-002-ref1299, Box 7 Folder 10). The catalog description reads: “A group of men in suits and tarbushes with sashes with the crescent and star emblem (linked ref1168 and ref1169). 41.1 x 44.5 cm. Photo Gabriel, Mansourah (Egypt)”. 

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Undated photo (except as 1923-1952) of men in front of the Supreme Court in Cairo wearing monochrome sashes, all with tarbush, and all wearing uniformly identical western-style coats. The sash hues looks lighter-colored, suggesting it is green, which would indicate these men are judges of the Indigenous Appeals Court, or the Court of Cassation (instituted in 1930). The gold metallic fringe of some of the ends of the sash can be seen on a few of the men in the front row. There might be a few men with darker colored sashes (1st man on the left in the front row; 1st man on the left in the 2nd row; and 1st man on the right in the front row. In the original online image in the catalog that is much higher resolution it appears that all of the men (except the man 8thfrom the right or 9thfrom the left of the first row) wear a crescent pin with 3 star pins. The pins worn by the man in the centre of the front row are arranged with: above his crescent are two stars just above the horns of the crescent; and above that are 4 stars arranged in a diamond pattern; below the crescent are 2 stars oriented in line with the 2 above the horns of the crescent; and a single star is pinned below those stars centered between them; for a total of 9 stars. This man is either the President of the Appeals Court, or the Prosecutor General. All the men are wearing western style coats, not stambouline. (AD-MC-002-ref1301, Box 7 Folder 10). The catalog description reads: “A group of men in sashes with a crescent moon on them, in front of the Supreme Court, Cairo, Egypt. 29.5 x 34.8 cm, Unknown (Photographer)”. 

The following images are from Facebook site dedicated to some information about the history of Egypt’s legal systems. It appears to focus on the Indigenous Courts and does not present information about the Mixed Courts. (History of Egyptian Judicial system -تاريخالقضاءالمصري). Several of the images are identified as part of the Indigenous (or “Native”) Courts. All of them are moderate to low-resolution with minimally greater detail available by zooming them. 

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Moderate-resolution photo of the legal advisors for the Indigenous Court of Appeals in Cairo in 1895. The 50th Anniversary Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume I have used for information about the Mixed Courts (Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926) uses this term (Conseillers) to refer to legal advisors of the court, not judges of those courts, although many of the legal advisors have been judges or later served as such. All of the men wear monochrome (green) pleated sashes, the stambouline, and tarbush. All wear a crescent and single star pin, except the man seated in the middle of the front row of men in chairs. His sash appears to exhibit a single large star centered above the crescent (same size as those worn by the other men) surmounted by 3 smaller star pins, and having 3 small stars pinned below the crescent for a total of 7 stars. This individual may be the President of the Appeals Court, or some other head of the legal advisors to the Appeals Court. (From: https://www.facebook.com/292684487584798/photos/pb.292684487584798.-2207520000.1550685816./292919867561260/?type=3&theater)

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A moderate-resolution photo of the legal advisors (Conseillers) to the Indigenous Appeals Court in Cairo from 1909. Except for the 2 men in military uniform at the far right and left of the 3rd row (guards?), all of the officials pictured wear a monochrome pleated sash (green), tarbush, and western-style jackets. All of their sashes include the crescent and a single star. The building behind the group is the old home of the Appeals Court. (From:https://www.facebook.com/292684487584798/photos/pb.292684487584798.-2207520000.1550685816./961717970681443/?type=3&theater)

 

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Low-resolution image of the Judges of the Cairo Indigenous Court of the First Instance, 31 December, 1933. Again, all of the men wear tarbush and western-style jackets. All of their sashes appear to be monochrome (red?) in this low-resolution image. The gold metallic fringe of the sash worn by the judge on the far right in the 2nd row can be distinguished. It is difficult to be certain, but all the insignia on the sashes appear to be crescents with a single star, it is not apparent whether any of the men have more than one star. (From: https://www.facebook.com/292684487584798/photos/a.292686157584631/292686144251299/?type=1&theater)

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Portrait of the Parquet (the prosecutor’s office) of the Indigenous Court from 1926, with low-resolution. The Parquet members all wear tarbush, the same style western jackets, white ties, and white waistcoats. Except for the man 5th from the right in the 2nd row (with no sash), they all are wearing bicolored sashes (red and green). The sash of the man at the far left does not show the 2 colors well, but it is most probably also a red and green sash. The poor resolution of the image makes it difficult to identify the variation in the sash insignia on the Parquet officials, but all of the men in the 2nd and 3rd rows appear to wear crescents with single stars, while all of the seated men in the first row, except that on the far right (?) appear to have multiple star pins, above and below their crescents. (From: https://www.facebook.com/292684487584798/photos/pb.292684487584798.-2207520000.1550685816./526293057557272/?type=3&theater)

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Low-resolution copy of a portrait of the Prosecutor General of the Indigenous Court Parquet and his chief staff officials in 1932. All wear tarbush and identical western style coats with white tie and white vests. Only the 2nd man from the left in the second row, wearing either a 4th or 5th Class Order of the Nile medal, is not wearing a sash. The man third from the right in the 1st row is wearing a monochrome sash (green or red?), but all of the other sashes are bicolored (red and green). Other than the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd seated men from the right in the first row, most appear to be wearing a single star wit their crescent pin. The first man on the right in the 1strow appears to have 3 stars above the crescent (1 near the middle of the upper portion of the crescent and two above that) and possibly 2 stars below the crescent (?). The 2nd official from the right in the 1strow wears 3 stars above the crescent (also oriented with one between the horns of the crescent and 2 stars above that spaced more laterally) and possibly 2 stars below the crescent). The man 3rdfrom the right, probably the Prosecutor General, has 3 smaller stars just within the superior portion of the crescent and another symbol above those stars. This is probably a royal crown pin, as seen below in the portrait of Adbel Aziz Fahmy. (From: https://www.facebook.com/292684487584798/photos/pb.292684487584798.-2207520000.1550685816./526293057557272/?type=3&theater)

 

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Low-resolution portrait of Prosecutor General and other chief officials of the Indigenous Courts’ Parquet, 31 December, 1933. This photo was taken on the same day and the same location as that above of the Indigenous Court of the First Instance. All are dressed in tarbush and western-style jackets. Most appear to be wearing bi-colored sashes (red and green) except the man seated 4th from the right in the front row with no sash. The man standing at the far right in 2nd row and the man standing 5thfrom the right (behind the man without a sash) may have monochrome sashes (?). It is hard to make out the number of stars pinned to their sashes, even the crescent is difficult to distinguish on some individuals. The seated man 2nd from the right in the front row has 3 stars above the crescent (a single star just above the center of the crescent and 2 stars superior to that more laterally placed). The seated man at the far right in the front row appears to have 3 stars similarly pinned above the crescent and probably 3 stars below the crescent. The man standing furthest right in the 2nd row appears to have three stars above the crescent, a single star above the open middle of the crescent and 2 stars superior to that more laterally pinned. He may also have 2 or 3 stars pinned below the crescent, 2 laterally-placed stars may be apparent below his crescent pin. The 2 colors of his sash The man standing 2nd from the left in the 2nd row appears to have 3 stars above the crescent, a single stars surmounted by 2 more laterally places stars. Note that all the men in this portrait are wearing medals. The resolution is too poor to hazard any guess about what they may be. (From: https://www.facebook.com/292684487584798/photos/pb.292684487584798.-2207520000.1550685816./526294207557157/?type=3&theater)

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An unspecified group of officials of the Indigenous Court in an undated low-resolution portrait. Most appear to be wearing monochrome sashes (red?) and only the man seated 3rd from the left in the 1st row, seated furthest right in the 1st row, the man on the far right in the 2nd row, and the 2 men standing 2nd and 3rd from the right in the 3rd row are wearing bicolored (red and green) sashes. The man standing furthest to the left in the third row does not have a sash. The back row appears to be guards or other non judicial staff. Except for these men in the back row, all of the others wear tarbush with western-style jackets, not stambouline. From what is visible in this image, all appear to be wearing a crescent and a just a single star. Text associated with this image discusses some aspects of variation in sash from and use prior to 1952, but mostly that after the establishment of the Republic. Of possible relevance to some of the pre-1952 Indigenous Court regalia, the Facebook text suggest that in modern usage, the head of the Judicial Council and the Prosecutor General wear 7 stars and in addition to the Eagle of Saladin  (instead of the monarchy era use of the crescent). (From: https://www.facebook.com/292684487584798/photos/a.939182679601639/945654215621152/?type=3&theater)

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Portrait of Abdel Aziz Fahmy, one of the founders of the Wafd party in one of the most common portraits of him. This shows him wearing a monochrome sash (green) sash showing a small portion of the crescent pin, one star, and a royal crown pin (as seen on the sash of the Prosecutor General seated in the middle of the 1st row in the above picture of the Parquet in 1932). Although an important early original proponent of a parliamentary system in Egypt, Abdel Aziz Fahmy Pasha was also a monarchist. He was made the President of the newly created Court of Cassation by King Fuad I, in 1930. I have not identified a date for this photo, but it is certainly after his appointment as President of the Court of Cassation (essentially a Supreme Court above the Indigenous Appeals Courts that could hear appeals from defendants or public prosecutors), likely 1931 or just a bit later. He was awarded the Grand Cordon of the Order of Ismail and the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Nile. The medal ribbon visible in this image however, is not either one of those awards. (From: https://www.facebook.com/292684487584798/photos/a.939182679601639/971223233064250/?type=3&theater)

 

I have previously made several mistakes about the crescent and star regalia as post-1949 court regalia, following the closure of the Mixed Courts on 14 October, 1949. I posted photos of some individuals with sashes and the crescent and star pins who are actually judges or officials with the Indigenous Courts, and some of these individuals may have been photographed during the pre-1949 period (as is the case for the 2 individuals in the dated photos from the New York University Abu Dhabi, Akkasah, Center for Photography’s Yasser Alwan Collection [the 4th and 5th photos in this post]) and the dated group portraits form the Facebook History of Egyptian Judicial system, shown above. I wish to include those images I previously made erroneous assessments of here in this post, so that the information is in one more correct placement. I apologize for duplicating these images. Except for those of lawyers, I do not know whether any of these individuals were judges or other officials in the Indigenous Courts. Among my continued questions about this regalia is what the insignia variation between the crescent and a single star (common), the crescent and 3 stars (common), and the crescent and multiple stars (7-9) may indicate about rank or roles of these different officials of the Indigenous Courts. 

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Undated portrait of an Indigenous Court official in a bicolored sash (red and green) with a crescent and single star. He wears a western-style jacket and white tie, and is not wearing his tarbush. This image shows particularly well the decorative knot and gold metallic fringe on his sash. The glossiness of the green portion of his sash suggests it is made of silk. I included this as the 4th photo in my post of 12 September, 2018, and mistakenly identified the man as a post-1949 judge. When I created that post, I had recently been researching a commemorative medal and stamp regarding the closing of the Mixed Courts in 1949. However, I had also encountered information about a British judge who had served both on the Mixed and Indigenous Courts. As noted in my post 19 April, 2019, Alexander Cockburn McBarnet was one of the few men I could identify with service on the Native Courts who also was associated with a silver Mixed Courts judicial badge of the Froment-Meurice design. I therefore assumed it likely that at least some officials of the Indigenous Courts wore this same regalia (and as there were many more members of the Indigenous Courts, it might also partly explain why so many more silver badges were appeared on auction sites than the gold and silver badges [of the Mixed District Courts] or the gold badges [of the Mixed Appeals Courts]. A November 2017 auction by Brightwell’s included a number of medals and clothing belonging to McBarnet, including a silver Froment-Meurice designed Mixed Court badge. The auction listing states that McBarnet had been appointed as a judge of the ‘Native” Appeals Court after serving as a District Judge in Asyut (probably also in the Indigenous Courts that had courts there which the Mixed Tribunals did not). Information from the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 50th anniversary volume about the Mixed Courts indicted that McBarnet was a legal advisor to the Indigenous Appeals Court and later served the Mixed Tribunals Appeals Court (also as legal advisor?). In hindsight, it is likely that McBarnet’s Froment-Meurice designed badge came from that court service, and not as a conseillerto the Indigenous courts. Only later, with my stumbling on additional photographic material of a range of officials other than judges of the Mixed Courts also wearing the Fromenet-Meurice designed  badges, did it become apparent that such badges were more common than just the numbers of the judiciary of the Mixed Tribunals. That is when I started t realize that the crescent and star insignia likely designated officials in the separate Indigenous judiciary, but not before I had muddied the water here on GMIC. For that reason, I wish to try and correct some of my erroneous statements, although there is still a great deal about the Indigenous Courts and its costume variation that is opaque to me. The above image comes from a former eBay auction. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-A-small-judge-wearing-a-scarf/312191646480?hash=item48b0127b10:g:UMcAAOSw0S9bThIn)

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Undated portait of another official of the Indigenous Courts with a bicolored sash (red and green) and a single crescent and star pin. The western jacket (and its lapel configuration), white tie, and a white waistcoat is identicla ot the standardized dress of the men shown in the Facebook image illustrated above of the Indigenous Court Parquet form 1926, who also wear a bicolred sash and the majority have a crescent and single star as well. I previously posted this as the 5th photo in my post of 12 September, 2018. Again, I mistakenly identified him as a post-1949 judge, although I have no way of knowing when this images dates to. This studio portrait was made by Photo Varjadedian, Zagazig. From a past eBay auction (https://www.ebay.com/itm/Old-Armenian-photographer-in-Egypt-Judge-with-the-scarf-PHOTO-VARIJABEDIAN/273203620917?hash=item3f9c346c35:g:zm0AAOSwf95a80zw). 

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A dated portrait of a man identified as a policeman, Ali Arafa of Port Said, wearing a bicolored sash (hand-tinted in green and red) with a crescent and single star. His wearing a white uniform surprises me, especially given that almost every photo of individuals of the Indigenous Court wear civilian westernized dress. There is a strong probability that the subject chose to be depicted this way as a vanity combination of 2 roles he held, rather than it representing an accepted combination of the court regalia with his police uniform. The date written on the lower right of the photo, “١٩٢٠”=1920. I previously posted this image as the 1st photo of my 6 November, 2018 post on this thread. From a past eBay auction, of a 23 x 188 cm. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-POLICE-OFFICER-Judge-HAND-COLOR-ALI-ARAFA-PORT-SAID-/273502359767?_trksid=p2385738.m4383.l4275.c10)

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Undated portrait of an Indigenous Court official in a bicolored sash (red and green) with crescent and 3 stars. He wears a western-style jacket. I previously posted this as the 1st photo, 1 November 2018, again spuriously identifying him as a post-1949 judge. The photo shows well the decorative knot and gold metallic fringe of the sash. This 14 X 9 cm original print was made by Studio Vart, in Cairo. From a past eBay auction (https://www.ebay.com/itm/Old-Armenian-photographer-in-Egypt-Judge-With-a-medal-and-scarf-STUDIO-VART/273500934866). 

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Undated portrait of a young Indigenous Court official wearing a bicolored (red and green), pleated sash with a crescent and 3 stars. He wears a western-style jacket and his tarbush is resting on the prop table with book, common in many of these studio images of court officials. I previously posted this as the 2nd photo of 1 Novmber, 2018 post. 23 x 16 cm original print, Studio Abdel. This comes from a from a past eBay auction offering (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-A-young-judge-with-scarf-studio-adel/273502381828)

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Undated studio portrait of a man wearing tarbush, western-style jacket, a monochrome pleated sash (green?) with a crescent and 7 stars. I previously included this illustration as the 3rd photo in my post of 28 April, 2018. This portrait comes from the Photo Ramses Studio, Cairo. This man is likely a high-ranked individual (president or Prosecutor General?) in either the Indigenous Appeals Court or possibly one of the Courts of the First Instance (in which case his sash would probably be red). (This image comes from a Piccssr link that no longer funcitons: http://picssr.com/photos/kelisli/interesting/page21?nsid=7892156@N08)

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An interesting undated portrait of an Egyptian Indigenous Court official in traditional clothes and a uniquely configured sash. The tricolored sash (probably with red border stripes and a green central stripe) is not seen on any other photos of court officials I have encountered. A Pinterest image of a sash with 3 stripes (red borders and a green central stripe) appears in a Turkish Pinterest site with a set of crescent and 3 star pins (shown below) that I also have previously illustrated on this thread. The 9 star pins arrangement with the crescent also is quite unusual. Only the individual described in the undated group photo in front of the Supreme Court building in Cairo photo (shown above) from the Yasser Alwan Collection exhibits this many star pins. The nine star pins on that man’s sash have a different configuration: first, all the star pins on his sash are the same size (“small”); above his crescent are two stars just above the horns of the crescent; and above that are 4 stars arranged in a diamond pattern; below the crescent are 2 stars oriented in line with the 2 above the horns of the crescent; and a single star is pinned below those stars centered between them. I previously included this as the 6th photo in my post of 12 September, 2018. I also posted this portrait as the 1st photo in my post of 7 November, 2018 along with 2 additional photos of this same man. All photos of this man show him in a turban rather than a tarbush, and wearing the traditional gallebaya. The appearance of this high official in traditional, but unofficial, dress in this portrait, that in his large and well-appointed office, and the 3rd photo of him dressed equivalently seems surprising. Again, the emphasis on court officials wearing tarbush with a European-syle jacket (compared with the intentional shift in the Mixed Courts toward having foreign and Egyptian judges all wear he stamboulin and tarbush to emphasize the Egyptian nature of this International Tribunal) contrasts markedly with the 3 photos of this man. I don’t know if there is a chance he may represent a cleric, or just a very traditional (and influential) individual? It is unfortunate that no dates are identified for these three portrait photos. While the Indigenous Courts developed from Egyptian Islamic Courts, it is apparent that by the early 20th century the institution had a pronounced stamp of westernized modernity, and conformity to that “progressive” norm. I previously mistakenly identified this individual as a post-1949 judge, again assuming that the crescent and star configuration replaced the possible use of badges similar to those worn by judges and other officials of the Mixed Courts. This image comes from a past eBay auction of an original 14 x 9 cm matted print (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-Judge-with-the-scarf/273147885787?hash=item3f98e1f8db:g:5lkAAOSw13ZayXDv). 

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A color image of a used tricolor sash similar to that worn by the man in the above portrait. This Pinterest image includes regalia of both the Mixed Courts (the silver Froment-Meurice sash badge) and the Indigenous Courts (the silver crescent and 3 star pins). The text associated with this Pinterest post does not provide any useful information. I initially thought perhaps the association of this sash with both sets of regalia implied use by an Egyptian functionary of the Mixed Courts who continued to work for the courts and retired his Mixed Courts badge for the Indigenous Courts insignia after the dissolution of the Mixed Courts in October of 1949. That could be possible, but, if they did belong to one individual, it might equally well indicate an Indigenous Court functionary transferred to serve on the Mixed Courts. Such a scenario is suggested by the 1st and 3rd photos in this post (if they do represent the same man) that might represent a young lawyer beginning his career in the Indigenous Courts and then being re-assigned to the Mixed Courts. As noted, the British judge to the Indigenous Courts, Alexander Cockburn McBarnet, whose auction materials included a Mixed Courts silver Froment-Meurice designed badge, but also should have employed the crescent and star(s) devices during his roles on the Indigenous Courts, also served both the Indigenous and Mixed Courts during his career in Egypt. I previously posted this as the 1st photo in my post of 28 April, 2018. (From: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/475340935664787041/)

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Undated portrait of the same Indigenous Court official in a sumptuously appointed office. I previously included this as the 2nd photo in my post of 7 November, 2018. From a past eBay auction of a 14 x 9 cm original print (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-Judge-in-his-office/273147887546?hash=item3f98e1ffba:g:k~oAAOSwlJlayXGK:rk:30:pf:0).

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The same Indigenous Court official standing on a boardwalk in traditional garb with no judicial regalia in an undated portrait. I previously included this as the 2nd photo in my post of 7 November, 2018. This is from a past eBay auction listing of a 14 x 9 cm original print that was still being offered into at least the end of 2019 (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-Judge-standing-on-the-bridge/312105737674?hash=item48aaf39dca:g:OPsAAOSwH1VayXIX:rk:31:pf:0).

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I previously posted the above undated, hand-tinted image of a female Egyptian lawyer working on the Indigenous Courts wearing a lawyers’ or academic robe with an épitoge that has a crescent pin with a single superior star pin. This was the last photo in my post of 22 August, 2019, that principally addressed the jurist and expressionist painter Mahmoud Saïd. I have not been able to identify this woman. Again I mistakenly thought she might represent a post-1949 lawyer. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-CUTE-LAWYER-WITH-THE-SCARF-HAND-COLORED-/273361632578?nma=true&si=mpDX%2FvmJ3j93DINpvfI%2FS1m09vQ%3D&orig_cvip=true&nordt=true&rt=nc&_trksid=p2047675.l2557)

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Above and below are  a couple images of the first woman lawyer in modern Egypt, Naima el-Ayoubi. She was among the first five women who attended King Fuad I University in 1929. Those first women women law students were: Sahir al-Qalamawi, Naima el-Ayoubi, Fatma Salem, Zahira Abdel Aziz and Fatma Fahmy. They graduated in 1932 and Naima el-Ayoubi was admitted to the bar in 1933.  In this image she is wearing a lawyer’s robe, rabat (scarf), and an épitoge adorned with a crescent and 3 stars. (From: https://www.facebook.com/292684487584798/photos/a.939182679601639/954572224729351/?type=3&theater)

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Naima el-Ayoubi on the cover of ““Al Aroussa” Magazine in 1933. (From: Women of Egypt Maghttps://womenofegyptmag.com/2018/10/18/egyptian-women-in-the-workforce-then-and-now/)

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Undated image of a Republic period judge showing the monochrome (green) pleated sash with the insignia of the Eagle of Saladin (replacing the Ottoman crescent) and 3 star pins of the Highest Court.The stars are placed in a different arrangement than in the recent photo below. I previously posted this as the 3rd photo of my post of 12 September, 2018. From past eBay auction (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-Judge-with-the-scarf/273416587171?hash=item3fa8e607a3:g:dKkAAOSwK6NbebRb)

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Modern Egyptian judges of the Supreme Judicial Council in front ( with green sashes) and judges of Lower Courts (2 men with red sashes are visible behind the front group of judges). This shows the pleated sash of the Supreme Judicial Council (similar in style to those of the Appeals Courts of both the past Mixed and Indigenous Courts), the probably unpleated red sash of the lower courts, and a consistent placement of the gold Eagle of Saladin pin with 3 gold stars superior to the eagle. This is a photo taken of Egyptian judges during protests, March 4th 2006. I previously posted his image as the 4th photo of my post of 28 April, 2018 on this thread. (From: http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger/3388/941/1600/IMG_2412.jpg)

 

Edited by Rusty Greaves
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Rusty, As always your attention to detail is amazing - you should use your work to get a PhD on this topic. One small addition - from the picture of the shop front of L Kramer & Co., the Arabic gives his first name as Leon. Regards, Owain

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I recently came across the image below of an individual wearing a bi-colored court sash with the crescent and single star pin of the Indigenous Court. This particular portrait is interesting as it combines what appears to be an Egyptian Royal Guard uniform with  the Indigenous Court insignia of sash and crescent & star. In my discussion of the 1920 portrait image I re-posted recently as the 18th photo of my post of 6 April, 2020, I felt that this combination of sash, crescent and star with was and uniform likely a studio vanity shot, and the Court regalia would probably not have been combined with the guard’s uniform. That portrait and the one below may suggest that some guards associated with the Indigenous Courts may also have worn the sash, crescent, and star as part of their official costume. In reviewing the few photos showing the guards of the Mixed Courts and the Indigenous Courts, I have found some interesting variations that suggest most of the guards associated with the courts did not wear such regalia. I do not yet know why the individual shown below (and in the 18th photo of my post of 6 April, 2020 in a different style of military uniform) would have combined wearing the sash with Ottoman emblems with the plastron fronted uniform of the Royal Guard.

I know very little about Royal Guard uniforms. I know that Egyptian Zogist does have such an interest, and several GMIC contributors added images to his thread “Kingdom of Egypt (1922-1953)” started on 30 October, 2015 here in the Middle East & Arab States section. There are a few images of Royal Guards that exhibit the same form of sleeve decoration as seen on the uniform of the individual in the portrait shown below combining this uniform with the court sash a with crescent & star insignia. There is some variation on the number lines of metallic thread (gold?) decoration of the lower sleeve in some photographs. I wonder if someone here on GMIC can clarify the different distinctions in these uniforms (an the proper terminologies than how I will mangle them in my descriptions below)? ChrisW contributed a good portrait of a Royal Guard with this same form of sleeve decoration on a differently configured uniform that has 2 lines of metallic thread decorations in his post of 13 January, 2016 on the “Kingdom of Egypt (1922-1953)” thread. The 1st4 photos that I posted in that thread on 13 September, 2018 show the same uniform on 3 individuals. The man in the center of that image has three sleeve stripes and each of the men flanking him have 2. The 5thand 6thphotos of that post show a group of Royal Guards in the front left foreground wearing this same uniform, with some additional variation in the form of the metallic thread sleeve decorations, visible only on 4 of the men in the front row. The sleeves of the man at the far right of the front row appear to show 2 lines of metallic thread, as does the uniform of the man at the far left of the front row as does the man on the far left. On both of these individuals, there also appears to be a darker accent line on the interior portion of the proximal inverted heart-shaped metallic thread ornamentation (executed in a single line of metallic thread) that is not present in the portrait on ChrisW’s post. The man second from the right has 2 lines of metallic thread and no darker accent to the interior of that most proximal heart-shaped element. The 2 men in the middle front row of my 13 September, 2018 post have the addition of 2 loops distal to a more ovate form to the most proximal sleeve ornamentation. The man in the center with the elegantly upturned moustaches has three lines of metallic thread embroidering the most distal sleeve decorations, the 2 loops and the proximal ovate element. The man 2ndfrom the left has 2 metallic lines (two even more elaborated forms of this form of sleeve decoration are shown in the 5thphoto of my post of 29 August, 2019 and in the photo of my 4 September, 2019 post on the thread “Question about the Order of Ismail/Nishan al-Ismail” that I stated on 17 November, 2017 in this Middle East & Arab States section). The sleeves of one man in a darker uniform whose cuffs are visible at the right of the 5th& 6thphotos posted on September 13, 2019 on the “Kingdom of Egypt (1922-1953)” thread (with other guards in the same darker uniform, as are some men behind the guards in the lower left in lighter colored dress) exhibit a single metallic thread line and the inverted heart-shaped proximal design element. This same form of uniform also is shown in the 1stphotograph of my post of 2 April 2019 in the thread “Question about the Order of Ismail/Nisha al-Ismail” that I stated on 17 November, 2017 in this Middle East & Arab States section on the man saluting Queen Farida on her visit to the National Library. 

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Portrait photo of an individual that combines a bi-colored sash, crescent and star pin of the either the Mixed International Courts or the Indigenous Egyptian Courts with a Royal Guard uniform and dress sword. The upper imageis the full photo with some of the matt and the 2nd is a cropped enlargement. From a current eBay auction (https://www.ebay.com/itm/Armenian-photographer-in-EGYPT-Officer-with-sword-and-scarf-PHOTO-NADIR-ALEX/313075403095?hash=item48e4bf8957:g:6E8AAOSwvNpetCiZ). This is a 23 x 19 cm matted print from the Studio Nadir of Alexandria. This photo, and the image I posted of the man with a white uniform and the bi-colored sash with crescent and single star pins are the only images I have seen that combine a military uniform with a bi-colored sash and the crescent and star insignia of the Indigenous Courts. 

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Cropped detail of the sword and uniform coat cuff decorations of the guard wearing the sash with the crescent and star pin shown in the above 2 photos. 

Although I have come across several photographs of the Mixed Courts and Indigenous Courts personnel that include uniformed guards apparently serving the court (seen in previous posts on this thread), none of those guards wear the judicial sash, crescent, and star. Several court guards are shown in some of the photos I have posted here that do not appear to be Royal Guard uniforms. However, there are 3, and possibly 4, photos that may show individuals attending the Courts who are wearing Royal Guard uniforms. 

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Portrait of a group greffiers of Mixed Court of Appeals from the 31 December, 1916 by Alban Studio in Alexandria showing an unnamed guard standing at the far right of the 2nd row with a sash that has a round device near his left should attached by a chain to a shield-shaped pin on his right breast. This photo can be enlarged for slightly more detail of the guard’s uniform. This photo is from a past eBay offering (https://www.ebay.com/itm/Armenian-photographer-in-Egypt-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-PHOTO-ALBAN-1916/273849768153?hash=item3fc2b7d8d9:g:d-UAAOSwCrpc3fMY). that also was associated with several other images that all feature Adib Maakad Bey (seated in the center of the 1st row of this photo). I posted this cropped image as the 6th photo in my post of 6 September 2019 here on this thread (cropped from the 4thphoto in that post, that includes the names of the court officials in this group portrait). Interestingly, the guard is wearing his uniform sash over his left shoulder, as can be seen opposite to the practice of all court officials as seen in the how Adib Maakad is wearing his sash. Possibly the same guard is shown at the far left in the 10th & 11th photos of that same post of 6 September showing greffiers of the Mixed Court of Appeals in January, 1920.

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Photo of the  Registry of Accounting of the Mixed Court of Appeals from January 1920 (https://www.ebay.com/itm/Armenian-photographer-in-Egypt-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-PHOTO-NADER-1920/312613214230?hash=item48c9331816:g:GTkAAOSwEeVc3fHF). I previously included this cropped image as the 11th photo of my post of 6 September, 2019 on this thread (cropped from the 10th image). The guard at the far left in the 2nd row wears a different uniform from the 1916 portrait that has no sash (and none of the other court officials are wearing their court sashes in this 1920 image either). This may also be a Royal Guard uniform and might be the same individual as the guard in the previous photograph. The distal portion of his sword is visible behind the chair where G. Nicadimis is seated in the 1st row (again featuring Adib Maakad in the center of the first row).

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The 2 unnamed guards in the above photo of the District Court of Mansourah in 1907 (on the far left and far right in the 2nd row) are probably wearing plastron fronted Royal Guard uniforms that are similar to that shown on the one guard in the Court of Appeals 1916 group portrait above. Both guards wear uniform sashes over their left shoulders and the guard on the right may has the same round device on his sash near his left shoulder and there is a shield-shaped emblem over his left breast as the guard in the Court of Appeals 1916 group portrait shown above. I previously posted this plate form the 50th anniversary volume as the 8th image in my post of 18 April, 2019. Photo from pg. 190 of the Les Jurisdictions Mixtes d’Égypte 1876-1926 volume. 

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Photo of the Indigenous Court of Appeals in 1909 showing 2 guards (at the far left and right in the 3rd row) who may also be wearing Royal Guard uniforms. These two guards wear plastron fronted uniforms with sashes over their left shoulders that also seem to bear the same round and shield shaped devices as seen on the 2 guards in the above photos of the Mixed District Court of Mansourah in 1907, and on the 1 guard in the above photo of the greffiers of Mixed Court of Appeals from the 31 December, 1916. I previously posted this as the 9th illustration of my post of April 6, 2020. (From: https://www.facebook.com/292684487584798/photos/pb.292684487584798.-2207520000.1550685816./961717970681443/?type=3&theater)

Edited by Rusty Greaves
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I recently encountered a high-resolution image of an unmarked Mixed Courts silver badge with a couple of unique design executions. This is the same badge as I illustrated as the 7th image of my post of 24 March, 2017. I did not attribute the source of that lower-resolution image at the time, but it was from an archived past eMedals auction listing, Item W0248. Other than the dimensions, (118 x 88 mm), there was no significant information in that eMedals listing (https://www.emedals.com/africa/egypt-judicial-badge-w0248). I did not notice the couple of relatively minor design differences in that image until finding this higher resolution photo. 

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High-resolution image of a Mixed Court silver judicial badge from an archived auction listing from the Bill and Angela Strong Medal Collection auctioned by Dix Noonan Webb on 18 May, 2011 (Lot 503; https://www.dnw.co.uk/auction-archive/lot-archive/lot.php?department=Medals&lot_uid=199538). This photo can be zoomed for additional detail of the design and execution of this badge. This 2011 listing also has no information beyond the dimensions, also given as 118 X 88 mm. There is no information about the manufacturer, and no photo of the reverse is provided. The past eMedals listing of this same badge does include 3 images of the reverse. No maker’s marks nor Egyptian (or other) silver hallmarks are present on the reverse of this badge. All aspects of the Dix Noonan Webb image of this badge are identical to the eMedals listing, including scratches on the central tablet with the enameled inscription. The workmanship of this badge is very good, and I initially thought it likely it was a Froment-Meurice manufactured badge (or possible Stobbe). However, a couple of distinctly different design elements are present that do not appear on any Froment-Meurice pieces where the manufacturer’s name is present on the reverse, where it is associated with a case labeled with the name of Froment-Meurice, or other badges that lack the Froment-Meurice maker’s mark (apparently not uncommon) but have reasonable probability to be the work of that atelier. In comparison with internet images of other Mixed Court badges, these anomalous design components also are not seen on any with secure attributions to other makers (Stobbe, Horovitz, Laurencin & Co., or Zivy Frère). I also have not seen any of these unique, though minor, design variations in any other internet images of Mixed Court badges without any makers’ attributions. 

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The most obvious design difference of this Dix Noonan Webb silver Mixed Courts badge is the presence of 2 small relief elements on the inferior margin of each of the crossed branches of oak (left) and laurel (right). This is shown above in the detail of the inferior portion of this badge. The portion of each branch just lateral of the loop binding them with the symbol of the Ottoman Order of Medjidie, just inside the 2 proximal ends of the staffs of the tughs emerging from the inferior margin of the central inscribed tablet are not present on any other examples I have seen of the Mixed Court badges of any court (gold for the Appeals Court; gold & silver for the District Courts; and silver for the Parquet that also were used by several different court officials who were not judges). As noted, the workmanship is excellent on this piece, and otherwise strongly resembles that of Froment-Meurice badges. It also resembles the craftsmanship of the Stobbe Mixed Court badges, which I find the 2ndmost carefully made of these regalia. However, it appear that the detail is more closely similar to Froment-Meurice than Stobbe pieces. I do not know whether this could be an unusual casting of the badge by Froment-Meurice, or the manufacture of another jeweler with equivalent skill and careful production. Another apparent design difference, although more subtle, appears to be slightly different folds in the corners of the mantle tied with the tasseled cords. The bunched corner of the right & left sides of the mantle both look more like the folds seen in the 2 Stobbe examples I have included below than the Froment-Meurice examples. The details of the tassels (this is especially apparent on the detail of the upper portion of the tassle above the fringe) more closely resemble the workmanship of Froment-Meurice than of Stobbe. Note that the position of the rays of the basal embellishment relative to the more central elements of the design can vary even within single manufacturers. This can be readily seen in comparing the position of longer, shorter, and more angled rays in relation to the tassels tying the corners of the mantles of several of the examples shown below in the  high-resolution photos of the Froment Meurice or Stobbe-made badges. The lozenges and dots on the headband of the crown are much thinner, smaller, and slightly more uneven than on the Froment-Meurice examples or the Stobbe pieces. This decorative headband border also is less regular than on the one Horovitz example I have encountered. Overall, the workmanship on most other elements, such as the leaves of the branches, the interior modeling of the fur of the mantle, and the ermine tails are very similar to the Froment-Meurice pieces. The fringe on the mantle is very lively, and appears identical in many aspects of the slightly irregular spacing of individual fringe elements, especially compared with the photo of the Heritage Auctions example. The Stobbe, examples are more even, lacking the feel of liveliness that the slight irregularities in the Froment-Meurice pieces show. The photo of the one Laurencin & Cie. example I have found may not be high enough resolution to show this, but it also appears quite even which does not convey the feeling of movement that the Froment-Meurice pieces do. As I noted in my post of24 April, 2019 on this thread, the Zivy Frère example exhibits the least-skilled workmanship of any example I have seen of these Mixed Court badges. 

These differences made me realize that while I did provide comparative images of makers’ marks on the reverse of some of these badges in my post of 28 February, 2019, I have not systematically illustrated most of the obverse designs for badges with secure attributions for comparative viewing. Below, I include the highest-resolution images of the obverse of badges with secure (or reasonably secure) attributions to these different manufacturers for comparison with the unattributed Dix Noonan Webb illustration above. I have grouped images of these other Mixed Court badges below by manufacturers for comparison of slight design differences and the craftsmanship of their execution. Please refer to the posts where I previously included some of these photos where I have discussed them for any additional information available about these particular Mixed Court badges. 

Émile Froment- Meurice, Paris: 

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Above is the Froment-Meurice manufactured District Court badge that is identified as having belonged to Joseph Timmermans. This photo can be zoomed for greater detail. I initially included this very high-resolution image as the 1st photo of my post of October 31, 2018. This photo comes from a Jean Elsen & ses Fils S.A. auction of 13 Sept, 2014 archived on acsearch.info (https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=3990624). Although there is no photo of the reverse of this badge, the workmanship is consistent with other Froment-Meurice pieces and the attirbuion to this maker in the auction description seems reliable. I also illustrated this badge as the 10th photo of my post of 18 April, 2019 discussing Joseph Timmemans career with the Mixed Courts. 

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Above is a very high-resolution excellent image of a silver Mixed Courts badge that was made by Froment-Meurice. This photo can be zoomed for good detail of the Maison Froment-Meurice design and workmanship. This illustration comes from a Heritage world Coin Auction of 15-16 January, 2019, Lot #6093, that is archived on the NumisBids, LLC. website (https://www.numisbids.com/n.php?p=lot&sid=2946&lot=36093). This photo can be zoomed for good detail of the Maison Froment-Meurice design and workmanship. The auction listing shows a photo of the reverse with the clear maker’s mark of Froment-Meurice, although the auction description incorrectly states it was made by Stobbe. I illustrated both the obverse and reverse photos of this badge in my post of 14 January, 2019 on this thread. I included an image of the reverse of this badge as the 8th photo in my post of 28 February, 2019 discussing Egyptian hallmarks and manufacturer’s hallmarks on the Mixed Courts’ badges. The auction listing shows a photo of the reverse with the clear maker’s mark of Froment-Meurice, although the auction description incorrectly states it was made by Stobbe. 

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The high-resolution image of the silver Mixed Courts badge attributed to Herbert A. Hills. I have illustrated this badge several times on this thread. Initially I included this image as the 1st illustration in my post of 24 March, 2017. I first illustrated the reverse with the note about it belonging to Judge Herbert Hills as the only photo in my post of 7 November 2017. In my post of 3 December, 2018 I used an enlarged & cropped portion of the inferior margin of the obverse of this badge as the 6th photo and the complete obverse view as the 8th image in a discussion of the iconography of the Mixed Courts badge.  I included this image and one of the reverse as the 1st and 2nd photos in my discussion of Herbert Hitless career on 18 April, 2019. I included an enlarged cropped detail of the inferior portion of this badge as the 3rd photo of my post of 24 April, 2019 for comparison with the design of the Zivy Frère example. This image comes from a Dreweatts Bloomsbury Auctions listing for a June 2015 auction, Lot 175 (http://www.dreweatts.com/auctions/lot-details/?saleId=13863&lotId=175), that is no longer available, but is archived on the acsearch.info weboste (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-gb/auction-catalogues/dreweatts/catalogue-id-drewea10199/lot-d2a1fe08-3bbf-4c29-a53d-a4aa00a27910).). The auction description only states that this badge was designed by Froment-Meurice. The handwritten note attached to the reverse covers any potential Froment-Meurice maker’s mark, but the workmanship makes that attribution most probable. This photo can be zoomed for additional design details.

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A high-resolution image of a Froment-Meurice manufactured silver Mixed Courts badge form a 19 June, 2019 auction by Lugdunum GmbH, Auction 16, Lot 288, that is archived on the CoinArchives.Com website (https://www.coinarchives.com/w/lotviewer.php?LotID=3972878&AucID=4100&Lot=288&Val=f97e5c722c28c73add7c029f374c845e). The reverse of this badge is marked with the Froment-Meurice diamond-shaped maker’s mark in addition to the name Froment-Meurice. I previously illustrated the obverse and reverse of this badge as the 1st and 2nd photos in my post of 14 August, 2019. This photo can be zoomed for additional design details.

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Another good resolution images of the obverse of Mixed Court badge that probably was made by Foment-Meurice. This badges is one I illustrated on 6 December, 2017 on this thread and comes from a Spink & Son auction of 4 December, 2017 that is archived on the saleroom.com website (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-us/auction-catalogues/spink/catalogue-id-srspi10156/lot-63685e70-7557-48b1-aabf-a83200b99d8c). This high-resolution image shows what appears to be a gold and silver District Court judge’s badge. The auction description does not identify the maker of this badge (it claims that a pawnbroker’s mark is present on the reverse). This photo can be zoomed for additional design details.

Rudolf Stobbe, Alexandria:

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A gold and silver District Court badge from the Mixed Courts of Egypt. This image has appeared on many internet sites, and I have included it in several postings on this thread discussing aspects of these  badges. This badge was made by Rudolf Stobbe, and the reverse shows the Stobbe manufactureers’ mark. One thing I have not previously noted about this badge is that the central tablet is either loose or has slipped out of position towards the left (note the gap between the rays form the star and the left superior lobe of the tablet to see the offset). This image comes from a Baldwin’s auction listing of 10 December, 2014 (Lot 844) that is archived on the saleroom.com website (A gold and silver District Court badge from the Mixed Courts of Egypt. This image has appeared on many internet sites, and I have included it in several postings on this thread discussing aspects of these  badges. This badge was made by Rudolf Stobbe, and the reverse shows the Stobbe manufacturers’ mark. One thing I have not previously noted about this badge is that the central tablet is either loose or has slipped out of position towards the left (note the gap between the rays form the star and the left superior lobe of the tablet to see the offset). This image comes from a Baldwin’s auction listing of 10 December, 2014 (Lot 844) that is archived on the saleroom.com website (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-gb/auction-catalogues/baldwins/catalogue-id-srbal10006/lot-895754ae-9b9f-4f06-9d11-a3fe00ab0fe1).). The listing includes a photo of the reverse with the Stobbe maker’s mark, and the description correctly identifies the maker as Stobbe. I have previously illustrated the obverse and reverse of this badge as the 1st photo in my initial post on this thread on 17 November, 2016 (without the source information). I included that same image as the 6th photo in my post of 24 March, 2017, incorrectly stating it was an Appeals Court badge. On 4 April, 2017, I included this photo again to correct that error, identifying it as a District Court judge’s badge.

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High-resolution image of a silver Mixed Courts badge made by Stobbe. This image comes from a 15 May, 2018 auction by Fritz Rudolf Künker Gmb & Co., 2018 auction, archived on acsearch.info webiste (https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=4974323).  I previously included the auction listing photo of the obverse and reverse of this badge as the 2nd photo, in my post of October 31, 2018 on this thread. I included an image of the reverse of this badge showing the Stobbe maker’s mark as the 16th photo of my post of 28 February, 2019 on this thread. I also included an enlarged and cropped version of the image of the Stobbe mark on the reverse of this badge as the 2nd photo in my post of 24 September, 2018.

Wolf Horovitz, Alexandria:

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I have only encountered 2 images of Horovitz-made Mixed Courts badges. The one of a gold Appeals Court badge (the only example I have found pictures of that is an Appeals Court gold badge) is too low a resolution for inclusion here to compare design differences with the DNW badge in the 1st photo of this post. The other silver Horovitz badge, shown above, is from a past eBay auction (https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=4974323) of a cased badge. I previously illustrated the obverse of this badge as the 1st photo in my post of 1 December, 2018. The reverse showing the Horovitz maker’s mark is shown in the 2nd and especially the enlarged and cropped 6th photo of that post, and in the 18th – 21st photos and the 23rd photo of my post of 28 February, 2019 on this thread. The 22nd photo in the post of 28 February, 2019 shows the 3 Egyptian hallmarks on the reverse of this piece, the 23rd photo also shows the 2 Egyptian hallmarks on the tunic pin of this badge, and the 24th picture illustrates the W. Horovitz name and address inside the upper case lid. My post of 1, December, 2018 also shows the badge in its case (3rd photo), the case lid with the W. Horovitz name (4th photo), the medal bed of the case (5th photo), and an enlarged and cropped view of the inscribed tablet as the 7th photo in that post. I noted in the 1 December, 2018 post that the Horovitz badge exhibits less detailed workmanship than the Froment-Meurice or Stobbe Mixed Court badges. This photo can be zoomed for additional design details.

M. Laurencin & Cie. Alexandria:

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The above low-resolution image is the only example I have encountered attributed to Laurencin & Cie. of Alexandria. This image comes from a November 2012 auction by La Galerie Numismatique (Lot 323), archived on the Sixbid.com website (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=515&category=11656&lot=539484). I included this image as the 3rd-to-last photo in my post of 28 February, 2019 on this thread. The attribution comes only from the auction description that the case is marked “M. Laurencin & Cie, Alexandrie, Egypte”, no image of the name Laurencin & Cie. on the case is shown, nor is there an image of the reverse of this badge. The name Laurencin & Cie. has only appeared in my research as an agent of the jeweler Leon Kramer of Cairo, as shown in the L. Kramer advertisement I included as the 3rdillustration in my post of 8 December, 2019. The lack of detail in this image makes it difficult to assess the workmanship of this example. 

Zivy Frère & Cie., Alexandria:

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Obverse of a silver badge made by Zivy Frère of Alexandria. This moderate-resolution image is the only example I have found pictures of by this jeweler. It comes from an auction by Heritage Auctions (Lot 74177) of 24 April, 2019 (https://fineart.ha.com/itm/silver-smalls/an-egyptian-silver-magistrate-s-badge-from-the-reign-of-abbas-ii-egypt-circa-1900marks-unidentified-cipher-zivy-fr/a/5403-74177.s), that also is archived on the liveauctioneers.com website (https://www.liveauctioneers.com/item/70835139_74177-an-egyptian-silver-magistrate-s-badge-from-the-r). I included this image of the obverse as the 1st photo in my post of 24 April, 2019 on this thread. That post also includes images of the maker’s mark on the reverse of the badge as the 4th - 6th photos. The 2nd photo of my 24 April, 2019 post also shows an enlarged and cropped image of the inferior position of the badge, detailing the lower craftsmanship in the execution of the mantle interior and ermine tails, as well as the leaves of the 2 crossed branches. I especially included that enlarged view to illustrate the unusual omission of the crescent and star design element above the Order of Medjidie symbol (I included an enlarged and cropped version of the Herbert Hills badge to illustrate this difference. That post discusses several other design aspects of this badge that I feel are less expertly crafted than the Mixed Courts badges by other manufacturers. 

Edited by Rusty Greaves
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Adding to the information on this thread about various manufacturers of the Mixed Courts badges, and some peripheral associations with these tribunals, I have found an example of a business card for the individual from the well-known Bichay family who designed and executed a 1949 medal issued to commemorate the closure of the Mixed Courts, Sadek Tefik Bichay. He designed and cast the King Farouk I medal issued on the date of the closure of the Mixed Courts, October 14, 1949. I have previously illustrated the silver and a bronze versions of these medals in my posts of 3 May, 2018. The reverse of the commemorative medal bears the signature initials “S.T.B.” that annab (daughter of Fahmy Tewfik Bichay) identified in her post of 3 June, 2018 on this thread as the initials of Sadek Tewfik Bichay, the brother of Fahmy Tewfik Bichay. She stated that her father did not produce any (or possibly only very few) coins, but that Sadek Tewfik Bichay did mint coins. In my posts of 17 October, 2018 on this thread I presented an image of the commemorative stamp issued on 14 October, 1949 to mark the closure of these International Tribunals (2nd photo). In that post, I identified the design on the reverse of this commemorative medal (that I illustrated as the 1st photo in that post of 17 October) as derived from the commemorative stamp. I also posted 2 different designs of first day cover envelopes issued to commemorate the closure of the Mixed Courts. On October 25, 2018 I illustrated 2 additional examples (one with a unique first day cover design stamped on the envelope) of first day cover envelopes for this event, and on 14 November, 2018 I illustrated another example of a different first day cover envelope design. 

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The silver version of the King Farouk I medal commemorating the closure of the Mixed Courts on 14 October, 1949. This image comes from an 18 May, 2018 action by Stephen Album Rare Coins archived on the icollector.com Online Collectibles Auctions website (http://www.icollector.com/EGYPT-Farouk-1936-1952-AR-medal-32-27g-1949-EF_i29825948) and on the sixbid.com website (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=4785&category=141394&lot=3944922). The obverse (L) is a portrait of King Farouk I. The Arabic inscription on the lower right underneath the bust of Farouk is that of Sadek Tewfik Bichay. The reverse design (R) is derived from the commemorative stamp issued on the that of the Mixed Courts closure. The initials "S.T.B." on the lower right margin is that of Sadek Tewfik Bichay. I previously included this illustration as the 1st image in my post of 3 May, 2018 and as the last image in my post of 28 February, 2018 on this thread. Both of those posts have some additional information about this medal. 

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Card of Sadek Tewfik Bichaï in an envelope (see below), from an eBay auction of May 2020 (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-Letter-Head-Card-Advertising-Tewfik-Bichai-Medals-Decorations-Badges-/274147344245). This illustration shows just the card with the English spelling of his surname as "BICHAÏ". It identifies his address as 2 rue Chérif Pacha, which is the same street where manufacturers of the Mixed Courts badges Rudolf Stobbe, Wolf Horovitz, Zivy Frére & Cie. and Laurencin & Cie. were located in Alexandria. 

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Image from the same eBay offering showing the Sadek Tewfik Bichaï card against the reverse of an envelope with a return address marking with the more common spelling of the last name “SADEK T. BICHAY”. 

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Front of the same envelope as shown in the previous photo from the same eBay listing. The eBay auction description identifies an approximate date of 1954 for this card. I cannot see any year date on the postmark on the envelope. However, this form of an agriculture design postal stamp was issued in a 2 mill version (printed in purple or brown), a 3 mill (printed in blue), and this 4 mill versions in green that all were issued on 23 January, 1953. 

Edited by Rusty Greaves
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