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    Question about the Order of Ismail/Nishan al-Ismail

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    My understanding, at least for the UK (maximum 4 stars can be worn), is senior star at 12 o'clock and then in order of precedence/seniority at 9 o'clock, 3 o'clock and 6 o'clock. However as Fuad is not answerable to any authority he can wear them as he wishes. Farouk's stars are in order of precedence but ideally the Mohammed Ali should have been above the other two stars - but he was king........, Owain

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    • 4 weeks later...


    I have been meaning to add these images for a while - I took them when I was last back in UK.

    They are of my Order of Ismail,  3rd Class,  by Bichay.  The case outside notes,  'Farouk The First',  and inside the manufacturer is stated as Tewfiq Bichay,  but the name on the reverse of the badge is Fahmy Tewfiq Bichay - the son of Tewfiq Bichay.


    Egypt Ismail Bichay A.jpg

    Egypt Ismail Bichay AA.jpg

    Egypt Ismail Bichay B.jpg

    Egypt Ismail Bichay BB.jpg

    Egypt Ismail Bichay C.jpg

    Egypt Ismail Bichay CC.jpg

    Egypt Ismail Bichay CCC.jpg

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    Most interesting Ismail ribbon in your post 27 example, Owain!  Fahmy probably mentioned to you the difficulty in securing some materials and then importing them into Egypt, especially in 1940-44 and 1953-'59.   He told me that ribbons and fittings like the metal swivels for attaching badges to sashes provided the most difficulty and that his staff developed work-arounds. 

    I have maybe two Ismail neck badges with the same type cravat ribbon as yours.  These appear to be of different than usual color hues, slightly narrower widths and tie strings lack the red stripe.   This evidence may lead to establishing a contemporary 'type two' Ismail ribbon variety [as opposed to later 'close enough' ribbon replacements].   To date, I've seen no other ribbon widths in these hues. 


    The 2nd class neck ribbon in Rusty's post 4 above seems different from both this type and the more usual one.  Perhaps it represents yet another 'material scarcity' substitute or a 'close enough' replacement.

    Edited by 922F
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    • 3 weeks later...

    Owain, many thanks of the wonderful images of this example of the Order of Ismail. It is great to have your documentation of the case labelling and high resolution image of the hallmark of Fahmy Tewfick Bichay (my post of 4 December 2017 has a lower resolution image of this hallmark). I am very interested in 922f's point about shortages of ribbons dyed in appropriate colors, in this case for the 1940-44 period. I'm not sure whether the colors in the picture you reference of the Grand Officer Class that I posted on 13 November, 2017 (6th photo) may represent a similar dye discrepancy. Some other aspects of the blue enamel color and possibly the green of the wreath in this photo make me think there may be a color shift in the image, rather than significant variation in the actual piece as appears with both the blue & red (pink) of the ribbon on the example in Owain's recent contribution of April 5. I have not seen other examples of those color differences in internet images of these awards. Very interesting and important point you make about potential scarcity from a discussion with Fahmy Tewfick Bichay, fascinating! 

    I'm including 2 images below from Pinterest boards (identified as Grand Officer Class awards) that are very high resolution and particularly good for providing details on the engraving in the gold ornamentation of the arms of the stars in the blue enameled rays for both the chest star and neck badge. In Owain's example above of the April 5, there is no engraving on this gold ornamentation. The resolution of other internet images I have seen of the Commander Class is not good enough to tell whether other examples may lack that engraving. Several photos of 4th Class (Officer) medals are good enough to show the 3-D engraving of this ornamentation is present on most examples I have seen on the internet. Could this also be a variant because it is a casting by Fahmy Tewfick Bichay and not from from Lattes or Tewfick Bichay, or the time period? The wreath on Owain's Commander badge also shows some differences from other examples; all aspects of the wreath, the gold dots (blossoms or fruit?), and the red bands with gold borders all are less detailed than on other examples by Lattes & Tewfick Bichay. The ball finials at the end of each arm also are flatter and have smaller areas of enamel than seen in other images of the neck badge. The examples in my illustration from 4 December 2017 by Fahmy Tewfick Bichay also appear to show this same lack of detail in these design elements, although the photos are not high resolution. In those photos, the chest star also appears to lack the engraving on the gold ornamentation, as well as some difference in the details of the wreath (and these are identified as Grand Officer regalia). 

    Order of Ismail GO Class neck badge.jpg

    High resolution image of the neck badge of the Grand Officer Class of the Order of Ismail. This image shows the 3-D details of the engraviging on the gold ornametaion of the arms of the star better than most other photographs I have seen. From Charles Huggins Pinterest board: Flags of the past. (https://www.pinterest.com/pin/298433912792222444/)

    Order of Ismail GO class copy.jpg

    High resolution image of the chest star of the Grand Officer Class of the Order of Ismail. This image shows the 3-D details of the engraviging on the gold ornametaion of the enameled arms of the star better than most other photographs I have seen. From Worldantiques Antiques Pinterest site The Khedives of Egypt (https://www.pinterest.com/pin/7881368074139698/)

    Edited by Rusty Greaves
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    In relation to questions about the order of precedence in wearing orders (see the portrait of Farouk I that I posted here on 13 November, 2017, 11th & final image; and the image of Fuad II posted March 12, as well as Owain's 2 responses of March 12), an Egyptian friend with connections to the royal family provided the following information about wearing medals: 

    "The picture of King Fouad II, in front of the late King Farouk is at his home in Switzerland [see image below, picture at upper right & center right-RG]. The breast star of the Order of Mohamed Ali [in the central image below, or that posted on March 12-RG] is in the place of precedence as it is closer in the center of the body and the star of the Order of Ismail is to its left.  Order of precedence of breast stars are on the left side of the body (closer to the heart) and either closer to the axis of the body and to the right of another breast star, or above another breast star. Either position is seen as a superior position to any other insignia of orders. At last that was the protocol in the Middle East.  A peculiarity to Middle Eastern Orders is that the star of a Grand Officer (second class) is a smaller version, but similar design to the star of a Grand Cordon and is worn on the right side of the chest as opposed to the left, which is the custom in western protocols. In your language the 9 o'clock position (for breast stars of Grand Cordons is an place of superiority, equivalent to the 12, if the 12 is not occupied (as in the case of King Fouad II and his late father, King Farouk)." He also note that: "...the King wore his Cordon of the Order of Mohamed Ali on the wrong shoulder, at HRH Prince Mohamed Ali's wedding!  [below, center image on left-RG] Not sure who advised him to do that."
    So in the portrait of Farouk I, the Grand Cordon Order of Muhammed Ali in the upper left position is the position of precedence,  the Order of Ismail is second, and the Order of the Nile third (with no medal occupying the 12:00 o'clock position). In the portrait of Fuad II, the order of Muhammed Ali is taking the 12:00 o'clock position as an alternative position of precedence to the 9:00 o'clock position


    Photo montage images of Fuad II by ROYAL WORLD THAILAND (@royalworldthailand) commemorating 16 January, 2018 – the "66th Birthday Anniversary of His Majesty King Fuad II of Egypt; the only son of King Farouk I. He succeeded the throne of the Muhammad-Ali Dynasty after his father’s forced abdication. Fuad became the King for almost 1 year, and he was about a year old. The monarchy was officially abolished and declared the Republic in 1953". (https://instarix.com/p/1693358436737010408_3629956815#)

    Edited by Rusty Greaves
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    In relation to the recent manufacture of the Order of Ismail by the firm ELM out of Singapore (http://elm.com.sg/fr/orders-decorations-medals/orders-decorations/) that is probably still manufacturing the Order of Ismail. 922F points out on in this thread on 5 December, 2017 that these awards are probably presented through Fuad II. 922F also wrote on July 9, 2007:

    "Egypt's President formerly was (and still may be) chief, formerly Grand Master, of all Egyptian Orders and some decorations, thus explaining Mubarak's Egyptian awards. As long-time head of state, he also holds many foreign decorations. 

    An Egyptian Crown Council affiliated with exiled King Fuad [Fu'ād] II administers his dynastic Muhamed Ali and Ismail Orders; occaisional awards still occur. An Egyptian source reports that Fuad authorized the Crown Council to re-institute the Royal Order of the Nile in the mid-late 1990s. One of Farouk's supposed "love-children" distributes an "Order of the Egyptian Crown" for a fee.. "

    -from the thread "ARAB MEDALS -- Egypt" started by Ed_Haynes on January 12, 2007) here in the Middle East & Arab States section. 
    My Egyptian friend provided some additional detail about this: "I am not aware that King Fouad II is awarding any orders or decorations. He has awarded very few with the rank and title of Pasha, but this is not common knowledge.  He likes to keep it hush hush. However, I am not aware of any other honors that he has invested people with or awarded them. There is no Egyptian Crown Council whatsoever.  The order of the crown, along with another award or two (in the form of breast stars) are nothing official. I think that may have been established by the Mohamed Ali Foundation, which is run by a junior prince and cousin of the King, but it is not recognized by the King." 
    ELM Order of Ismail advert.jpg


    Edited by Rusty Greaves
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    The 'royal household' informs me that not only does King Faud II award both the Mohammed Ali and Ismail Orders but that HM instituted a new one class award for royal ladies called the Nishan el Noor [Order of Light] in 2017.  An article published in JOMSA [Volume 68, Number 5--SEPTEMBER - OCTOBER 2017--pp. 43-44] details this new creation.  Image below, copyright WORTH & used with that firm’s express permission for this note only, illustrates the insignia.  To date, bestowals of all honors seem limited to family members, other royals and very close family collaborators. Further, a project for reinvigorating the Faud I Collar decoration may be underway.   

    Implementing an Egyptian Crown Council concept [patterned on Ethiopian and Serbian models] apparently failed around late 2007-early 2008.  

    As to the supposed Order touted by 'Crown Princess Laila Farouk and Grand Duke Lev Leznik' [out of Australia?] identified as the Farouk Family Order aka Egyptian Order of the Crown, an image of their star as manufactured follows below.   A ‘Laila Farouk’ webpage explained her assertions to regal powers [including salacious details regarding her parentage and legitimation] but I cannot locate it at present.   It seems that 4-7 years ago another Order styled the Royal Egyptian Order of the Crown with insignia based on the Nile Order--no image as yet--emerged.  This may be the same as the Mohamed Ali Foundation award?  Design elements include a five point white enamel star superimposed on a silver plaque.   It may have a blue and yellow or blue and white ribbon.  



    Edited by 922F
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    922F, many thanks for this information, the JOMSA reference, and the photos! I wasn't doubting your information, just checking what someone else had told me about this question. You obviously are more aware of the situation in relation to the exiled royals' role in continued award of orders, as well as being a dedicated phalerstics enthusiast. I was interested in the JOMSA article, and can see the resemblance to Nishan el Kamal elements, although I think the Order of the Virtues has a much more elegant & beautiful set of designs. 

    Here is a higher resolution image of the Farouk Family Order/Egyptian Order of the Crown:


    Higher resolution image of what is called the "Star of the Imperial and Royal House of Farouk of Egypt" on the Royal Egypt blogspot http://petersroyalegypt.blogspot.com; higher resolution image from: https://petercrawford1947.wordpress.com/2011/02/03/royal-egypt/the-star-of-the-imperial-and-royal-house-faruk-of-egypt/

    What do you know about an item identified as a diamonded "Honor Badge of the Egyptian Dynasty"? This image below is from Sixbid.com/LA Galerie Numismatique (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=3427&category=71681&lot=2842249).

    Diamonded Honor Badge of the Egyptian Dynasty.jpg     From an April 19-21, 2017 auction (Session1, Lot 719). The description for this states: "engraved and dark-toned medallion with golden monogram "Sultan Mohammed 1333"... 51 X 25 mm, gold, with an outer circlet set with brilliants, ornamented suspension loop, surmounted by the royal crown of Egypt, also set with brilliants, bar, with reverse pin. A most rare Court decoration of Egypt...Provenance: the Royal Family of Egypt." 

    Edited by Rusty Greaves
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    Here is an image of Ahmed Hassanein Pasha, Chief of the Diwan and Chamberlain to King Farouk I, wearing the Order of Ismail. He is obviously violating the convention that Owain mentions of limiting the medals worn on any occasion to 4 on his March 12, 2018 post in this thread discussing precedence in how they are worn. Although Owain states that is a UK practice, it seems that Egyptian royalty at least did often adhere to displaying a limited set of medals for official appearances or portraits. In contrast, Ahmed Hussanein Pasha is sporting at least 10 medals, in addition to a sash with badge (which appears to be the Egyptian Order of Muhammed Ali), and at least 8 smaller medals. The Order of Ismail is prominently visible in a comparable position to that shown in the official portrait photo of Farouk I on 13 November, 2017 in this thread and in the birthday photo of Fouad II posted here on 12 March and on 22 April, 2018. 

    Ahmned Hassanein pasha 2.jpg

    Photo of Ahmed Hassanein Pasha (https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9b/Ahmad_Hasnein.jpg)

    Edited by Rusty Greaves
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    A nice high resolution image of the Grand Cordon Class of the Order of Ismail from Künker Münzauktionen und Goldhandel showing both obverse & reverse in one graphic. Hallmark of Tewfik Bichay (https://www.kuenker.de/en/archiv/stueck/58396)



    Edited by Rusty Greaves
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    • 4 months later...

    Here are 2 additional images of the 4th Class, Officer, chest badge from an Italian heraldry site & forum (I Nostri Avi), http://iagiforum.info/viewtopic.php?f=21&t=10120&start=0 that probably come originally from liverpoolmedals.com. They are not high resolution images, but complement some of the Officer breast badge photos illustrated on this thread, i.e.,  in my post of 13 November, 2017 (where I incorrectly identified it as a neck badge under the photo from Kelisi on flickr);  Egyptian Zogist's post of 14, November 2017 from the magazine that sourced its information from reference: "Royal Protocols, Abdine Palace, 1952";  my post of 15 November, 2017 of an example made by Tewfick Bichay from a photo on flickr; & my post of 7 December, 2017 of 2 good resolution images from la_gallerie_numismatique.com.


    Most of the discussion on this particular page of iagiforum concerns the Order of the Nile, and some presentation of hallmarks. One contributor posted the following table of silver hallmarks shown below. I would be interested in comments on the accuracy and utility of this chart by the learned experts here at GMIC. Additionally, I would like to educate myself more about the gold hallmarks, especially of the Kingdom of Egypt period and referent to my interest in the Order of Ismail. The best images of these hallmarks I've seen (for the Order of Ismail) come from various listings of auctions by eMedals.com. I will post some of these hallmark photos in the near future. Can anyone help me in this endeavor? 


    Egyptian silver hallmarks identified by a contributor to Italian heraldry site & forum (I Nostri Avi), http://iagiforum.info/viewtopic.php?f=21&t=10120&start=0 

    Edited by Rusty Greaves
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    Here are 2 images of Ahmed Hassanein Pasha, Chief of the Diwan and Chamberlain to King Farouk I wearing the Order of Ismail that are higher resolution than the portrait I posted on 30 April, 2018. The portrait is from a current eBay auction that includes this original matted print (39 X 29 cm) from the Jean Weinberg studio in Cairo (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-Ahmed-Pasha-Hassanein-with-medals-and-sword/273338376524?hash=item3fa43ca14c:g:qg4AAOSwc~xbGXUM). the same eBay seller also is offering a version from the same studio https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-Ahmed-Pasha-Hassanein-with-medals-and-sword-LOT-2/273364004398?hash=item3fa5c3ae2e:g:G0EAAOSwVW5bUKQj that is cropped from Hassanein's left arm ( 21 X 16 cm). The close up of Ahmed Hassanein Pasha's chest provides a better view of the Order of Ismail and the many other medals he sports.

    My wife's great grandfather, Pierre Crabitès (who as I've mentioned in this thread was awarded the Order of Ismail, Grand Officer Class, probably at his retirement from the Mixed Tribunals of Egypt in 1936), had some correspondence with Ahmed Hassanein Pasha in his role as Chief of the Diwan and Chamberlain to the King. Hussanein conveyed King Farouk I's enthusiasm for Crabitès' impending return to Cairo in 1942. Crabitès retired from his judgeship on the Mixed Courts in Cairo (the District Courts) in 1936 because the British had blocked his advancement to the Court of Appeals due to his Egyptian royalist sympathies. Back in the US, he eventually managed to get an assignment from the OSS to return to Egypt in January 1942, and went to Cairo that May. Immediately, the British started to block his assignment in Egypt, again because of his friendliness with King Farouk I. The OSS acceded to their wishes and cancelled his position, despite the reason they accepted Crabitès was they wanted his closeness with King Farouk I to help get information about how the King was disposed toward the Allies. Initially Crabitès made contact with Hassanein, the Chief of the Royal Cabinet, and it was clear Farouk was happy to have Judge Crabitès in Cairo. Hassanein conveyed the King’s belief that: "He has long felt the need of having the counsel of a foreigner of his father’s generation who knows Egypt and who has no ulterior motive to subserve. There is no telling what blessing to Egypt, to the Allied cause and to a heal thy understanding with England may not flow from your presence here." (State Department Document: 123 Crabitès, Pierre/7: Communiqué from Pierre Crabitès,transmitted by Alexander Kirk, Cairo, to Colonel Donovan, through the Secretary of State, 28 May 1942). Crabitès was sent back to the US for a while, then was tentatively given an appointment to Beirut, which the British eventually blocked as well. He returned to Egypt in June 1943 for his re-assignment to Baghdad, where he arrived in July. Crabitès died there in October 1943, from complications of lung infections he got shortly after returning to Egypt in May 1942.



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    • 5 weeks later...

    Here are two images showing the obverse (L) and reverse (R) of a miniature of the Egyptian Order of Ismail from the Worthpoint.com website, that identifies this as sold on eBay in 2014. This miniature medal is based on the design of the sash badge of the Grand Cordon (1st) Class, the neck star of the Grand Officer (2nd) Class (in addition to the chest badge), and the neck star of Commander (3rd) Class) of the Order of Ismail. The form of this mini resembles one example I illustrated on 6 December, 2017 in this thread (first photo, the left hand mini), although that example is gilt in gold rather than silver. I also illustrated a somewhat similar piece in the 3rd photo posted here on 6 December, 2017 that is identified as a 3rd Class (Commander) version shown as a neck badge (but not necessarily a miniature) and is currently available through the faleris-et-orbis.com website. An additional piece with this form that is identified as an inexpensive miniature is shown in the 4th photo on 6 December, 2017. The miniature medal illustrated below is described as a "contemporary miniature" and is 18 mm tall (including the crown suspension) by 11 mm wide and is identified as silver. I have seen very few miniatures of the Order of Ismail, and the best executed examples are in the form used for the chest badge of the Grand Cordon, Grand Officer, and Officer Classes (see my illustrations in this thread on 5 & 6 December, 2017; and in my post of 11 December, 2017 on the thread "Miniatures of the Middle East & Arab World" here in the "Middle East & Arab States" section started by Owain on 6 December, 2017; and in Owain's  illustrations from 11 & 12 December, 2017 on the thread "Miniatures of the Middle East & Arab World" [obverse shown in the top row on 11 December, 2nd from R; reverse shown on 12 December in the same position]).). The galon of silver with the rosette suggests this is the 3rd Class of this award (Commander). However, possibly because of a lack of good illustrations of miniatures for each of the different class of the Order of Ismail, it is unclear to me what the form of many of the the miniatures would be. On the full-sized awards, the rosette is apparently only worn with the Officer (4th) Class, and the Officer's chest medal is in the form of the chest badge of the superior classes (not this form). I have not seen a galon on any of the few miniature examples I've come across, but again, the lack of complete illustrations of minis of the different classes of the Order of Ismail may be the reason for not having seen this configuration before. The Commander wears a neck star on a ribbon as the full-sized award that is similar to this medal's form, but no chest badge is part of the full-sized regalia. Perhaps this form with galon and rosette might distinguish the 2nd class mini from the 3rd class mini, if this neck star design was also employed as a miniature for the Grand Officer Class.  (https://www.worthpoint.com/worthopedia/egypt-order-ismail-nishan-al-ismail-538036727)



    Edited by Rusty Greaves
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    • 3 weeks later...

    Below is an image of a Royal Guard Officer wearing the Order of Ismail from a current eBay auction of this 14 x 9 cm original print: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-MILITARY-OFFICER-WITH-SWORD-MEDALS-PHOTO-Riad-Shehata/273359918693


    The Order of Ismail is on the wearer's far right. It appears to be suspended by a ribbon as are the other decorations, but that is obscured by his other uniform elements. As it is most likely to be on a ribbon, then it is the 4th Class Officer of the Order. The next medal (2nd from the wearer's R) is the Order of the Nile, as the ribbon is not visible the class cannot be determined; the next medal to the viewer's left of the Order of the Nile is obscured and I cannot tell what it is; the 4th decoration from the wearer's R is the reverse face of the the Khedive's Sudan Medal. I am unfamiliar with the 5th and 6th medals from the wearer's R, but am sure that some of the learned individuals here on GMIC can identify them. The medal on the wearer's leftmost side is the Italian Order of the Crown. There are images of other members of the Royal guard wearing the Italian Order of the Crown that are shown in posts by Egyptian Zogist of 24 December, 2015 (1st and 2nd  photos) and an image from 13 January 2016 by Chris W Identified as the 5th Class) in the thread Kingdom of Egypt (1922-1953) started by Egyptian Zogist on 30 October 2015 here in thee Middle East & Arab States section. Owain identified this Italian medal in his contribution to that thread on 8 January, 2016. Chris W includes the information in his 13 January that King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy went into exile in Alexandria after his abdication in 1946, and suspects these awards were given by him for service in the period 1946-47. I would enjoy any comments on the uniform colors and design that are quite different compared with other examples illustrated on the Kingdom of Egypt (1922-1953) thread. 

    Below is a high resolution image of a neck badge of the Order of Ismail rom a 2014 auction by Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co that is archived on the acsearch.info website (https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=2146041). This badge is identified  as the 3rd Class Commander's neck badge (worn without a chest badge). This example was made by Lattes of Cairo. 



    The acsearch.info site also archived the good resolution image of the 4th Class medal of the Order of Ismail, illustrated below. This medal is also from the same 2014 auction by Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co as the neck badge shown above (https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=2146042). This medal is made by Lattes of Cairo.


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    Great images, Rusty.   Officer appears to wear Ismail, Nile, either Egyptian Medal for Meritorious Actions or Medal of Devotion, Khedive's Sudan Medal, Iranian Order of Homayoun [Humayun], Belgian Order of Leopold II, and Italian Crown.   Maybe something in between Khedive's Sudan Medal &  Humayun---or just a hint of a button? 

    Unknown whether VE III awarded Italian Crown in exile, but most likely not according to his biographers...  Many Egyptians received Italian Crown Orders in the 1930's-40's.    

    The Egyptian [Royal] Gazette listed national and foreign decorations approved for wear by individuals but I do not know where copies are located.  Formerly Georgetown & American Universities in D.C. had microfilm copies but I have not reviewed those since the 1970's.  The Library of Congress had both hard copies and microfiche copies I saw in the 1980's.  

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    922f, Many thanks for identifying the other medals I am unfamiliar with (I do know the Medal for Meritorious Action or Medal of Devotion, but am not knowledgable  enough to determine they are the likely hidden culprits in this image). Is the four-rayed version of the Order of Homayoun worn on a chest ribbon likely the 5th (Knight) Class of this award? The Order of Leopold appears to have a dark ribbon (blue with the central black stripe?) with a rosette and lack the crossed swords below the crown (a wartime addition). Given the varieties of this award, would this be the Civil version Officer's Cross, or which do you think this represents? Variant forms of the Officer Class of the Order of Leopold II are shown in the following illustration here on GMIC: one by g-deploige on 15 June, 2006;  oli4vercammen illustrates 2 Officer Class medals on 15 August 2006; and bilylev shows a very distinct Officer Class version he identifies as from the "time of the Congo state" (or is "Type I" a better term for the central medallion design this variant?) on 30 December, 2013, all on the "Belgian Order of Leopold II" thread started by Laurence Strong on 9 November, 2005 in the "Europe & Baltic States" section here on GMIC. That mark between the Khedive's Sudan Medal and the Order of Homayoun does not appear to be a button, given the configuration of the uniform. It may be a spot on the image rather than anything this guard is wearing (there are a couple stains on this image, one just below the Order of Homayoun). 

    I also am interested to look up more about the Order of Leopold as a name of a Belgian judge of the Egyptian Mixed Courts (one of the subjects I'm interested in here on GMIC) is associated with one of the beautiful Judicial Badges also was a recipient of the 5th Class (Chevalier/Knight) Ordre de Leopold, and perhaps that may help me track down more information on his judicial career. In the 13 January, 2016 post I mentioned by Chris W, he states that King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy visited Egypt in 1933 before his abdication, do you know how that visit or other associations would have resulted in the distribution of the Italian Order of the Crown to several Royal Guards?


    As I did not find an image of the Iranian Order of Homayoun (is the term "Sun and Lion" used on auction listings an appropriate English term for this order, since the symbolism appears on many other Persian/Iranian medals?) here on a quick search of GMIC, I am illustrating a 5th Class version of the Knight's Cross from a 2016 auction listing of La Galerie Numismatique from the Sixbid.com website (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=3116&category=63942&lot=2606766). This example is identified as silver gilt with enamel, measuring 59 mm (in diameter), is hallmarked "800", and was made by Arthus Bertand, Paris. 

    Edited by Rusty Greaves
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    Rusty,   Responding to your comments---Around 1925 the Pahlavi Dynasty restructured the Qajar Dynasty's Order of the Sun & Lion [1808] and renamed it the Order of Homayoun [Humayun].   Iran used this version until the Shah’s overthrow in 1979.  Officer and knight badges usually look like the image you posted with officers’ badges having a ribbon rosette.  Belgian Order of Leopold II insignia indicates military division for officers and knights by crossed swords attached to the ribbon not between the suspension crown & top of cross.   Leopold II officer & knight badges with the crossed swords between the cross and suspension crown [as well as commander badges with swords fastened to the cravat suspension loop] do exist but they are NOT statutory--either fantasy collector pieces or one off individual confections.   So yes, this one represents the civil division.  The piece worn in the image is most likely a so-called 2nd type with lion in center & motto inscription in French only.  Belgium authorized conferment of Leopold II 3rd type insignia, with motto in both French and Flemish, by 1951 statute change.  

    Besides VE III's 1933 visit, Egyptians had many opportunities to receive Italian honors.  Occasions like diplomatic or administrative exchanges, naval & commercial ship visits, international fairs, and similar instances afforded possibilities for prospective awards.    

    I suppose an argument could be made that 5th class Homayoun, 4th or 5th class Leopold II, and 5th class Italian Crown awards would be appropriate for junior level officers up to army captain or vice consul and similar ranks.

    On closer inspection, I agree that it looks like a photographic ‘speck’ between the Homayoun and Leopold II badges.

    Edited by 922F
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    922F, again I am most indebted for your knowledge of these medals that helps me to better understand the materials I have been researching about the Order of Ismail, and the many other paths that that takes me. I can't thank you enough for your help in augmenting what I have been looking into so that I can appreciate a deeper amount of contextual information beyond simply identifying the Order of Ismail that my wife's great grandfather was awarded. 

    I found a few very high-resolution images of an Order of Ismail chest star from a 2017 auction by Bukowskis to add to this thread (https://www.bukowskis.com/en/lots/906508-the-order-of-ismail-nischan-al-ismail-22k-gold-and-silver-lattes-in-kairo-1928-1929-weight-ca-81-g#). This medal is identified as weighing ~81 g, and has a diameter of ~7 cm, although the auction site does not identify the class of this star, the 70 mm diameter indicates it is the 2nd Class Grand Officer version of this award (the Grand Cordon chest star is 81 mm in diameter). This example was made by Lattes of Cairo. 


    Here is a high resolution close-up photo of the central medallion enameled "Ismail" inscription  from the same Bukowskis 2017 auction (https://www.bukowskis.com/en/lots/906508-the-order-of-ismail-nischan-al-ismail-22k-gold-and-silver-lattes-in-kairo-1928-1929-weight-ca-81-g#)


    And below is a nice lateral view of the chest star, again from the same example on the Bukowskis 2017 auction (https://www.bukowskis.com/en/lots/906508-the-order-of-ismail-nischan-al-ismail-22k-gold-and-silver-lattes-in-kairo-1928-1929-weight-ca-81-g#)


    Edited by Rusty Greaves
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    • 2 weeks later...


    Above are 2 examples of miniatures of the Egyptian Order of Ismail from a recent 2018 auction of La Galleria Numismatique, featured on the Sixdbid.com website. On the L is a 3rd Class Commander grade of this mini, indicted by the rosette and silver galon (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=5367&category=168960&lot=4479891). It is identified as 30 mm tall by 20 mm wide and made of silver. On the L is a 4th Class Officer mini, indicated by the rosette and lack of a galon (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=5367&category=168960&lot=4479892). This Officer Class mini also is identified as silver and measuring 30 mm tall and 20 mm wide.  Both of these appear to be older miniatures, comparable to the examples I illustrated on this thread in the photo on 5 December 2017; and on the thread "Miniatures of the Middle East & Arab World" started by Owain on 6 December 2017: my post of 11 Decemebr 2017, and that Owain shows in his post there (upper row 2nd from R) of 11 December, 2017 (and the reverse of that mini in his 1st photo on the post of 12 December 2017 in the "Miniatures..." thread, also upper row 2nd from R). The two minis above and the ones I listed as comparable are different from what appears to be a more recently manufactured version I illustrated here in the 1st photo on 6 December, 2017 (on the R) that lacks the Khedival crown as part of the suspension device and is associated with the somewhat unusual mini in the L of that photo with very abbreviated design based on the sash badge (1st Class, Grand Cordon) and neck badge (2nd Class, Grand Officer along with a chest star; and 3rd Class Commander that has a neck badge only as the full-sized regalia). The configuration of the 3rd Class mini above contrasts with the example  I illustrated here on 16 October, 2018 that has a rosette and silver galon, that made me wonder whether the 3rd Class mini might more appropriately be the neck badge form. Rather than representing different medal forms for different classes, these appear to show that older miniatures of the Order of Ismail (likely from before it was discontinued in 1952) are distinctly different from those that probably date even much more recently than 1952 termination of this official state award (except as "royal exile" awards as discussed by 922F on 5 December 2017 in this thread). It appears all of the clearly older forms of the mini employ the design of the chest star for this order, and several more recent miniatures Order of Ismail medals use the sash badge/neck star design (shown on the 1st photo of 6 December, 2017 in this thread; the oddly configured modern piece in the 3rd photo on 6 December, 2017 from falera-et-orbis.com inventory of "in-stock" minis; and the inexpensive eBay example in the 4th photo from my 6 December, 2017 post that was manufactured in 2015, as well as that shown on 16 October, 2018). 

    Another example of the miniature of this Order with the chest star configuration is shown in a listing on acsearch.info from a 2016 auction by Auktionhaus H. R. Rauch (top set obverse shown on far R; reverse shown on top L far L; and the obverse again in the bottom image in the case on the far R) (https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?term=Egypt&category=4&en=1&de=1&fr=1&it=1&es=1&ot=1&images=1&thesaurus=1&order=0&currency=usd&company=) along with 10 other miniatures on a chain. The resolution of those illustrations is too poor for any meaningful detail of that Order of Ismail miniature medal or any of the others on that same chain, but is shown below simply as another example of this form of the Order of Ismail mini. 




    Edited by Rusty Greaves
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    • 1 month later...

    Markus recently illustrated a couple nice exmples of the Order of Ismail from a Spink auction in the thread "Interesting Egyptian orders in Spink Auction" he started on 28 November here in the "Middle East & Arab States" section. That posting made me realize that I have not systematized the measurements provided on some auction sites and a few other references that may help distinguish the different classes of this order. That Spink auction listing provided dimensions of the medals, but did not identify the classes of the two examples being auctioned. For some distinctions, size clearly indicates which class these are. The "identification" of some of the classes is not always correct in these listings. That is understandable in relation to some of the regalia for this Order, especially the neck badge of the 2nd Class Grand Officer and the 3rd Class Commander (neck badge only) that appear to be the same dimensions, and possible also the sash badge of the 1st Class Grand Cordon when separated from the sash. However, enough other errors in assignments of class could be resolved through comparisons of any provided measurements that this seems to be a useful bit of information to include in this thread. There is some variation in the dimensions provided on various websites, principally it seems in where the measurement is taken on the suspension device for the vertical dimension. I may have looked at enough photos and descriptions to provide a pretty good key to the sizes. I apologize for the redundancies in descriptions and images with previous posts, but wanted to provide these data in a systematic way in one post.  


    1st Class Grand Cordon (sash, sash badge, and breast star worn on the wearer's left) (From:https://www.spink.com/lot/17003000028)

    The sash badge is 62 mm wide by 80 mm tall (including the crown suspension device to the top of the crescent and star). Some examples are identified as 82 mm tall, and this likely includes the suspension loop as well, but it is not always clear in the description). A few examples' widths are identified at 61.5 or even 60, but enough examples are identified as 62 mm wide that appears to be the most likely dimension. The JOMSA (2006, Vol 57 [4]: 20) description of this badge identifies it as 62 mm in diameter (excluding the suspension device) and 82 mm including the suspension.  The best measurement sources from auction sites appear to be from eMedals listings. Most of these examples with measurements were made by Lattes of Cairo. There is some disagreement whether the sash badge is 22k or 18k gold (see final illustration and note below). I have not found weights for most examples, but one by Tewfik Bichay is identified as 49.2 g on the German auction site Kuenker that provides more detailed information about the purity of the gold and silver than is available on other listings (https://www.kuenker.de/en/archiv/stueck/58396). This badge also has portions that are silver gilt, and enameled. As noted in the same JOMSA description, the sash is 100 mm wide with 9 mm lateral red stripe inset 2 mm from each badge. 

    The breast star is fairly consistently identified as 80 mm in diameter in auction listings, although some examples are reported to be 81 mm or 82 mm. The cited JOMSA article published 84 mm as the diameter measurement. Again, it is unclear whether the badges gold is 22k or 18k. The star also has components that are silver, silver gilt, and the enameling.



    2nd Class Grand Officer (neck badge and breast star worn on the wearer's right) (From: https://www.flickr.com/photos/kelisli/8844318688

    The neck badge is variously reported as 78 mm-85 mm tall. The most reliable measurements seem to fall between 78 - 79.5 mm identified as to the superior portion of the crown suspension, crescent & star (they do not always specify that the suspension loop is excluded from this dimension). A couple identified measurements are 85 mm tall, but this appears to be including the suspension loop. The width is most commonly identified as 61 mm, although 60 mm & 62 also are reported. Where reported, the weight is identified as ~47 g or 48.6 g.  It appears the neck badge is both the same design and dimension as the sash badge of the 1st Class award and the neck badge of the 3rd Class award. The above cited JOMSA article identifies the neck ribbon as 37 mm wide with 5 mm red stripes set 1 mm from each edge. 

    The breast star is pretty consistently identified as  70 mm in diameter. The same materials are identified in the manufacture of the neck badge and breast star (gold, silver, silverer gilt, & enamel) as for the 1st Class, but the gold is variously reported as 22k or 18k (again, see final note below). The weight  of the breast star is reported between 81 and 81.25 g. 



    3rd Class Commander (neck badge only) (From: https://www.emedals.com/egypt-kingdom-an-order-of-ismail-in-gold-1st-class-commander-by-j-lattes-c-1925)

    The neck badge appears to be the same dimension as that for the 2nd Class award and the sash badge of the 1st Class. There is a fair bit of variation in the dimensions that are reported for examples where it seems to be a fairly secure identification of the 3rd Class. The most consistent reporting is that is it 61 mm wide and 78-79.5 mm tall. Some listings identify it as up to 82 mm tall, and this variation again appears to be likely due to various measurements either to the top of the crown and star or including the suspension loop. Also variously reported as 22k or 18k gold (see illustration of the hallmarks on the suspension loop of this badge on the final image below and the note). Several websites identify the weight as 48.6 g.  



    4th Class Knight (breast badge with ribbon adorned with rosette) (From: https://www.emedals.com/egypt-a-french-made-order-of-ismail-officer-by-lattes)

    The breast badge is reported as 54.8 mm wide, a couple listings state 55 mm and one identifies it as 58 mm (?). The height is reported between 74 and 76, again probably due to differences in whether the suspension loop is included or only the crown with crescent and star. The materials are almost certainly the same as those of the larger 1st Class and 2nd Class breast stars. 



    Miniatures (from:https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=5367&category=168960&lot=4479892

    All unambiguously genuine miniatures appear to be of the form I noted in my last post here of 10 November, 2018 and shown above. All of these examples are identified as measuring  20 mm wide x 30 mm tall (and seem to include only the suspension crown, crescent and star and not include the suspension loop). As posted above, the illustrated example is the 4th Class Knight miniature (in my 10 November posting, I mistakenly identified this mini as also on the L, the same side as the 3rd Class Commander mini with silver galon).  All examples where materials are identified are silver or silver gilt and enamel. 



    Gold Hallmarks

    A good quality close-up image of the hallmarks on suspension loop the same 3rd Class Commander neck badge shown above (https://www.emedals.com/egypt-kingdom-an-order-of-ismail-in-gold-1st-class-commander-by-j-lattes-c-1925). These are the same hallmarks that appear on the gold of most other examples as well. The hallmark on the left is the purity of the gold, and this mark appears to indicate 18k gold. The bird in the middle hallmark is usually identified as a stork, and is the Egyptian hallmark for gold. The "A" indicates a manufacture date of 1925-26. 

    Edited by Rusty Greaves
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    Rusty, A great summary  on the dimensions - your thread and research has become the 'go to' location for the details of this order. Thank you for your research. Regards from Riyadh, Owain

    P.S. With regard to the Rauch set of miniatures illustrated in your previous post, probably to a French recipient, it would appear that one of the awards is an 'extra' either added by the recipient to his chain - rather than get a longer chain, or perhaps added much later. Has the Ismail been squeezed in? The fact that the chain includes an Egyptian Monarchy Order of Ismail and a Republic Order of the Nile is of interest - the latter was for recipients of the rank of Prime Minister of similar. the Ismail would chronologically been awarded first but it appears to be an 'extra' in this group  although in seniority it may be the junior foreign award by rank or grade.

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    • 4 weeks later...

    Owain, many thanks for your continued interest and help in advancing my understanding about the Order of Ismail and the other limited excursion I am making into this period of Egyptian phaleristics. Your additional information and point about the mix of Monarchy and Republic era miniatures in the Rauch photograph is quite interesting. The Republic Order of the Nile is a 2nd Class of that Order (galon with gold on R and silver on L) while the Order of Ismail mini appears to be the 4th Class (rosette with no galon). Unfortunately, very few images of miniatures Order of Ismail I have run across show any galon to demonstrate common use on the minis. Would those differences in Class help explain the order of the the two Egyptian minis on this French bar? 

    I'm afraid my silence has been due to submersion in more pedantic tarpits of investigation of my vast ignorance, I hope this screed on hallmarks is of some interest to folks here. 

    I have been looking into Egyptian hallmarks in relation to my interests in the Order of Ismail. I would like to share some of what I have found out about gold and silver hallmarks, especially those identify the purity of metals employed and the dates of manufacture. A complete set of Egyptian hallmarks for gold or silver include 3 punch marks: the left most is the fineness assay that identifies the purity of the precise metal as tested by an assay office. This mark also includes which office certifies that purity. The middle hallmark identifies Egypt as the location where the piece was made. For silver, a cat was used from 1916 until 1946. After 1946 a lotus image was used for the identification of Egyptian silver. The origin mark for gold is a bird, usually identified as an ibis, but also possibly an egret or stork, and often a number of other silly names on website listings (i.e., "seagull"!?). For a brief period, ~February of 1951 until an unspecified date after King Farouk's banishment on 26 July, 1956, King Farouk I's cipher was used for gold, and then the ibis image was re-instituted. The third, right-most, hallmark identifies the date of manufacture (or when the piece was hallmarked). Roman letters were used to indicate dates from 1916 until 1940. From 1940 until the present, Arabic letters have been used to identify the manufacturing dates. The chart I posted in the 3rd image on 12 September, 2018 in this thread is the most commonly available date listing (covering only 1916-1982). There are some discrepancies in published dating charts (i.e. in George C. Miles 1957. A note on Egyptian gold and silver assay marks. Museum Notes (American Numismatic Society) vol 7; pp. 251-253, identifies dates slightly different from the table in my 12 September post. However, other published date tables generally agree with the one here [i.e., in Azza Fahmy,  2007. Enchanted Jewelery of Egypt: The Traditional art and Craft.  American University of Cairo Press, Cairo: pg 199]. Although Miles states that he got the information for his 1957 article from the director of the Administration of Stamps and Weights in Cairo [ibid. pg. 251], his article contains another error I can identify: he incorrectly identifies the cat silver hallmark as post-1946 and the lotus and the pre-1946 country mark for silver [ibid. pg 253]. One source I have not been able to check through interlibrary loan is the recent, expensive, but hopefully comprehensive and well-researched treatment of Egyptian hallmarks: Danusia V. Niklewicz, Lindy L. Matula, & William B. Whetstone [eds.], 2017. World Hallmarks Vol II: Asia, Middle East, Africa, With Additional Comments on Non-Hallmarking Regions [Gold, Silver, Platinum, Palladium Hallmarks]. The Hallmark Research Institute). I have posted one additional date chart here that I have come across on the internet that extends the listings of Arabic date marks to 2009. There are some difference between this one and the previously posted table. However, only one discrepancy between these charts is mentioned below: for a Lattes manufactured 1st Class Grand Cordon example marked “F” (and for some possible later Arabic letter date hallmarks where they cannot be read with certainty and there are some contrasts between these 2 charts identification of this dates). Generally, most reporting on auction sites appear to use dating information congruent with the chart I posted on 12 September, 2018.  As the Order of Ismail's breast star is constructed from a silver embellishment surmounted by a gold and enameled star, both sets of marks can provide useful information. While I hope this information is of interest in relation to other Egyptian awards from comparable periods, this post is specifically about the hallmarks on the Order of Ismail, as placement and other variation seen here appears to be different on other awards. 


    From: http://i.ebayimg.com/00/s/MTQxMFgxMjIy/z/L8QAAOSwpDdU5M70/$_3.JPG?set_id=2

    I wish to first illustrate some of the marks encountered on the Order of Ismail (and of course other Egyptian medals) and to illustrate the positions and some variations I have seen on photographs of these hallmarks. Below is the most comprehensive chart listing I have been able to find of these hallmarks, especially for assay offices other than Cairo (which are the most commonly illustrated on the internet). The assay office marks are the same for gold and silver. The superior Arabic marking (on 3-10 for gold and 14-16 for silver) is the assay office location and the lower Arabic mark is the metal purity. This comes from the Miles 1957 article, and I do not have comparable data that can be used to check his identifications, although I have checked this with other information as best I can. 


    1=the country gold mark for Egypt (ibis); 2=King Farouk I's cipher used as the Egyptian gold mark from 1951-~1956; 3=the Cairo office's mark for 12 karat gold; 4=the Alexandria office's mark for 14 karat gold; 5=the Beni Suef office's mark for 18 karat gold; 6=the Tanta office's mark for 21 karat gold; 7=the El Mansoura office's mark for 23 1/2 karat gold; 8=the Zagazig office's mark for 12 karat gold; 9=the Asyut office's mark for 14 karat gold; 10=the Qena office's mark for 18 karat gold; 11=an example of the use of Arabic letters to indicate manufacturing dates from 1941 to the present (this example is probably for 1951-53); 12=the country mark for Egyptian silver after 1946 (lotus flower); 13=the country mark for Egyptian silver from 1916-1946; 14=the Cairo office's mark for 600 silver (60%); 15=the Alexandria office's mark for 800 silver (80%); 16=the Tanta office's mark for 900 silver (90%). From: George C. Miles 1957. A note on Egyptian gold and silver assay marks. Museum Notes(American Numismatic Society) vol 7; pp. 252-253. Below I illustrate a few additional examples of drawn hallmark designs and actual silver hallmarks since their execution and subsequent wear does show variation across pieces.  


    Above from L to R are additional illustrations of the origin and fitness hallmarks for Egyptian silver: 1916-1946 country and precious metal mark for Egyptian silver (cat); the lotus flower country and precious metal mark for Egyptian silver after 1946; the next 3 images illustrate the fineness marks from the Cairo assay office for (from L to R) 600 silver; 800 silver (missing some detail in the Cairo office designation); and 900 silver. (all from:  http://www.chineseargent.com/home/egyptian-silver-hallmark


    Two examples of the complete 3 hallmark sets: L=indicating (from left  to right) 800 silver mark assayed by the Cairo office; the pre-1946 cat mark for Egyptian silver, and the Roman date letter "I" for 1933-1934; R=another example of the 3 hallmarks identifying 900 silver assayed by the Qena office, post-1946 Egyptian silver manufacture, and the Arabic date letter (for 1978?) (all from: http://www.chineseargent.com/home/egyptian-silver-hallmark


    Two additional sets of complete silver hallmarks. R=900 silver assayed by the Cairo office,  Egyptian silver made post-1946, and the Arabic date letter indicating manufacture from 1959-1961; 900 silver from the Cairo office, Egyptian silver made post-1946, and the Arabic date letter indicating manufacture. There are some allegedly genuine 900 silver fineness marks that show 2 dots to the right of the "9" indicating "900" rather than "90"(%). (from: http://www.chineseargent.com/home/egyptian-silver-hallmark)


    Gold hallmarks from L to R: a stylized image of the ibis mark identifying Egyptian gold; fineness mark identifying 14 karat gold from the Cairo assay office; 18 karat gold from the Cario assay office. Note that the clarity of the assay office mark for both gold and silver is especially highly variable due to differences in the execution of the punch as well as subsequent wear. (from:http://www.chineseargent.com/home/egyptian-silver-hallmark)


    The above first example I illustrate of hallmarks on the Order of Ismail is the same 3rd Class Commander’s neck badge made by J. Lattes from a January 2018 auction by eMedals that I illustrated in the final photograph of my post on 13 December, 2018 in this thread. The auction description identifies this neck badge as dating to c1925 and measuring 60.3 mm wide x 82.5 mm high (including the “suspension and loop”). The description correctly identified the mark as 18 k gold, and describing the “stork” hallmark identifying Egypt, and the “A” mark as dating it to 1925-26. This example is in the case of issue. The hallmark shown above is on the reverse right side of the crown suspension device, indicating 18 k gold from from the Cairo assay office. A blurry view of this same mark can be seen on my final illustration of the 13 December 2018 post. Only a few photographs of this mark are present on auction listings, so it is unclear how common it is and whether it always is present as a single fineness mark. (from: https://www.emedals.com/egypt-kingdom-an-order-of-ismail-in-gold-1st-class-commander-by-j-lattes-c-1925)


    Obverse of the same Commander’s neck badge showing the placement of the three hallmarks on the right side of the suspension device arm connecting the superior  ray of the star with the crown suspension device. Several photos of this detail show the same placement of the full set of three hallmarks, at least for the 3rdClass Commander’s neck badge and the 2nd Class Grand Officer‘s neck badge made by J. Lattes of Cairo. There are not enough detailed images of the sash badge of the 1st Class Grand Cordon on auction sites to determine whether the same hallmarks are present on that device. At least one example of a neck badge of a Grand Cordon class made by Tewfik Bichay shows a similar placement of at least 1 hallmark (shown below). However, only a single hallmark is partly visible in that image, and it cannot be determined which hallmark it may be as it is blocked by the inferior portion of the crown suspension device (although see the note about the hallmark from the auction description in my text below). (from: https://www.emedals.com/egypt-kingdom-an-order-of-ismail-in-gold-1st-class-commander-by-j-lattes-c-1925)


    Hallmarks on the reverse central boss of the same Commander’s neck badge showing the normal location of the set of 3 hallmarks centered below the “LATTES” manufacturer’s hallmark. Exampes made by Tewfik Bichay have different placement of the hallmarks (shown below). (from: https://www.emedals.com/egypt-kingdom-an-order-of-ismail-in-gold-1st-class-commander-by-j-lattes-c-1925)


    Incorrectly 'repaired" example of a named 2nd Class Grand Officer breast star. This is from the same named award set to the Italian Physician Dr. Giovanni Quirico, physician to King Fuad I, that I illustrated in its case (Arabic #2 on lid=2ndclass) on 14 November, 2017 (4th photo in that post). I noted the incorrect rotation of the gold star in relation to the silver-faceted-rayed embellishment star below it. This higher resolution image of the same breast star has been rotated so that the gold star is in approximately its correct orientation. While the incorrect re-assembly of this named Grand Officer breast star is quite unfortunate, I am providing this illustration in relation to available close-ups of the hallmarks on the pin on the reverse, and this obverse view shows some aspects of the construction design not visible on intact examples of this star. I illustrated the envelope for the brevet in the 5th photo of that same post of 14 November 2017, and the brevet (395x253 mm), written in Arabic in the 6th photo. Neck star=85x62 mm; breast star=70 mm. (From: https://www.coins-la-galerie-numismatique.com/auction-33-day-1/order-ismail)


    Gold hallmarks on the obverse face of Dr. Quirico’s Grand Officer Class neck badge showing the  right side of the suspension device. This is the same position as shown in the 2nd photo above of the Commander’s neck badge from 1925-1926 from the eMedals auction. This close-up photo is oriented to illustrate the hallmarks with the superior portion of the neck badge to the right and inferior to the left (the visible enameled finial ball is the superior arm of the star). The left hallmark indicates 18 karat gold assayed by the Cairo office. The central hallmark is the "stork" or ibis indicating Egypt. The “Z” hallmark on the right indicates the date beween 1924-25. Perhaps a more precise date can be gleaned in the Arabic text of the brevet shown in the 6th photo of my post of 14 November, 2017. (From: https://www.coins-la-galerie-numismatique.com/auction-33-day-1/order-ismail)


    Gold hallmarks on the reverse face of the suspension loop of the Grand Officer Class neck badge of Dr. Quirico (behind the crown element). The left hallmark indicates 18 karat gold assayed by the Cairo office. The “Z” hallmark on the right indicates a date of 1924-1925. This set of hallmarks is the in the same position as that illustrated in the final photo of my 13 December, 2018 post showing the set of 3 hallmarks on the Commander’s neck badge from 1925-1926 that lacks a ribbon. Given how few images can be found of this portion of the suspension ring for the ribbon, it is unclear how common it is to have 2 or 3 hallmarks in this location. (From: https://www.coins-la-galerie-numismatique.com/auction-33-day-1/order-ismail)


    Silver hallmarks on the reverse of the central tunic pin of the Grand Officer Class breast star of Dr. Quirico. The “S” visible in the background is from the “LATTES” hallmark. This image is oriented to show the hallmarks, with the superior portion of the breast star to the left and the inferior is to the right. The Silver hallmark on the left is the assay office mark for Cairo indicating 900 silver and the “Z” date is for 1924-25. Although some photos of the reverse of the chest star show the presence of this set of hallmarks on the tunic pin, few are high enough resolution to determine if they consistently exhibit 1 or 2 of the hallmarks. (From: https://www.coins-la-galerie-numismatique.com/auction-33-day-1/order-ismail)


    Hallmarks on the central boss of a 3rd Class Commander’s neck badge from an August 2018 auction by eMedals. The description correctly identifies that the fineness mark indicates 18 karat gold (from the Cairo assay office), that the “stork” indicates Egyptian gold, and that the “A” dates the manufacture/hallmarking to 1925-1926. This Lattes example measures 61 mm wide x 79.5 mm tall, including the crown suspension device (probably only to the top of the crescent and star portions of the design). (From: https://www.emedals.com/egypt-kingdom-an-order-of-ismail-in-gold-1st-class-commander-by-j-lattes-c-8713)


    Reverse of the right side of the crown suspension device on this same Commander’s neck badge showing the same isolated fineness mark identifying it as 18 karat gold from the Cairo assay office. (From: https://www.emedals.com/egypt-kingdom-an-order-of-ismail-in-gold-1st-class-commander-by-j-lattes-c-8713)


    Image of the reverse of the suspension loop of the same Commander's neck badge showing the set of 3 Egyptian hallmarks in the same position as that shown in the final image of my 13 December, 2018 post and above for the 2 hallmarks on the named Dr. Quirico Grand Officer example. This example is unusual in also having an assay mark (European?) to the left of the Egyptian fineness hallmark that is identified in the auction description as reading “585”. This mark is upside down in relation to the Egyptian marks, and may be the result of a later assay of this piece outside of Egypt. This 585 mark is surprising as that would indicate 14 karat gold (“750” would indicate 18 karat gold), suggesting a discrepancy between the purity identified in the original Egyptian assay and this other (later?) test (possibly outside of Egypt?). (From: https://www.emedals.com/egypt-kingdom-an-order-of-ismail-in-gold-1st-class-commander-by-j-lattes-c-8713)


    Hallmarks on the reverse central boss of a Lattes manufactured 3rd Class Commander’s neck badge from an April 2017 auction on the Sixbid.com website, showing good detail and some wear. The badge is identified as measuring 62 mm wide x 81 mm high and weight 47.8 g. (From: https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=3427&category=71681&lot=2842251)


    Reverse of a 4th Class Knight’s breast badge made by J. Lattes from an October 2017 auction by eMedals. The obverse of this medal is illustrated in the 4th photo on my post of 13 December, 2018 in this thread. The auction description identifies this medal as 54.8 mm wide x 76 mm high, including the crown suspension device. No date is identified in the description of this piece. This image shows the placement of the 3 silver hallmarks on the inferior central ray of the rayed and facetted silver embellishment. This is the most common position for this set of silver hallmarks for the Knight’s medal. The placement of these silver hallmarks on the 2nd Class Grand Officer’s breast star and on the 1st Class Grand Cordon breast star is normally slightly more superior, because of the position of the catch for the tunic pin (see below). No gold hallmarks are visible on the reverse of the gold rays in this or the other photos of this medal, although some other examples (from other classes) clearly show such hallmarks (see below). The resolution is too low to read the silver hallmarks with certainty. (From: https://www.emedals.com/egypt-a-french-made-order-of-ismail-officer-by-lattes)



    Above are two additional oblique images of both the reverse and obverse of this same Knight’s breast star showing some additional construction details (and the placement of the silver hallmarks on the reverse) that are not visible in full direct obverse and reverse photographs. (From: https://www.emedals.com/egypt-a-french-made-order-of-ismail-officer-by-lattes)


    Reverse of a 2nd Class Grand Officer’s breast star from an example from a December 2017 auction on eBay. This is from set of the neck badge and breast star that is in its original case. This is an interesting Lattes example because of a slightly unusual placement of the silver hallmarks on the rightmost long ray of the silver rayed and facetted embellishment rather than on the central ray. The 3 gold hallmarks also are visible on the lower right arm of the gold star. The 2 hallmarks on the tunic pin also are visible showing the fineness (Cairo assay office 900 silver) and date (“Z”=1924-1925) hallmarks. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-ORDER-OF-THE-ISMAIL-2ND-CLASS-GRAND-OFFICER-ORIGINAL-CASE-RIBBON-RARE/222734299477?hash=item33dbffb155:g:5jQAAOSwQwBZkILL)


    Close-up view of the same Grand Officer’s breast star from the eBay auction showing details of the silver and gold hallmarks. The silver hallmarks show the Cairo assay office 900 silver mark, the pre-1946 Egyptian silver cat mark, and the “Z” date hallmark. The gold hallmarks show the Cairo assay office 18 karat designation, the ibis mark for Egyptian gold,, and the “Z” date hallmark. Placement of the gold hallmarks appears to be more common on the reverse upper right arm in the few photos of other examples that show these marks (see below). (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-ORDER-OF-THE-ISMAIL-2ND-CLASS-GRAND-OFFICER-ORIGINAL-CASE-RIBBON-RARE/222734299477?hash=item33dbffb155:g:5jQAAOSwQwBZkILL)


    The gold hallmarks on the reverse central boss of the Grand Officer’s neck badge from this same set auction on eBay. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-ORDER-OF-THE-ISMAIL-2ND-CLASS-GRAND-OFFICER-ORIGINAL-CASE-RIBBON-RARE/222734299477?hash=item33dbffb155:g:5jQAAOSwQwBZkILL)


    Reverse of a 1st Class Grand Cordon breast star from a pre-2016 auction by eMedals. I illustrated the obverse of this example in the first 2 photos of my post of 13 November, 2017 on this thread, and posted this image of the reverse in the 2nd photo of that post. I also posted images of the obverse of the sash badge of this set that show the position of the obverse hallmarks on the suspension device (2 hallmarks are visible in the 4th photo in that post) and the 3 hallmarks on the reverse of the suspension loop (5th photo on that post). The auction description of this breast star identifies this example as 81 mm in diameter, and it also incorrectly states that it is 22 karat gold. The silver hallmarks are visible with the tunic pin opened on the lower portion of the silver embellishment aligned with the central ray. In contrast with the previous example the gold hallmarks are visible on the upper right ray of the gold and enameled star. (From: https://www.emedals.com/order-of-ismail-1915-w01271)


    Reverse of the same Grand Cordon breast star with the tunic pin closed, showing no silver hallmarks on the pin. (From: https://www.emedals.com/order-of-ismail-1915-w01271)


    Close-up image of the silver hallmarks on the same Grand Cordon breast star. The inferior margin of the star is to the right and he superior margin to the left. This photo shows significant wear on the fineness hallmark, but it is the Cairo assay office's 900 silver mark. The country and precious metal hallmark is the pre-1946 cat, and the “F” date mark (the first table I uploaded on 12 September, 2018 identifies this mark as 1931-1932, but the second table I included in this post identifies “F” as 1930-1931). (From: https://www.emedals.com/order-of-ismail-1915-w01271)


    Close-up view of the gold hallmarks on the upper right arm of the star on the same Grand Officer’s breast star. The image is oriented correctly and so that the superior portion of the piece is upwards in the photo. The hallmarks identify the Cairo assay office determination of 18 karat gold, the Egyptian gold ibis mark, and the “F” date hallmark.  (From: https://www.emedals.com/order-of-ismail-1915-w01271)


    Photo of a 1st Class set of the Grand Cordon Class of the Order of Ismail, sash badge and breast star but lacking the sash, made by Tewfick Bichay of Cairo from a Fall 2014 auction of Künker Münzauktionen und Goldhandel. I posted the un-cropped version of this photo in my second post of 30 April, 2018 on this thread. These are high-resolution images that can be enlarged. The auction description identifies that the sash badge weight as 49.2 g (no size dimensions given), and states that the breast star measures 82 mm. The description also states that the gold hallmarks identifies 750 point fineness of the gold (=18 k) on the reverse of the suspension ring & reverse of the crown suspension device. It also identifies a hallmark "د" on the suspension ring (almost certainly the obverse?), that might be a date hallmark for 1948-1949 or 1951-53 (by both the chart I posted on 12 September, 2018 and in this post). However, such a date would be at odds with the other information in the auction description. The silver hallmarks on the reverse of the breast star are identified in the auction description as that of the Cairo assay office and 900 silver. It also states the country mark is the pre-1946 cat, followed by a silver date mark of "D" that is stated to represent 1929. I cannot read the silver hallmarks in the photo. Both the date chart I posted on 12 September, 2018 and the chart I posted today identify "D" as the hallmark for 1928-1929. The auction description identifies the gold hallmarks on the reverse of the arms of the gold star (of the breast star) as the Cairo assay office mark for 750 Gold (18 karat), the Egyptian country hallmark for gold (ibis), and describes the final (rightmost) hallmark as  “ح” on the "pin" ( ["Nadel"]=most distal and near the finial of the star's arm?) with two "side" or "to the side" (?)["seitlichen]) "marks"(? ["Fixierhacken" “...und Punze "ح", an Nadel, mit zwei seitlichen Fixierhaken“-sorry my technical German its doch gar schlecht). The image above of the reverse of the sash badge shows similar placement of gold hallmarks on the suspension ring’s reverse as seen on other examples of the Commander’s and Grand Officer neck badges shown in this post (but as the auction description notes, just 2 marks are present=Cairo assay office marks for 18 karat gold and a probable date mark I cannot read). These are in a similar position to those on Lattes examples, but only 2 hallmarks are present and they are slightly offset to the left underneath the Tewfik Bichay hallmark (compared with the centered marks seen on the reverse boss of Commander’s and Grand Officer’s neck badges by Lattes). The left hallmark is the Cairo assay office mark for 18 karat gold and the right is the date hallmark (that I cannot read with certainty). The reverse of the breast star shows slightly different placement of the silver & gold hallmarks from those of J. Lattes of Cairo in the few auction images of the reverse of the Grand Cordon or Grand Officer classes that provide illustrations useful for locating these hallmarks. The silver hallmarks can be seen in the lower right set of rays rather than the more inferior position as on most all of the Lattes examples. The gold hallmarks can be seen on the lower right arm of the star. No hallmark is visible on the pin, unlike many examples illustrated of Lattes' medals. (From: https://www.kuenker.de/en/archiv/stueck/58396)


    The obverse of sash badge from the same Grand Cordon Künker set. This example shows the single hallmark visible on the right suspension arm connecting the superior star arm with the crown suspension device. As noted previously, this is the same position of hallmarks on examples of the Commander’s and on Grand Officer’s neck badges made by Lattes. This single hallmark is visible on the right hand suspension device just below the base of the crown, but as this portion is obscured it is unclear whether any additional hallmarks also are present in this location, as they are on Lattes' versions of this award. The auction description identifies the hallmark "د" on the suspension ring, in a separate sentence from the statement about the marks on the reverse of the crown and suspension ring, presumably referring to this mark on the obverse suspension arm and suggesting there is only one hallmark here. (From: https://www.kuenker.de/en/archiv/stueck/58396)


    A set auctioned by Sixbid in November of 2012 identified as the 2nd Class Grand Officer Class neck badge and breast star showing low-resolution images of the hallmarks on the reverse. This is the same photo I posted in the first image on my post of December 4, 2017 in this same thread.The auction listing incorrectly identifies that maker as “St Dionay”. Owain identified this as the Fahmy Tewfik Bichay (son of Tewfik Bichay) hallmark in his 5 April, 2018 post on this thread with excellent photos of the reverse hallmark on a comparable example of the 3rd Class Commander's neck badge. Owain’s example also shows the placement of possibly two gold hallmarks on the lower right (~5:30 position) of the central reverse boss. The illustrated silver hallmarks on the reverse of the breast star are similarly configured to those of the Fahmy Tewfik Bichay gold hallmarks on the neck badge. The positions of any gold or silver hallmarks on these 2 pieces cannot be determined from the photos. The other variant design element is the use of a suspension ring between the neck badge star (piecing the superior arm of the star) and the crown suspension device rather than the more common “arms” connecting the superior star arm with the crown.  This form of the hallmark of Tewfik Bichay and the use of the suspension ring also is seen in the example of the 3rd Class Commander’s neck badge illustrated by Owain on 5 April, 2018 in this thread. That illustration shows the hallmark in good detail and this alternate form of the suspension loop and crown. As per my comment on the engraving on the obverse face of Owain’s example (of 21 April, 2018), note that the Kuenker example of the 1st Class Tewfik Bichay manufactured award clearly shows the engraving on the gold floral embellishments in the blue enameled arms of the neck star, unlike Owain’s example and possibly in this neck badge and breast star that also carry the same form of Tewfik Bichay’s hallmark. (From: https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=515&category=11656&lot=539476


    Reverse of a 3rd Class Commander’s neck badge posted by Owain Raw-Rees on this thread on 5 April, 2018, as noted above for the Sixbid.com example with the same Fahmy Tewfik Bichay manufacturer's hallmark. Owain’s example shows the placement of two gold hallmarks on the lower right (~5:30 position) of the central reverse boss. I cannot read them in this image, perhaps Owain can, but it is likely there are a fineness mark and a date mark. The probable date mark on the right is fairly clear, but I cannot match it with the marks on either date hallmark charts I have posted here (possibly the first of the listed 1982 marks on the chart in this post?-suggesting this is a monarchy in exile award). 


    Edited by Rusty Greaves
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    Owain, thanks for your encouragement. I have spoken with the editor of JOMSA about one or more articles on some of this research and the only additionally significant time commitment would be obtaining permission from the many auction site images I am obliged to use to get some of the diversity of photographic material about the Order of Ismail. Unlike my anthropology work, I do not have the rights to any of these images. Again, I am most grateful to the staff at GMIC for providing this extensive and sophisticated forum that has allowed me to learn about these particular beautiful medals, and the knowledgeable and generous interested contributors here who have both helped and encouraged my own efforts at learning more about the Order of Ismail! 

    I have a few contributions to follow up with on hallmarks related to the Order of Ismail. First, one correction: I misidentified the image of the gold hallmark on the eMedals Grand Cordon breast star in the the 5th from last image of my post of 11 January, 2019 as the "same Grand Officer's breast star", but it is an image from the same Grand Cordon breast star shown in the previous 3 images of that post. I particularly want to elaborate on the placement of the gold hallmark on the 4th Class Knight's breast badge. In my 11 January post, I provided one (of 3 illustrations of the Knight's badge) illustration of a Knight's breast badge showing the silver hallmark on the inferior central ray of the silver embellishment on this example from an eMedals auction of October 2017 (in the 13th & 14th images from last on that post). Unlike the Grand Cordon or Grand Officers' breast badges, no gold hallmarks are visible on the reverse of the gold rays of the five-pointed star of this badge nor on other examples of the reverse of the 4th Class  insignia I have come across in my research. I recently fond a couple examples of the location of the gold hallmarks for the Knight's breast badge on the suspension ring. 


    4th Class Knight's breast badge of the Order of Ismail showing the 3 gold hallmarks on the right obverse portion of the suspension ring (~3:00 o'clock position). As noted below, the suspension ring is probably not fixed in place, so the visibility of the hallmarks depends on the movement of the ring. This is an example made by J. Lattes from an auction of June 2016 by Heritage Auctions (previously unsold from a December 2015 auction). The description identifies it as 58 mm wide (no height given), correctly indicates it is 18 carat gold, and is in it's original case. The fact that it lacks the ribbon makes the hallmarks visible, unlike most other examples I have seen where most of the suspension ring is obscured by the ribbon. The image (and close-up below) are not high enough resolution to allow me to read the hallmarks. Thanks to this image, I have been able to see the margins of these hallmarks on a few other photographs of the Knight's badge (for example, see both illustrations in my post on this thread of 7 December, 2017, the first showing the full set of 3 hallmarks and the second showing only the margin of one), but this is the best I have found thus far showing their position. From: https://historical.ha.com/itm/military-and-patriotic/foreign-wars/egyptian-order-of-ismail-by-lattes-of-cairo/a/6144-47429.s


    Close-up view of the same Knight's breast badge form the same cased Heritage Auctions' Lattes example (https://historical.ha.com/itm/military-and-patriotic/foreign-wars/egyptian-order-of-ismail-by-lattes-of-cairo/a/6144-47429.s) showing the location of the 3 Egyptian gold hallmarks. Not being able to examine any Kight's medals, I do not know if the suspension ring is free-to-move (as it appears to be in the images shown on my 11 January post of the first 2 images of the reverse of the eMedals example of the Knight's breast badge, again in the 13th & 14th images from last on that post) or fixed (probably not?). The location of the hallmarks is then likely probably dependent on the movement of the ring, not any predetermined portion of the movable suspension ring. Illustrations from the Egyptian Department of Hallmarks and Measures Archive (illustrated by Azza Fahmy in her 2007 book Enchanted Jewelry of Egypt: The Tradition and Craft, the American University of Cariro Press, Cairo, New York) does show that there are proper placements identified for a range of jewelry attachment hardware, in addition to hallmark locations specified for the body of different kinds and styles of jewelry made in Egypt. 

    Azza Fahmy's book confirms that the first table of date hallmarks I posted on this thread on 12 September, 2018 is the correct table from the Egyptian Department of Hallmarks and Measures. I am illustrating her copy of this table below as it is slightly higher resolution than the example I posted from the I Nostra Avi website (posted 12 September), and addresses my questions about the tables referenced in the George C. Miles 1957 article and the eBay example I posted on 11 January, 2019. Fahmy notes (2007: pg 197) that the Egyptian Dept. of Hallmarks and Measures was established under Saladin  (AD 1138-93), the marking of gold and silver purity was included in regulations created under Muhammad Ali in 1809, and laws regarding the hallmarking of jewelry were established in 1847. Relevant to the Order of Ismail, additional regulation the of hallmarks was done under Khedive Abbas Hilmi II in 1913. Fahmy also notes (pp 198, 200) a law issued under Sultan Hussein Kamel in 1916 that required all jewelers to hallmark their wares, and prohibited the sale of unhallmarked jewelry. That law also eliminated the 450 silver designation, especially for goods exported from Egypt (and the same restriction applied to 15 carat gold). Although redundant with some of the internet information I included about hallmarks on 11 January, Fahmy's illustrations are clearer, so I have included some here. These are high resolution images from her book and can be zoomed.


    Table of letters used to from the Egyptian Department of Hallmarks and Measures Archives, illustrated by Azza Fahmy on pg 199 of her 2007 volume: Enchanted Jewelry of Egypt: The Tradition and Craft. This higher resolution version of this table than the table I posted on 12 September, 2018. Fahey notes (pg 201) that Arabic letters were used as date hallmarks from 1940 onwards and that after 1949 (until 1967) the letters changed every 2 years (rather than the previous practice of changing them each year). When the war between Egypt and Israel occurred in 1967, Egypt stopped importing the steel pens used to trace hallmarks on jewelry from England until 1974 in order to conserve their reserves of foreign currency. 


    Gold hallmarks from illustrations in the Fahmy 2007 book: Above L= the ibis symbol identifying gold jewelry from Egypt (pg 201); Above R=hallmarks identifying the number of carats of gold jewelry (pg 198), from top to bottom: 23.5 carats, 21 carats, 18 carats, 15 carats (unlike the information I posted on 11 January, Fahmy identifies 15 rather than 14 carats for this gold hallmark), and 12 carats, all identifying Cairo as the hallmark office; Below center=an alternative hallmark for 23.5 carat gold hallmark without any assay office mark. 


    Egyptian silver hallmarks from illustrations in the Fahmy 2007 book (page 200): L= top to bottom: the lotus hallmark indicating  silver, the most common form of the cat hallmark with its tail raised (seen on all photographs I have seen showing hallmarks for the Order of Ismail, as well as the Egyptian Mixed Courts judges badge I have been researching), and a variant of the cat hallmark for silver with its tail lowered and shown here with the fineness 900 mark (although the previous information I posted on indicates the lotus is a post-1946 Egyptian silver hallmark and the cat was used from 1916-1946, Fahmy does not identify these date distinctions, and she may erroneously indicate 1940 as the date for the establishment of the block hallmark (leftmost) to indicate the type of precious metal); R=table of Egyptian silver hallmarks by region with date hallmarks of 1965-1967 or 1968-1974. 


    20th century document (1965-1967 or 1968-1974?) from the Egyptian Department of Hallmarks and Measures Archive showing Egyptian gold hallmark (ibis) and carat hallmarks (from Fahmy 2007 pg 202)


    20th century document (1965-1967 or 1968-1974?) from the Egyptian Department of Hallmarks and Measures Archive showing Egyptian silver hallmark (lotus) and silver fineness hallmarks (from Fahmy 2007 pg 203). 

    In the interest of including some information on hallmarks that may be relevant to any monarchy in exile versions of the Order of Ismail (see http://elm.com.sg and the post by Markus that he started on 28 November, 2018 in his thread "Interesting Egyptian orders in Spink Auction" here in the Middle East and Arab States section, showing 2 Order of Ismail insignia from the 1920s and two monarchy in exile awards: an Order of Light [Nishan al-Noor] and an Order of Mohammad Ali, although no hallmark information is present in the auction description other than the statement that they have the seal of King Fuad II and the unspecified maker's name), I am illustrating an example of the medallist ELM from Singapore's hallmarks. I cannot find examples on any Orders or other analogous awards, but there is a robust interest and internet documentation of runners' medals designed by ELM for various races around the world. ELM medals are apparently recognized as superior craftsmanship among race medal collectors (participants), and are well-illustrated. The best example that I could find showing the 2 ELM hallmarks is illustrated in the second set of photos below. 


    Illustration from the former initial website page of ELM medal makers who manufacture the monarchy in exile issue of the Order of Ismail (from: https://instarix.com/p/1449052170103257288_4325996166#). This illustration shows the breast badge in the correct orientation. The current 50th Anniversary ELM home page has a rotating set of illustrations that begins with the Order of Ismail oriented incorrectly with the superior portion of the badge to the left (http://elm.com.sg). The current English website for ELM does not appear to have a gallery. However, the French language ELM website does illustrate several different world Orders they manufacture, including the Egyptian monarchy in exile versions of the Order of Ismail and the Order of Mohammad Ali (http://elm.com.sg/fr/orders-decorations-medals/orders-decorations/).


    An ELM of Singapore medal for the 2015 1st ELM Medal Race: West Coast Mazda Run from the SG Runners.com website http://www.sgrunners.com/forum/index.php?/topic/19149-medal-hunters-united-list-of-elm-medal-races/&page=5). This high resolution image can be zoomed to see the 2 ELM hallmarks on the ribbon suspension. In this example, the left illustration is the obverse and has the  "ELM" hallmark. On the right is the reverse with the "www.elm.com.sg" hallmark. The placement of these hallmarks is principally on the ribbon suspension, but the side of the suspension with each hallmark is variable on some illustrated examples, and a few have hallmarks on the body of the medal. I do not know if these same hallmarks are used on awards such as the monarchy in exile version of the Order of Ismail nor what precious metal hallmarks may also be present. As noted above, the Spink auction examples of the monarchy in exile awards of the Order of Light and the Order of Mohammed Ali also are marked with the "seal" (cipher?) of King Fuad II. 


    Edited by Rusty Greaves
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