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Khalakin Gol War medal

Laurence Strong

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There's some confusion here. This isn't a Japanese award, but a medal of Manchuguo. It is The Border Incident War Medal, awarded to Manchuguo troops (and, presumably, also to their Japanese allies). According to the 3rd edition of Peterson's book (not perfect, but the best we have), p. 150:

In July, 1937, a gunboat battle took place on the Amur River. In July, 1938 the Russians occupied Changkufeng Hill near the border and an intensive war was waged for ten days, August 14th-24th, resulting in a Soviet victory. A major war broke out May 11, 1939, along the Mongolian-Siberian border at Nomonhan, and Japanese casualties were 18,000.

Due to the non-survival of many of the relevant records and limited language skills by most interested in these things, we don't know much more. As has been mentioned, there are two varieties, "large dove" and "small dove". When you see comparative side-by-side pictures (as in Peterson on on this site), the differences are clear; when you don't see then together, the distinctions can be pretty vague.

The Japanese medal for these conflicts is the generic China Incident War Medal (Peterson, p. 50), awarded for the China War, 1937-45.

Neither was specifically for Khalkin Gol (the way the Mongolian badge and, later, medal was), but both these medals covered these operations from the other side.

I don't think Manchuguo troops were involved in the Lake Khasan business. But I could be wrong.

If a good source from the Japanese side on these operations exists, it is probably in Japanese and of no help to me. Sorry.

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