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Dave Danner

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  1. Prussian Army and German navy officers normally worked their way up the Red Eagle / Crown Order ladder during their careers. Typically, the first award was the RAO4. The KO4 was a less common award for junior officers usually for specific actions while the RAO4 came after a period of long and meritorious service. The next step was receipt of the KO3. An officer could wear both the RAO4 and the KO3. Next was the award of the RAO3. The RAO3 was awarded with the Schleife if one already had the RAO4, which was almost always the case with Prussian and naval officers, and the RAO4 was returned. The officer would then wear both the RAO3S and KO3. The next step would be award of the KO2. In this case, the KO3 would be returned. So when you see a medal bar with only the RAO3S (without the crown or swords) and no Crown Order, you can surmise that it belonged to an Oberst/Kapitän zur See or Generalmajor/Konteradmiral who wore the KO2 around the neck. If you look at the 1914 rank list, you will see the RAO3S/KO2 combination from Konteradmiral Wurmbach through Kapitän z.S. Höpfner. The next step was award of the RAO2. As with the Schleife for the RAO3, an officer who previously had the RAO3 would receive the RAO2 with oakleaves (RAO2E), and the RAO3S would be returned. Again if you look at the 1914 rank list, you will see the RAO2E/KO2 combination from Konteradmiral Hipper to Konteradmiral Schrader. In these cases, the officer wore both his Red Eagle and Crown around the neck, and no Red Eagle or Crown order on the medal bar, except for awards with the crown or swords. The next step was award of the Star to the KO2. Again going to the rank list, you will see the RAO2E/KO2mSt combination from Vizeadmiral Gerdes through Konteradmiral Trummler. The next step was award of the Star to the RAO2E. You will see the RAO2EmSt/KO2mSt combination with VIzeadmirale Grapow, Bachmann, v. Krosigk and v. Dambrowski. Nothing had to be returned at these steps because they just added a breast star to the existing awards. The next step normally was award of the KO1, in which case the KO2mSt was returned. And then normally would come the RAO1, in which case the RAO2EmSt was returned. And then the Grand Cross of the RAO. As I mentioned above, the exception to the return policy for the lower grades was if they were awarded with special devices. An award of any class of the Red Eagle with the royal crown usually indicated an award for specific merit rather than just long service, and the officer continued to wear it even when he received a higher class. An award of any class of the Red Eagle or Crown Order with swords was worn even when a higher class was awarded, with the provision for "Swords on Ring" as well. As one example, look at Admiral v. Pohl in the 1914 rank list. He had the RAO3SXKr, which he continued to wear after receiving the 2nd class because of the crown and swords. His RAO2E was with swords on ring, but he also had the royal crown to it. So when he received the RAO1E with swords on ring, he kept the RAO2EKrXaR as well. Pohl's Crown Order 2nd Class was also with swords, so he kept that even when he got the Star to the KO2 and later the KO1 with swords on ring. There might be some exceptions I am missing. I can't remember what the regulations were if you had the KO4X and KO3X, for example. But these are the general guidelines for senior officers working their way up the Read Eagle/Crown Order ladder. And, yes, I assume the Olympia-Ehrenzeichen was posthumous. There were over 500 awards of the 2nd class that day, so it probably had taken a while to process them.
  2. Some additional details to what Roman stated: The Kriegsverdienstkreuz (LK) was created on 8 December 1914, and the first awards were made a few days later. Before then, the Ehrenkreuz was the main award to officers and the Militärverdienstmedaille (LMVM) to NCOs and enlisted men. So for several months, the Ehrenkreuz/LMVM were the Iron Cross "equivalent" for Lippe-Detmold. As Roman notes, with exceptions, if an LMVM recipient later received the LK, he was supposed to return the LMVM, but this often did not happen. As for officers, it does not appear that those 1914 recipients of the Ehrenkreuz mit Schwertern were required to return their order when they received the LK. Also, further awards of the Ehrenkreuz mit Schwertern were made throughout the war (and retroactively after the war) as a higher award, separate from the Kriegsehrenkreuz für heldenmütige Tat, which had its own award criteria. As noted above, the LK was first awarded in December 1914, and the first awards of the LK to officers in IR 55 were on 13 December 1914. But the first awards to NCOs and men of IR 55 did not happen until May 1915. At this time, just over 800 LK awards had been made, including over 500 to NCOs and enlisted men in other regiments. Roman, do you know if they simply continued to award the LMVM to IR 55 NCOs and enlisted men between December 1914 and May 1915, even while awarding the LK to NCOs and enlisted men in other units? And from 1915 on, do we know for certain if the LMVM was awarded only to those rendered dienstuntauglich and without the EK (based on the 1917 letter from the Mil.Kabinett to Natzmer) or was it also awarded like the Ehrenkreuz as a higher award to those already in possession of the LK? Regarding the awards to wounded men, I do not know what the practice was in Lippe-Detmold, but I do know from my review of award recommendations in the archives in Dessau that early in the war, Anhalt mainly awarded the Friedrichkreuz to soldiers who had received the Iron Cross or who had been wounded in action (especially if the wound was serious enough to invalid them out of the army). Otherwise, if they did not have the Iron Cross, the award recommendation had to list a reason for the award (including whether he had been nominated for the Iron Cross). As the war went on, being wounded by itself was not sufficient grounds for an award, but it was a factor.
  3. The RAO4 and the KO3 were replaced and returned when he was awarded higher grades of those orders. He continued to wear ther RAO3SmKr because it was with the Crown. The Südwestafrika-Denkmünze should be steel, since I do not believe that he served there and based on its appearance in the photos. It should indeed be the Centenary after it. I have no idea about the Turkish award. Could be either, but likely a 1st class based on his rank. Other known awards: • According to the Austro-Hungarian Court and State Handbook, Behncke received the Orden der Eisernen Krone 2. Klasse mit der Kriegsdekoration in 1916. • According to the Swedish State Calendar, Behncke received the Grand Cross of the Swedish Order of the Sword (Kommendör med stora korset) in 1924. • He received the Olympia-Ehrenzeichen 2. Klasse on 15.1.1937 as an Admiral a.D. and Präsident der Deutsch-Japanischen Gesellschaft in Berlin.
  4. Gustav Schöne, born 29.6.1874 in Calbe (Saale), received the Friedrichkreuz on 5.5.1915 as a Zahlmeister in Landwehr-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 66. I have three other Zahlmeister-types with the Friedrichkreuz and the Prussian Allgemeines Ehrenzeichen and old enough for a Centenary, but I don't have anything further on them after World War I. Maybe Daniel has more information. • Henzgen, Karl, *8.8.1868 in Mehringen, Bernburg; Zahlm., von d. Train-Abt. Nr. 8, Sanitäts-Komp., Armee-Abteilung v. Strantz. • Kolbe, Fritz, *10.12.1870 in Harzgerode; Zahlm., vom Inf.-Regt. Nr. 165, I./Landw.-Inf.-Regt. Nr. 36. • Rößler, Max, *26.12.1872 in Bernburg; Zahlm., 4.Garde-Regt. zu Fuß.
  5. Hans Richard Ferdinand Josupeit was born on 25 July 1883 in Königsberg i.Pr. and died on 27 October 1953 in Köln-Lindenthal. He was commissioned a Leutnant in Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 1 on 14.8.1902 with a Patent of 19.8.1901. He served in IR 30 from 1905-1914 and then on the General Staff. He is in the 1919 Berlin address book as a Hauptmann i.G. on the Großer Generalstab, while the 1920 IR 30 Mitgliederverzeichnis lists him as reportedly in Argentina. In the 1936 Mitgliederverzeichnis, he is listed as a Direktor of the Straßenbahn A.-G. living in Berlin-Wilmersdorf. The 1943 Berlin address book (the last on published under the Third Reich) lists him as a Direktor in Berlin-Zehlendorf. He is also in several post-World War II Berlin telephone books. If he entered service in 1901 and left in 1919/1920, he would have had 18-19 years of service. It does not appear that double-counting of the war years 1914-18 would have gotten him to 25 years of service, so I would agree with Daniel.
  6. Awards of the top two valor decorations (Medal of Honor and the service crosses) and recent (Since Sept. 11 2001) awards of the Silver Star: https://valor.defense.gov US Army historical award statistics: https://www.hrc.army.mil/content/Awards and Decorations Statistics by Conflict The Army used to have year-by-year statistics for peacetime awards in recent decades, but I can't find that resource anymore. I can't find similar numbers for the other services.
  7. The person in the Huesken document is Hofmaurermeister, later Baumeister, Adolf Krauß. I do not know how many other possible matches there are. I have been cross-checking the SLKw list against the rolls for the Ehrenkreuz and Verdienstkreuz, as well as the 1918 Schaumburg-Lippe Court & State Handbook, but I am not finished.
  8. Google tells me it was manufactured in Lithuania for Chechnya, but whatever badges were made were seized by Russian officials while being sent to Chechnya and disposed of, so never actually issued by the Chechens.
  9. Farhang means culture or education in Farsi. Tulips are a symbol associated with Iran. So a medal/order for culture or the like from the Islamic Republic is my guess.
  10. From the Württemberg Archives, Gerold von Gleich. I find it interesting that he is wearing a Greek order while in the uniform of an Ottoman major general (Mirliva).
  11. Number 1 could be August Scheel, but I can't say for certain as my Lippe list is incomplete. Scheel, August Wilhelm Heinrich, *5.1.1885 in Elberfeld, gef. 13.2.1916 b. Neuve Chapelle; Königlicher Bahnhofsvorsteher in Elberfeld, Leutnant der Reserve, 8./IR 15. EK1, BMV4X (6.12.14), LK (7.6.15).
  12. I am not sure if Navy officers received the 1905 jubilee medal. It was the Jubilee Medal for the Bavarian Army, and the Bavarian regulations published in 1905 do not mention the Navy at all. That said, the 1911 regulations do not mention the Navy either, though they do mention the Schutztruppe. I also have not been able to find any authorizing regulations in the Marine-Verordnungsblatt. The criteria for awards of Landesorden to Navy personnel are somewhat muddy. Sometimes it seems you had to be a native of the state, but sometimes awards were made to personnel serving on ships "associated" with the state, like the SMS Bayern, SMS München, SMS Nürnberg, etc. for Bavaria. Since jubilee medals are not usually included in rank lists, they are even harder to track unless the regulations are clear.
  13. https://www.dvidshub.net/news/88793/medal-honor-recipient-retires-after-44-years-service https://www.dvidshub.net/image/585361/medal-honor-recipient-retires-after-44-years-service
  14. He received the WF2bX on 27.11.1915. Yes to Bremen - Lübeck's half-red/half-white ribbon would be noticeable. He did not serve in China during the Boxer rebellion, so any China-DM would be in steel.
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