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'Yellow and White' metal


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Does anyone know what the 'Yellow and White' metals consisted of in the later Imperial Russian St. George's crosses and medals and whether it was consistent?


I have found some dictionary definitions for both but not sure whether they would be correct for these awards.


Yellow metal:

A form of brass containing about 60 parts copper and 40 parts zinc, with a little lead.


White metal:

A white or silvery alloy, especially a tin-based alloy used for the surfaces of bearings.

A white metal alloy may include antimony, tin, lead, cadmium, bismuth and zinc.

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  • On October 10, 1916, the Council of Ministers adopted a resolution, then approved by the Emperor, "On the replacement of gold and silver used in the manufacture of medals and decorations, badges, with other materials." Now St. George's crosses and medals were to be minted from yellow (1st and 2nd degrees) and white (3rd and 4th degrees) metals. However , the minting of gold and silver signs continued until the end of December 1916 . It took several months to organize the production of signs from new materials - tompak and nickel silver (they are hidden behind the designations "ZHM" and "BM"), so the first batches were delivered only at the end of February 1917. In total, the Mint was ordered to produce from yellow and white metals: St. George crosses of the 1st degree -10 thousand pieces, 2nd degree - 20 thousand pieces, 3rd degree -125 thousand pieces, 4th degree - 400 thousand pieces; St. George medals of the 1st degree -10 thousand pieces, 2-th degree - 20 thousand pieces, 3rd degree - 150 thousand pieces, 4th degree - 400 thousand pieces. Events of the February Revolution

The situation was more complicated with the manufacture of medals. On February 24, 1917, 500 pieces were ready. medals of the 1st degree (No. 26529-27028), 1000 pieces - of the 2nd degree (No. 52516-53515), 4000 pieces - of the 3rd degree (No. 271041-275040) and 2000 pieces - of the 4th degree (No. 1333101-1335100). However, they did not have time to go beyond the Mint: revolutionary Russia no longer needed medals with the image of the abdicated emperor. In addition, the St. George medals of the former sample, which remained in the Chapter of the Orders, were transferred to the Mint for melting, which informed by the attitude of July 31, 1917, that the numbering of the medals of the new sample should begin: 1st degree - with No. 24292, 2nd degree - with No. 48455, 3rd degree - with No. 263791 and 4th degree - from No. 1289051 to No. 1311050 and from No. 1312051.

The project of the St. George medal of a new sample was designed by the artist I. Bilibin, the design drawing with his signature is kept in the Muntskabinet of the St. Petersburg Mint. The development and approval of a new sample of the St. George Medal required 

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