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Concept# Euclidean relation

Summary

In mathematics, Euclidean relations are a class of binary relations that formalize "Axiom 1" in Euclid's Elements: "Magnitudes which are equal to the same are equal to each other."
A binary relation R on a set X is Euclidean (sometimes called right Euclidean) if it satisfies the following: for every a, b, c in X, if a is related to b and c, then b is related to c. To write this in predicate logic:
Dually, a relation R on X is left Euclidean if for every a, b, c in X, if b is related to a and c is related to a, then b is related to c:
Due to the commutativity of ∧ in the definition's antecedent, aRb ∧ aRc even implies bRc ∧ cRb when R is right Euclidean. Similarly, bRa ∧ cRa implies bRc ∧ cRb when R is left Euclidean.
The property of being Euclidean is different from transitivity. For example, ≤ is transitive, but not right Euclidean, while xRy defined by 0 ≤ x ≤ y + 1 ≤ 2 is not transitive, but right Euclidean on natural numbers.
For symmetric relations, transitivity, right Euclideanness, and left Euclideanness all coincide. However, a non-symmetric relation can also be both transitive and right Euclidean, for example, xRy defined by y=0.
A relation that is both right Euclidean and reflexive is also symmetric and therefore an equivalence relation. Similarly, each left Euclidean and reflexive relation is an equivalence.
The of a right Euclidean relation is always a subset of its . The restriction of a right Euclidean relation to its range is always reflexive, and therefore an equivalence. Similarly, the domain of a left Euclidean relation is a subset of its range, and the restriction of a left Euclidean relation to its domain is an equivalence. Therefore, a right Euclidean relation on X that is also right total (respectively a left Euclidean relation on X that is also left total) is an equivalence, since its range (respectively its domain) is X.
A relation R is both left and right Euclidean, if, and only if, the domain and the range set of R agree, and R is an equivalence relation on that set.

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Homogeneous relation

In mathematics, a homogeneous relation (also called endorelation) on a set X is a binary relation between X and itself, i.e. it is a subset of the Cartesian product X × X. This is commonly phrased as "a relation on X" or "a (binary) relation over X". An example of a homogeneous relation is the relation of kinship, where the relation is between people. Common types of endorelations include orders, graphs, and equivalences. Specialized studies of order theory and graph theory have developed understanding of endorelations.

Transitive relation

In mathematics, a relation R on a set X is transitive if, for all elements a, b, c in X, whenever R relates a to b and b to c, then R also relates a to c. Each partial order as well as each equivalence relation needs to be transitive. A homogeneous relation R on the set X is a transitive relation if, for all a, b, c ∈ X, if a R b and b R c, then a R c. Or in terms of first-order logic: where a R b is the infix notation for (a, b) ∈ R. As a non-mathematical example, the relation "is an ancestor of" is transitive.

Equivalence relation

In mathematics, an equivalence relation is a binary relation that is reflexive, symmetric and transitive. The equipollence relation between line segments in geometry is a common example of an equivalence relation. Each equivalence relation provides a partition of the underlying set into disjoint equivalence classes. Two elements of the given set are equivalent to each other if and only if they belong to the same equivalence class.

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