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Rusty Greaves

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  1. 922F, Many thanks for posting this information and the image of the different suspension swivel devices for the sash badge. I am most grateful to see such details about these swivel atttachments and your follow-up on the points about material scarcity affecting the availability of components of Egyptian awards. Fascinating background on these components in relation to the political and economic times when these awards were manufactured! I'm not surprised by your knowledge, but was delighted to see this posted information. I have a few more points and images about the Eisenhower Grand Cordon Order of Ismail to include here. The Museum Registrar suggested that the dye colors of the sash may not (necessarily) be an example of the difficulty 922F mentioned in obtaining good quality dyes in his post of 5 April, 2018. It appears that the original colors of the Eisenhower sash were similarly brilliant to other Grand Cordon examples shown in this thread. Perhaps the shortages that 922F mentions from conversations with Fahmy Tewfik Bichay that included ribbons involved both dyes of less brilliant original colors and dyes that were less stable. This could have been similar to the above illustrated and described variation in the swivel suspension devices 922F provides where shortages included several different temporal problems and work-arounds in obtaining materials needed for these Egyptian awards. The Museum Registrar at the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum has written me that the more muted colors are due to fading of the ribbon from exposure to UV light, and sent the below image (2nd photo) of the more vibrant coloration of a reverse portion of the sash. The sash and sash badge are currently "on rest", meaning they are being curated away from UV light sources (mostly daylight). However, I think that 922F's point is still relevant as perhaps these dye lots were less color-fast and suffered UV degradation that is uncommonly seen in earlier examples of the Order of Ismail I have illustrated on this thread, principally made by J. Lattes. I doubt that many of the Grand Cordon examples from auction sites have been as carefully protected from UV light for most of their post-award existence as this example from the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum in the National Archives and Records Administration. I think that 922F's information from Fahmy Tewfik Bichay suggests the potential for at least a couple of dye problems that have resulted in the unusual colors he noted on the ribbon of Owain's 3rd Class neck badge that was illustrated on this thread 5 April, 2018, and on the other examples of color and different stripe widths 922F notes in that post, as well as the susceptibility to fading on the Eisenhower example. This suggests a range of work-around solutions as the reason for these color differences rather than the recognition of a classificatory "type two" ribbon variety as Owain's example originally indicated as possible explanation. I do not have a good image of the hallmarks that allow an unambiguous identification of the year of manufacture, although it appears likely to be 1945-1946 (see below) but the maker of this set is Tewfik Bichay (also see below). All of the photos below are courtesy of the Museum Registrar of the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum, National Archives and Records Administration. Another image of the obverse of the sash of the Eisenhower Grand Cordon Class of the Order of Ismail showing the faded colors of the sash. The sash badge has been reversed in this image, and, although not of good resolution, the Tewfik Bichay hallmark is visible. The catalog number for the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum is written on the reverse of the badge, 61-195.1. Note that the bow of this example lacks the zig zag margins (pinking edge) as seen on the ends of the sash ribbon and present on almost all of the J. Lattes examples I have seen photos of and shown here on this GMIC with the better resolution images I have posted in this thread (see the photos in my posts of: 13 November, 2017 [3rd photo]; 6 December, 2017 - this is the same as shown in the 1st photo of my post of 13 December, 2018; and note the example Illustrated in the 2nd photo on 22 February, 2019 that is ambiguous in relation to the configuration of the bow margins and exhibits frayed margins of the ends of the sash ribbon). Zig zag margins of cloth are sometimes employed to limit the extent of fraying of cloth edges, but are probably at least partially decorative on these and other award sashes[?], but may also be used because of the potential wear to this portion of the sash. The museum catalog description identifies the dimensions of the sash badge as: 8.2 cm tall (only extending to the top of the star above the crescent and not including the uppermost portion of the suspension loop); the length of each arm of the gold and blue enamel arm of the star is measured as 2.4 cm (from the finial to where the arm meets the gold border of central round center of the badge); the height of the crown suspension device is 1.8 cm (from the inferior "headband opening" of the crown to the top of the star above the crescent); the width of the crown is 2.0 cm; the anterior to posterior dimension of the suspension loop attached to the crown device is given as 1.0 cm, and the total maximum thickness of the piece (from the obverse central enamel medallion boss with the calligraphy for "Ismail" to the center of the reverse boss) as 1.3 cm. The thickness of the central obverse medallion boss is 0.5 cm, the body of the star is 0.5 cm thick, and the revers boss is 0.3 cm. No maximum width is identified in the catalog description and illustration. Image of the reverse of the Eisenhower Order of Ismail sash showing the less faded colors of the sash ribbon that must have been exposed to less UV degradation than the obverse. However, note that the the two exterior margins show fading of the lateral red stripes, and there appears to be some color loss on parts of the blue portion, especially on the viewer's right side. Non-aniline red dyes can be particularly unstable in retaining their original color. This image shows nice detail of the reverse of the decorative ribbon knot that is rarely seen in photographs from auction sites of the Grand Cordon Class of the Order of Ismail. Reverse of the Eisenhower Order of Ismail breast star showing the hallmark of Tewfik Bichay. Only a portion of the the Cairo assay office gold hallmarks are visible on the gold star ray in the viewer's approximately 2:30 position. This is a compete set of 3 Egyptian gold hallmarks, but only the Cairo assay office identification of 18 carat gold can be distinguished. A single silver hallmark is visible in the center of the (viewer's) lower right of the reverse of the silver faceted embellishment. This appears to identify a manufacture date of 1945-1946. The Museum Registrar suggested that the discrepancy in the identified award date of this 1st Class Order of Ismail, the recorded 24 May, 1947 date in contrast with the taped paper strip on the presentation case 29 May, 1947 (noted in relation to the last photo of my previous post here of 17 September, 2019) may be due to the 24 May date referring to when King Farouk I signed the award brevet and 29 May as the date when it was actually presented to General Eisenhower in Washington, DC by the Egyptian Ambassador. The catalog number of this breast star is 61-195.2, written on the reverse silver boss. Closer detail of the Tewfik Bichay hallmark on the reverse of the Eisenhower breast star of theOrder of Ismail. The dimensions of the breast star are identified in the catalog documentation as: the diameter is 8.2 cm; the length of the longest ray of the silver embellishment measures 2.5 cm (from the exposed obverse portion between the arms of the gold star to the outermost position of the longest central ray); the arms of the gold and enamel star rays are 2.8 cm (from the outer end of the gold margin of each arm -excluding the finial- to where they meet the outermost, plain margin of the central medallion border); the length of each star arm including the finial gold and enamel balls is 3.3.cm; the thickness of each of the exterior and interior plain gold borders of that surrounds the ring of raised hemispheres are each 0.2 cm; the obverse central medallion boss with the calligraphic inscription of "Ismail" is 1.3 cm in diameter; the diameter of the interior of the obverse medallion that extends to the outer margin of the wreath where it meets the margin of the border of raised gold hemispheres is 2.8 cm; the diameter of the obverse central medallion boss bounded by the border of raised gold hemispheres is 3.3 cm; the maximum thickness through the central medallion is 2.4 cm. The award brevet to Dwight D. Eisenhower signed by King Farouk I. Note the embossed royal coat of arms at the top center of the award document and the embossed symbol of the breast star of the Order of Ismail on the lower right of the document. I have seen close-up images of the embossed symbol for the Order of the Nile that must have come from such an award brevet, but this is the only image I have encountered of the embossed symbol for the Order of Ismail. The award brevet I illustrated in the 6th photo in my post of 14 November, 2017 on this thread showing the 2nd Class Grand Officer Order of Ismail awarded to the Italian physician Dr. Giovanni Quirico (with a manufacturing date hallmark of 1924-1925, unfortunately the breast star has been incorrectly reconfigured) by King Fuad I that shows the royal coat of arms at the top of the page but lacks the embossed breast star device on the lower left. I do not know whether this difference may be due to the temporal distinctions between King Fuad I and King Farouk I's reigns or because they represent different classes of the Order of Ismail. Note the identified award date on the legend attached to the mat as 24 May, 1947. The catalog identification of this matted document is the archive location: Box 4 Book 4 Folder 2 #22. Translation of the award brevet provided to General Eisenhower at the time of the presentation of the Order of Ismail to him by the Egyptian Ambassador. Catalog identifier: Box 4 Book 4 Folder 2 #22a.
  2. I want to correct an error I made regarding the hallmark of Stobbe of Alexandria who manufactured some of the Mixed Courts' judicial badges. In my discussion of different hallmarks on these badges on my post of 28 February, 2019 I identified the Stobbe hallmark as including the word "ALEXANDRIE". The French spelling is incorrect for this hallmark, it is actually "ALEXANDRIA" on the 2 examples where I have been able to find photographs of these hallmarks. Above is the Stobbe hallmark on a gold and silver District Courts badge from a Baldwins’ auction of December 2014 (lot 844) archived on The Saleroom.com website that I have illustrated the obverse side of in past posts on this thread. I have previously illustrated the obverse and reverse of this badge in the first photo of my initial post starting this thread on 17 November, 2016, in the 6th photo of post of March 24, 2017, and in my correction of misidentifying this badge as an Appeals Court badge form on my post of April 4, 2017. Although obscured by the tunic pin, it appears in this close-up image of the Stobbe hallmark that the final letter is more probably "A" than "E". As I noted in the hallmark discussion in my post of of 28 February, 2019, the uppermost portion of the hallmark is "STOBBE"; the center inscription is "900" (indicating 900 or 90% silver purity); and the bottom inscription is "ALEXANDRIA". (From https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-gb/auction-catalogues/baldwins/catalogue-id-srbal10006/lot-895754ae-9b9f-4f06-9d11-a3fe00ab0fe1) Reverse of a Mixed Courts judicial badge from a May 2015 auction by Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG (Lot 49) that is archived on the acsearch.com website. I previously illustrated the obverse and revers of this badge in my post of 31 October, 2018 on this thread. This badge is described as silver with gold gilding, although the usual locations of the gilding are difficult to distinguish in the image of the obverse of this badge. In my 31 October post I identified this as a silver badge. Although this image is not as high-resolution as the one above, it is fairly clear that the last 3 letters to the right of the tunic pin in the 2nd line of the hallmark inscription are "...DRIA" , with the form of the "A" contrasting with the "E" in "STOBBE". As described in my 28 February, 2019 post, unlike the Baldwin's example above, this hallmark on this Künker auction badge has a symbol on the left of the upper inscription line followed by "STOBBE" and then at the right end of the upper line is the "900" silver purity designation. The bottom line reads "ALEXANDRIA". (From:https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=4974323) I have not found a significant amount of background information yet about Rudolf Stobbe, but he appears to have been a German jeweler. He had a shop at 29 Rue Chérif Pacha near Opera Square in Alexandria, close to where Wolf Horovitz (another manufacturer of judicial badges for the Mixed Courts) had his shop (at 26 Rue Chérif Pacha), and the same street where Zivy Frères & Cie. (at 10 Rue Chérif Pacha) was located as well (I illustrated one example of a judicial badge made by Zivy Frères on 24 April, 2019 in this thread). Below are a few advertisements for Stobbe, apparently from unidentified newspapers. All of these 3 images below are from the website www.925-1000.com, an online hallmarks database and silver research site that includes some information on Egyptian early 20th century jewelers (from: https://www.925-1000.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=53896). Newspaper advertisement identifying Rudolf Stobbe as a jeweler in Alexandria and as a representative in Alexandria of Arthur Krupp, the well-known Austrian metalworker (Berndorfer Metallwarenfabrik Arthur Krupp A.G. Berndorf). This advertisement is identified as from 1904. This newspaper advertisement for Rudolf Stobbe is identified as from 1907. The above brief newspaper mention of Rudolf Stobbe also is identified as from 1907. The www.925-1000.com website also has an illustration and some information about Wolf Horovitz, who also manufactured Mixed Court judicial badges (see my post of 1 December, 2018 on this thread). Above is a 1935 Horovitz hallmark identifying silver that was made in England for his distribution in Alexandria. This reads: "FABRIQUE EN ANGLETERRE/POUR/W. HOROVITZ/26 RUE CHERIF PACHA/ALEXANDRIE". Horovitz had similar marks for material made in France that he sold in Alexandria labeled:"FABRIQUE EN FRANCE/POUR/W. HOROVITZ/26 RUE CHERIF PACHA/ALEXANDRIE". This website correctly identifies his name as Wolf Zeev Horovitz, and gives his birthdate as 18 August, 1883 in Alexandria, Egypt and his date of death as 16 February, 1959 in Geneva Switzerland. I previously included some incorrect information in my post of 1 December, 2018. I illustrated a Horovitz judicial badge and stated that he was Romanian who had settled in Alexandria to open his business. He may have been of Romanian descent, but several more recent sources I have found all identify his birthplace as Alexandria. (From: https://www.925-1000.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=38&t=53896&p=171016&hilit=Stobbe#p171016) A better resolution image from the Grabek in Lublin Antique Silver website of a hallmark on silver made in France for distribution by Wolf Horovitz in Alexandria. The hallmarks above the Horovitz diamond-shaped mark are presumably French. (From: http://grabekwlublinie.pl/en/305_wolf-horovitz) Undated photograph of Wolf Zeev Horovitz from the Geni.com genealogy website (https://www.geni.com/people/Wolf-Zeev-Horovitz/6000000002383946981). Horovitz was known for having a local and more élite clientele, in addition to providing jewelry and possibly other goods to the Royal courts of both King Fuad I and King Farouk I. While I am making corrections, I will also rectify a mistake I made in identifying the position of one of the judges in the portrait of the District Court of Mansourah in my post of 21 August, 2019 on this thread. In that post I listed a couple of individuals in the first photo, and identified the position of Judge Maurice de Wee incorrectly. I identified Maurice de Wee (Belgium, Vice-President, and the subject of a portrait painting by Mahmoud Saïd shown in the 3rd photo of that same post) as in the 1st row, seated 2nd from left. That position is where Mahmoud Saïd (Egypt, Chef du Parquet) is seated. Maurice de Wee is seated 2nd from the right in that portrait photo. Judge de Wee also is shown in the portrait of the Mansourah District Court I posted on 3 September, 2019 in this thread.
  3. President Dwight D. Eisenhower (34th US President from 1953-1961) was one of the most well-known Americans to be awarded the Order of Ismail. He received the Grand Cordon 1st Class sash, sash badge, and breast star on 24 May, 1947. This was after he had returned to Washington DC following his work in the Occupied Zone of Frankfurt, Germany (1945), his advancement to Chief of Staff of the US Army (1945), and having his wartime rank of General of the Army made a permanent rank (1946), and prior to his running for US President in 1948. The regalia is housed at the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library, Museum & Childhood Home, 200 SE 4th Street, Abilene, Kansas, USA (https://www.eisenhowerlibrary.gov/eisenhowers/awards-medals). This example was probably made by Tewfik Bichay (spelled "Bichai" on the interior of the presentation case lid). Below are some med-low resolution images from the Dwight D. Eisenhower Library and Museum of his Order of Ismail. There apparently are no photos of the presentation of this award to Eisenhower, nor of him wearing it. I am checking with the staff to see if I can get any better images, some photos of the reverse of the sash badge and breast star to identify the manufacturer and date hallmarks, or information about the award brevet. Moderate resolution image of the Eisenhower sash and sash badge. Note the presence of a clip that the suspension device attached to the crown uses to secure it to the sash that is similar to the illustrated clips on this thread in the 6th photo (the last photo) of my previous post of 22 August 2019 and in the 2006 JOMSA photo reproduced in my post of 27 August, 2019. Also of interest in this Grand Cordon set are the muted colors of the blue and the red of the sash. 922F pointed out in a post of 5 April, 2018 on this thread that the 3rd Class Commander's neck badge that Owain showed in his 3rd-6th photos of his post here of 5 April, 2018 exhibits comparably less brilliant colors of that neck ribbon. 922F further stated that Fahmy Tewfik Bichay told him about shortages of materials for medals in 1940-1944 (less relevant to the Order of Ismail are shortages in 1953-1959) that included ribbons, and 922F suggested that this color difference may be frequent enough across award classes to merit designation as a possible variant form of the Order of Ismail. The coloration of the sash of the Eisenhower example appears to be very similar to that in Owain's 5 April post. Low-resolution closer view of the Eisenhower sash badge. The dark color of the metal of the clip to which the sash badge's suspension device is attached cannot be determined from this image. 922F indicated in his 5 April post that Fahmy Tewfik Bichay specifically mentioned the difficulty in obtaining the swivel attachments for badges to sashes during the periods of material shortages, so this may be a different material "work-around" that 922F quotes Bichay as saying his workshop staff had to create during these shortages. This photo does show the 3-D engraving of the gold ornamentation of the 5 arms of the star (seen on all examples that were made by Lattes or Tewfik Bichay, but possibly not present on all [any?] medals made by Fahmy Tewfik Bichay). Again note the "faded" red and blue of the sash. Compare the above sash with the sash colors seen on the Grand Cordon sash and sash badge example from a past eMedals auction example (Item W0269, made by Lattes with a date hallmark "A" for 1925-1926) illustrated on my 13 November, 2017 post on this thread; 2 images of the same Grand Cordon set (made by Lattes, with a date hallmark of "Y" for 1923-1924) on my posts of 6 December, 2017 and of 13 December, 2018 on this thread from a Spink & Sons Catalog listing (Auction 17003, Lot 28) of December 2017; and the cased Grand Cordon set (made by Lattes, with a date hallmark of "B" for 1927-1928 on the sash badge and a "C" for 1928-1929 on the breast star) illustrated in the first 2 photos of my post of 22 February, 2019 offered on an April 2018 auction by La Galerie Numismatique archived on the live auctioneer.com website. Poorly focused image of the breast star of President Eisenhower's Grand Cordon Class of the Order of Ismail. This also shows the sculpted gold ornamentation on the 5 arms of the blue enamel and gold star. Inside of the upper case lid showing the maker's name of "TEWFIK BICHAI, FOURNISSEUR DE S.M. LE ROI". This is the same inscription shown on the inner case of the 3rd Class Commander's neck badges illustrated by Owain in the 2nd photo of his post of 5 April. 2018 on this thread. Owain noted that while the maker's inscription on the inside of the case for his Commander's neck badge was Tewfik Bichay, the hallmark on the reverse of that neck badge was of Fahmy Tewfik Bichay, the son of Tewfik Bichay. Photo of the exterior of the presentation case with King Farouk I's cipher and the taped note that this is "Egypt-L'Ordre d'Ismail Grand Cordon 5-29-47", indicating a slight discrepancy in its award date to President Eisenhower as 29 May, 1947 (other sources give the date of this award as 24 May, 1947).
  4. Peter, I am always happy if this research is of interest to someone else. Many thanks for your kind words. I believe I have identified the studio that took the photograph of Adib Makaad Bey in his court regalia and wearing the the 4th Class Officer Order of the Nile, the 4th Class Officer Belgian Order of Leopold II, the 4th Class Officer Italian Order of the Crown, and the Belgian (wartime?) Order of the Crown Palms (shown in the 7th-to-last photo attachment in my most recent post of 6 September, 2019). That portrait photo is dated January 1929. I have included the image below. The eBay seller of the photos shown in my 6 September post responded to my inquiry about whether this group of photos might be from collection associated with Adib Maakad Bey or his family. He obtained them from a local market, probably in Cairo, with no additional documentation. However, as every photo contains an image of Adib Maakad Bey, and they represent matted prints with handwritten legends from multiple photo studios in Alexandria, these likely came from an associated album of images. Most probably, they were at one time the property of Adib Maakad Bey. January, 1929 portrait photo of Adib Makaad Bey, during his tenure as Greffier en Chef of the District Court of Alexandria. The handwritten (or stamped?) studio name in the upper left corner is "Racine", a studio that was located on 13 rue Stamboul, Alexandria. I have identified a similar studio mark to that on the portrait of Adib Makaad Bey from a photograph listed in the "Guide to the Yasser Alwan Collection 1890-1970" of more than 2,000 photographs in the New York University Abu Dhabi, Akkasah: Center for Photography (http://dlib.nyu.edu/findingaids/html/akkasah/alwan/dscref179.html). Yasser Alwan purchased old photographs from flea markets and book merchants in the 1990s, selecting images (principally from the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s) that show the cultural diversity of life in Egypt during the first half of the 20th century. Above is the studio's embossed name "Racine" on the lower right of an image dated 13 May, 1949 and titled "A young woman in a dress with shoulder detailing" (AD-MC-002_ref611; Box 3, Folder 19). The reverse of the postcard includes the address: "RACINE ALEXANDRIE 13 RUE STAMBOUL". I also want to illustrate a judicial badge I just came across from a current auction by Lundin Jewel & Antique that is listed on the worldantiquenet.com website (https://www.worldantique.net/apstort.asp?selbinr=326604&kukat=8715&valuta=USD#valuta). This badge has no maker's hallmark on the reverse. This has piqued my curiosity about better ways to identify the many unmarked Mixed Court judges' badges, and I am starting to compare the calligraphy on the inscriptions of the central tablets of these badges. I will soon post some comparative images of these tablets from badges that either have a maker's hallmark shown in auction photos of the reverse, are associated with cases that name the manufacturer, or seem to have reliable attribution even if no photographs of the reverse of the badges are available. I hope to see if these may provide some use in preliminary identification of the makers of some unmarked badges. Obverse of the Lundin Antique judicial badge (Item no. 326604). It is identified in the auction description as silver, measuring 112 mm X 85 mm, and the translation provided of the inscription is given as "Government is based on Justice". This example shows quite a bit of wear of the upper folds of the mantle drapery and tassels. My current suspicion is that this may be an example made by Stobbe of Alexandria, but I will post the comparisons soon and see if the calligraphy on the central tablets can provide some initial clues to the makers' identities of the many unmarked badges being offered on auction sites. Reverse of the same badge with the tunic pin open showing the lack of any maker's hallmarks or visible silver assay marks.
  5. I recently came across several photographs from the Egyptian Mixed Courts in a group of photos being auctioned on eBay since May, 2019. These all are related to functionaries (many of them greffiers) serving the Court of Appeals and the District Court of Alexandria. All of these photos are matted and have some level of information hand-written on the mats. The calligraphy of the handwriting in white or silver ink on all of these mats is not completely identical, however it is quite similar. The kinds of information, presence of dates, names on some mats, and calligraphic embellishments do suggest they are an associated collection. I am providing additional data about each of these photos based on my personal research of the Mixed Courts. Both the Appeals Court and the District Court represented in several photos were located in Alexandria and several photos come from the well-known Alban Studio in Alexandria. Two of these are photos that were used in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 50th Anniversary volume that I have used in previous posts on this thread. The auctioneer has obtained a number of photos in this assortment that feature one particular individual, Adib Maakad Bey. The predominance of images of Maakad Bey (as well as very similar handwriting on all examples) may suggest this is a grouping that was at one point owned by Makaad Bey or his family. I have in the past used the term “clerks” to refer to the roles of greffiers in the Mixed Courts, but perhaps the translation offered by S. W. Hoyle in his 1986 article (The structure and laws of the Mixed Courts of Egypt, Arab Law Quarterly, vol 1 (3): 327-345), of “registrar” is more apt. These individuals handled a range of skilled and complex paperwork, including listing cases, supervising trials, countersigning the judges’ signatures, and formally published case results. Initially this demanding role was filled exclusively with foreigners who had served in comparable positions abroad, but eventually a significant number were drawn from Egyptian applicants. Greffiers had to be at least 24 years old, have a good knowledge of Arabic French, or Italian (most apparently spoke at least 2 of these languages). Applicants had to pass a rigorous exam in law and be approved by a panel of judges and the Greffier en Chef (Chief Registrar). Greffiers also assumed duties dealing with deeds and notary tasks. Other staff described by Hoyle include huissiers, a combined role of bailiff and usher. These individuals also had to be 24 or older, pass an exam to demonstrate they could read and write at least one judicial language, and had to provide a cash or securities guarantee in case of claims made against them in their professional work. Interpreters also formed a large group of court officials, subject to the same age requirement and needed to be fluent in Arabic and one other judicial language. They mostly worked with litigants because of the requirement that most huissers,greffiers, and judges were able to communicate in multiple languages. The courts also had their own guards, caretakers, and messengers (Hoyle 1986: pp. 341-342). Example of one of the photographs in this eBay offering that is a picture of the District Court of Alexandria that I have previously posted as the 5th photo in my post of April 18, 2019 in this thread (with all the individuals identified in that post) and in the 11th image of my post of 21 August 2019 (to illustrate Judge William Hobart Houghton Thorne of Britain). Those illustrations using this same photo came from the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926 volume (pg 192). In my original post of this image I did not know when this photo was taken, this example identifies February 1926, the same month the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume was published. The seller identifies this as an original print, sized 17 cm x 12 cm, from the “Photo Dores Studio” in Alexandria. This is the Aziz & Dorés Studio, one of the most important early studios in Alexandria run by Aziz Bandarli and Umberto Dorés, located at 3 rue de l’hopital grec, Alexandrie (this is now Istanbul Street). This studio may have opened in 1907 and also was involved in early cinema in Alexandria. I have previously identified the judges and the Greffier en Chefin this photo in my April 18 post. In relation to several photos reproduced below, note the individual at a writing desk to the far right away from the table where the judges are seated. This is the Greffier en Chef, Adib Maakad Bey, who is shown below in several photos outlining his career roles with the District Court of Alexandria and his earlier role as a greffierwith the Court of Appeals. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-1926-PHOTO-DORES-ALEX/312613193983?_trkparms=aid%3D333200%26algo%3DCOMP.MBE%26ao%3D1%26asc%3D20190129125700%26meid%3D384b24d149c54feabe53a40b67859832%26pid%3D100752%26rk%3D5%26rkt%3D12%26sd%3D312613211731%26itm%3D312613193983&_trksid=p2047675.c100752.m1982) Greffiers of the Court of Appeal, December 1910. Some of these individuals are shown in a photo in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume titled “Les Functionnaires de la Cour D’Appel” on page, pg 391. I have identified their 1926 roles from the legend to that photo in the listed identities below, however their assignments in 1910 are not known to me. 1st row = L. Camiglieri (Greffier contrôleur des taxations); A.(?) Gregnac; Gregnas; E. della Rovere Rey (Greffier Comptable de la Cour et du Tribunal d’Alexandrie). 2nd row = M. Biagini; Adib Maakad; an unnamed court functionary, and M. Buccianti (Secrétaire de Greffier en Chef) - the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume identifies his first initial as “M.” although it appears to be “F.” in the written legend on this photo). This is the earliest image I have seen of Adib Maakad. As noted this auction group contains several additional images of Adib Maakad (later Adib Maakad Bey) in group photos and single portraits associated with his work as a greffier in the Appeals Court and later the District Court of Alexandria. In this photo, only L. Camiglieri and E. della Rovere wear the judicial costume of the high collared tunic coat (stambouline), tarbush, biclored sash, and judicial badges (probably silver?). Camiglieri’s sash clearly is bicolored, and della Rovere’s sash is probably bicolored. In these photos, and previous black & white images I’ve posted on this thread, I am interpreting the colors of sashes based on comparisons with images of monochrome sashes. Individuals identified as judges with the Appeals Court wore green sashes, and in the black & white photos their sashes appear a lighter gray. Judges of the District Courts (principally serving in Alexandria, Cairo, and Mansourah; and the Mansourah Court personnel visited Port Said once a year) wore red sashes, and these appear much darker in the contemporary black & white photos. I am interpreting the orientation of the green & red stripes of the sashes of the Parquet and other court functionaries based on the contrasting darkness or lightness of each strip compared with the colors seen on sashes of Appeals or District Court judges. According to the protocol that I have been able to find, the bicolored sash of the Parquet is supposed to have been worn with the green stripe uppermost, and presumably that may also be the case for other court functionaries wearing these sashes. As can bee seen in several photos in this post, and in previous posts on this thread, there is some variability in how the sash was actually worn. However, there may be a general preponderance of individuals wearing the bicolored sash with the green stripe uppermost. This image is identified as an original print, but the size of the print and the photo studio (almost certainly in Alexandria) are not identified. It mistakenly identifies the subjects as judges, despite the hand lettered legend on the right of the mat stating “Greffe de la Premier Chambre”. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-1910-Judges-With-medals/273849827037?hash=item3fc2b8bedd:g:wqcAAOSwvX5c3fdB&frcectupt=true) Higher resolution of the same photo of this group of Greffiersof the Court of Appeals, December 1910. Higher resolution image of the names of those in this photograph (except the 3rd man from the left in the 2nd row wearing an overcoat. Photo of Court of Appeals, 31 December, 1916, by Alban Studio, Alexandria (Greffe de la Deuxième Chambre). Only 3 of these individuals in this photo can be identified using a photo in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume titled “Les Functionnaires de la Cour D’Appel” on page, pg 391 (probably taken in 1925 or 1926). Except for Adib Maakad, I have again identified their 1926 roles from the legend to that 1925 or 1926 photo in the listed identities below, because their court roles in 1910 are unknown to me. 1st row = M. Dadour (Secrétaire de la Commission du Tableau et de l’Assistance Judiciaire); Adib Maakad (probably Greffier en Chef in 1916 given his central position in this portrait, and the larger script identifying his name, as well as both of these things in the 1920 portrait of functionaries of the Court of Appeal shown below; Here, Adib Maakad also is distinguished by being the only greedier wearing the stambouline coat, tarbush, bicolored sash [with the red stripe uppermost] and judicial badge); J. Bichara (Cis-Greffier). 2nd row=unnamed court official; M. Helles(?); P. Seemama; A. Shama, and an unnamed court guard. The auction description identifies this as an original print 22 cm X 17 cm in size from the Photo Alban Studio. Note the signture of Alban in the lower right of the mat. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/Armenian-photographer-in-Egypt-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-PHOTO-ALBAN-1916/273849768153?hash=item3fc2b7d8d9:g:d-UAAOSwCrpc3fMY) Cropped enlargement of the same portrait photo of 31 December, 1916. Higher resolution cropped image of the names identified on this same 31 December, 1916 photo, excluding the court official 1st on the left and the court guard 5th from left in the back row. Enlargement of the signature of Alban on the lower right of the photo mat. The stamp of Alban Studio in Alexandria on the reverse of this same portrait photo from 31 December, 1916. Matted portrait of Greffe de la Comptabilité (Registry of Accounting) of the Court of Appeals in January of 1920. Except for Adib Maakad, I currently have no additional information about any of the greffiers identified in this photo. 1st row (L-R) = G. Nicadimos; Adib Maakad (probably also Greffier en Chef in 1920 given his central position in this portrait, the more elaborate handwriting of his name, and that he is wearing a tarbush, as well as the position similarity to the 1916 portrait of functionaries of the Court of Appeals shown above); A. Joannides; and A. Bennett. 2nd row = Unnamed court guard; E. Farès; A Sabella; J. Perullo; C. Nakas; E. Joannides; M. Nomicos ; 3rd row (L-R) = 2 unnamed court officials. The auction description identies this an as original photo 23 cm X 18 cm in size, printed by the studio “Nader”. This probably refers to the studio of Nadir. Note the signature on the bottom right of the mat showing the correct spelling of this name. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/Armenian-photographer-in-Egypt-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-PHOTO-NADER-1920/312613214230?hash=item48c9331816:g:GTkAAOSwEeVc3fHF) Cropped enlargement of the same portrait photo of the Court of Appeals’ Registry of Accounting, from January, 1920. Higher resolution cropped image of the names identified on this same January, 1920 portrait photo, again excluding the court guard 1st on the left in the 2nd row and the two court officials in the back row. Photo from 29 December, 1911 that appears to be Adib Maakad, identified serving the Court of Appeals (as greffier). Only his mustaches are anomalously long in this photo compared with all other images of him in these auction offerings. I am basing the identification on significant facial similarities and the fact that many other photos in this eBay auction listing seem to focus on Adib Maakad. He is wearing the court regalia of the high collared tunic coat, tarbush, bicolored sash (showing the decorative knot very well and worn with the green stripe uppermost), and the judicial badge (probably in silver?). This is an original print, no dimensions are given in the auction description. For obvious reasons given his costume, the eBay seller has identified this individual as a judge of the Mixed Courts. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-1911-Judge-With-medals/312613296488?hash=item48c9345968:g:3DEAAOSw589c3fXS&frcectupt=true) Cropped higher resolution image of the same portrait that is probably of Adib Maakad in his roles greffier of the Court of Appeals from 29 December, 1911. Adib Maakad identified as working in the Court of Appeals in a photo taken 1 March. 1915. Although he is not identified by name on the photo, his facial features and the large number of images of Makaad in this group of photos auctioned together on eBay indicates a grouping that included many photos of him throughout his career with the Mixed Courts. This is an original print, no dimensions are provided. For the same reasons as in the above portrait, the eBay description incorrectly identifies Adib Maakad as a judge of the Mixed Tribunals. This portrait again clearly shows the use of the stambouline coat, tarbush, along with a bicolored sash (with the green stripe uppermost) and a (silver?) judicial badge for greffiers serving the Appeals Court although the judicial costume for judges would differ in the use of a single color sash (green) and a gold judicial badge. (From:https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-1915-Judge-With-medals/312613240155?hash=item48c9337d5b:g:H7QAAOSwOTZc3fR5) Close-up view of Adib Maakad’s judicial badge from this same 1915 portrait. The image clearly shows that the badge is silver. Studio portrait of Adib Makaad Bey during his time working as Greffier en Chefof the District Court of Alexandria, dated Februrary, 1926. At this time period, the identification of his role from the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume is appropriate for this date. In this image Makaad Bey is wearing white tie and a western style evening jacket with his court regalia that includes a bicolored sash (he appears to be wearing the green portion of the sash downwards) and what appears to be a gold and silver judicial badge (note the darker coloration of the central tablet with the inscription and probably the external rays of the embellishment of the badge). He also wears the 4th Class Officer medal of the Order of the Nile. The auction description identifies this as an original print that is 23 cm X 18 cm, and again identifies Makaad understandably as a judge rather than his correct role in the Alexandrian District Courts. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-1926-Judge-With-medals/312613189879?hash=item48c932b8f7:g:RnwAAOSwgKtc3evi) A similar portrait to the one above from Februrary, 1926 of Adib Maakad Bey in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926 on page 389 in a section identifying the more senior current functionaries in the Mixed courts. In this similar image Makaad Bey is wearing the stambouline coat and a four-in-hand tie, along with the tarbush, bicolored sash (again apparently with green downwards), what appears to be a gold and silver judicial badge, and the same 4th Class Officer Order of the Nile. Portrait that is almost certainly Adib Makaad Bey taken in January of 1929. This studio portrait again shows him in white tie and a western style evening coat rather than the stambouline coat. He also wears the court regalia of tarbush, bicolored sash (this appears to show the green stripe upwards) and what appears to be a gold and silver judicial badge. Makaad Bey also wears on his coat (from the viewer’s left–right) the 4th Class Officer Order of the Nile, the 4th Class Officer Belgian Order of Leopold II, the 4th Class Officer Italian Order of the Crown, and the Belgian (wartime?) Order of the Crown Palms (I cannot determine if they are gold or silver?). The black and white photography can make some of the ribbons difficult to identify. For example the central blue stripe of the Order of the Nile is not readily visible, the dark blue of the ribbon of the 4th Class Officer Order of Leopold II with a central black stripe appears lighter than might be expected, and the ribbon of the Belgian Order of the Crown Palms does not show the dark red central stripe in contrast with the white stripes at the edges. The eBay description identifies this as an original print with the dimensions 23 cm X 18 cm. Although a probable studio signature is visible in the upper left corner of the photograph, no studio is identified for this photo and I have not identified this photographer’s name yet. Again, the eBay listing understandably misidentifies Adib Makaad Bey as a judge of the Mixed Tribunals because of his regalia. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-1929-Judge-With-medals/273857487692) Two photos of a court official in his office of the District Court of Alexandria, dated 20 May, 1924. Although the individual not identified, it again appears to be Adib Makaad Bey, based on my assessment of this man’s facial similarity to other identified pictures of Makaad Bey (I find his eyebrows and eyes particularly distinctive) as well as the preponderance of images in this collection of photos that were all put up for sale at the same time. The eBay description identifies the individual as a judge of the Mixed Courts in these original prints whose dimensions are not given. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-Judge-in-his-office-1924/312613211731?hash=item48c9330e53:g:XBEAAOSwG2Jc3fCB) Below are 2 images of the greffiers and other court personnel, of the District Court of Alexandria. Both are dated to 31 January, 1925 (the 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 5th photos below). I am uncertain why different individuals are present in each of these 2 portraits. The second of these group photos shows a judge who is the President of the District Court of Alexandria, and several individuals' sashes in that portrait appear to possibly be a single color (indicating judges may also be present in this photo and not just greffiers or other court officials). I have seen additional images that depict some of the same individuals as in these eBay images. One such group photograph is shown in the 3rd photo below. Other photos of the District Court of Alexandria also feature the same architectural backdrop behind the court officials. Above is the first of 2 matted photos form this same eBay auction of personnel of the District Court of Alexandria dated 31 January, 1925. All of these court officials are wearing the judicial regalia of the high collared long tunic coat, tarbush, sash, and judicial badges. All of the individuals appear to be wearing bicolored sashes, but only 5 are wearing them with the green stripe uppermost (1st row individuals 3rd, 6th and 9th from the left; 2nd row individuals 4th and 5th from the left).The eBay description identifies this as an original print by Alban Studio, Alexandria that measures 22 cm X 15 cm. As noted below, this is very similar to a photo of Functionaries of the District Court of Alexandria, on pg. 392 of the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume (see below). All of the identifications and roles I have included here are based on the information in that 50th Anniversary volume. 1st row (L-R): ?; V. Cuzzer (Cis-Greffier); V. Anhoury (Greffier); A. Cauro (Conservateur des Hypothèques); Adib Maakad Bey (Greffier en Chef); F. Nourisson (Greffier-Notaire); C. Finardi (Greffier); J. Guarino (Cis-Greffier); and S. Mezaber (interprète). 2nd row (L-R)=?; ?; R. Loutfallah (Cis-Greffier)?; U. Finardi (Cis-Greffier); ?: J. Bichara (Cis-Greffier)?; and ? (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/Armenian-photographer-in-Egypt-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-PHOTO-ALBAN-LOT-3/273857487694?ssPageName=STRK%3AMEBIDX%3AIT&_trksid=p2060353.m1438.l2649) Cropped higher-resolution image of this same portrait photo of court officials from 31 January, 1925. Above is a similar image of the greffiers of the District Court of Alexandria that is published in Vol 2 of Didier Hess and Rashwan’s 2016 Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné. The caption for this image (Plate A 201, pg. 871) identifies the group as “Members of the Mixed Tribunals, photographed by Alban, early twentieth century”. Given the other dates for the two similar images from the eBay offering, the date must be approximately the same, probably also January of 1925. This same photo is published at a lower resolution on page 392 of the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926 volume. That 50th anniversary publication identifies all of the individuals in the photo as: 1st row (L-R)= V. Cuzzer (Cis-Greffier); I. Rodriguez (Chef-Huissier); V. Anhoury (Greffier); A. Cauro (Conservateur des Hypothèques); Adib Maakad Bey (Greffier en Chef); F. Nourisson (Greffier-Notaire); C. Finardi (Greffier); S. Mezaber (Interprète); and J. Guarino (Cis-Greffier) in those same very natty pants. 2nd row (L-R)=M. Kedemos (Chef Dél. Hypoth. Tantah); G. Garsia (Côntroleur des Taxes); T. Khouzam (Interprète); R. Mercinier (Cis-Greffier); R. Azar (Cis-Greffier); U. Finardi (Cis-Greffier); R. Loutfallah (Cis-Greffier); J. Bichara (Cis-Greffier); C. Madaro (Côntroleur des Taxes); M. Chaoul (Cis-Greffier); and M. Nomicos (Côntroleur des Taxes). 3rd row (L-R)=M. Keif (Secrétaire de la Président); A. Sabella (Cis-Greffier); G. Rathle (Interprète); F. Awad (Interprète); V. Loutfallah (Chef Dèl. Huissiers Tantah); S. Fahmy (Interprète); M. Zalzal (Cis-Greffier); J. Azouz (Interprète); S. Serkis (Sous-Chef-Huissier); and I. Hailpern (Cis-Greffier). (From:Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan [eds.], 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings.Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. (distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editore). Portrait photo from the same eBay auction depicting a somewhat different group of court officials of the District Court of Alexandria that also is dated 31 January, 1925. The eBay description indentifies this as an original print by Alban Studio, Alexandria that measures 23 cm X 15 cm. All of the men appear to be wearing the stambouline coats over their suit jackets, but there appears to be mix of different sashes. Only the 6th man in the front row clearly has a red & green sash (red stripe uppermost). In the back row the 6th man appears to have a lighter colored sash. Given that the President of the District Court of Alexandria is in this image (see below), some of these individuals may be judges rather than just greffiers and other court officials. The very few identifications (only 4) I have been able to make of some functionaries in this image are based on comparisons with the versions of the above photo from Vol. 2 of Didier Hess and Rashwan’s 2016Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné (Plate A 201, pg. 871) and the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 50th anniversary volume on page 392 that has a legend listing the court staff and their roles for that image. 1st row 1st from left - Judge Paul Joseph Randet (France); 5th from left - J. Guarino (Cis-Greffier)?. 2nd row=1st from left - Adib Maakad Bey (Greffier en Chef); 5th from left - Judge Erling Qvale of Norway, who was the President of the District Court of Alexandria at this time. Because the the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 50th anniversary volume shows the Court of Alexandria seated around a table (see the 1st photo in this post), it is hard to get a good view of different judges' facial characteristics for comparison with this image. I was able to identify Judge Qvale because that anniversary publication shows him in a separate portrait that I have previously illustrated on this thread as the 2nd photo of my post of 29 April, 2019. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/Armenian-photographer-in-Egypt-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-PHOTO-ALBAN-LOT-2/312613206728?hash=item48c932fac8:g:MGEAAOSwOxZc3e81) Cropped higher-resolution image of this same eBay portrait photo of this second group of court officials from 31 January, 1925 by Alban Studio.
  6. I had a discussion with a friend who feels that the last photo of a man wearing the 4th Class Knight Order of Ismail and other awards with his Royal Guard uniform in my most recent post of 29 August 2019 is not a younger version of Osman El Mahdi Pasha. The 3rd individual from the left on the couch in the Life photo (2nd-to-last photo in my 29 August post), probably from 1944, was identified by a contributor to Zeinab Mohamed's Flickr photostream (not by Hassan Kamel-Kelisi-Moralias as I originally posted, but by Mohammad Ahmed) as Osman El Mahdi Pasha. My friend does accept this identification in the Life photo. My friend's objection is that the eBay photo is probably not the same the man as seen on the couch seated next to Omar Fathi Pasha. His objection is that El Mahdi would not have been invested with the kinds of awards shown in the eBay photo at such a potentially younger age as the man in this image appears to be. He also is uncertain whether El Mahdi was in the Royal Guard at that age as well. One reason I feel this may be the same person is that the Life images shows a 4th Class, Knight, Order of Ismail, a 4th Class, Officer, Order of the Nile), and apparently the medal and ribbon for the Italian Order of the Crown, although most of the other medals are very difficult to distinguish. I still think there is a fair facial similarity, and the greater number of medals in the Life photo still suggests to me an image of the same man as in the eBay photo, just at a later age with additional awards. Does anyone in the GMIC community have any additional information about Osman El Mahdi Pasha that is relevant to this question? For comparison, below is an enlargement of the individual in the Life image (however, this still is not a high resolution image) shown in the 2nd to last in my most recent post on this thread (of 29 August, 2019) seated 3rd from the left that is identified as Osman El Mahdi Pasha. (Cropped image of Osman El Mahdi Pasha from an image by Life, archived on Zeinab Mohamed's Flickr photostream: https://www.flickr.com/photos/96884693@N00/3086912058/)
  7. Above is a picture of one of the Egyptian Mixed District Courts from a flickr photostream of EivArch (https://www.flickr.com/photos/78721541@N00/8584780971/in/photostream/). This photo can be zoomed for greater detail. The photostream identifies the 3rd man from the left in the 1st row as Halvard Heggen. It appears this may be the District Court of Mansourah, taken sometime before 1926, probably between 1922 and 1925 (see the images of their court from 1926 in my post of 5 March, 2019, with all individuals identified, but at a lower resolution that the version I posted on in my last post here of August 2019; and in my post of 21 August, 2019, a higher resolution image bit with all the individuals identified). The Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume identifies Halvard Nicolaï (or Nikolaï) Heggen as a judge from Norway who was appointed to the District Court of Mansourah in January of 1903, and was transferred to the Court in Alexandria in November, 1906. He was re-appointed to the District Court of Mansourah in August of 1922, then transferred to Cairo in November of 1925. Heggen died in Cairo in January of 1926. I believe this is the District Court of Mansourah because at lest 3 individuals are present in this image who also appear in the 2 versions of the image of the Court of Mansourah that I have posted before (that probably was taken in 1926). The first person on the left in the 1st row is Julien Sheridan of Belgium (he is wearing the same vest as in the 1926 photo of the Court of Mansourah). The second man from the left in the 1st row is Ahmed Mazloum Bey (also shown in the Mahmoud Saïd portrait illustrated as the 2nd image of the of 21 August, 2019 post) and the 4th man from the left in the 2nd row appears to be Maurice de Wee of Belgium, who was the Vice-President of the Mansourah Court beginning in 1925 (also shown in a sketch portrait by Mahmoud Saïd in the 3rd image of my 21 August, 2019 post). In the second row, the man 2nd from the left may be Hassan Kamel (Egypt, Substitut du Procurer Général), who is standing in the same position in the 1926 photo shown above in the 1st photo of my 21 August, 2019 post). The apparently Egyptian man seated at the far right in the 1st row is the only individual with a bicolored sash, suggesting he may be a member of the Parquet or a functionary of the Mansourah Court. All of the other individuals in this photo are wearing a single color sash (red) and the badges of several men appear to be gold & silver, the design for the District Court judges' badges.
  8. I believe that I have found identifications for 2 individuals I have previously illustrated on this thread wearing the Order of Ismail. On 31 October, 2018 the first photo of my post shows an individual identified only as a Royal Guard wearing the 4th Class Knight Order of Ismail. In a post of 23 March, 2019 I was unable to identify the man in the 2nd photo showing another uniformed individual wearing the 3rd Class Commander's neck badge of the Order of Ismail. I am including those previous photographs below with my probable identifications, along with a couple of additional images showing both men at different ages, if these identifications are correct. Except for the first image, all of the other photos can be zoomed for greater details. This above image (from: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/107945722297247055/) is one of these "unidentified" men that I posted on 23 March, 2019 without an information about who he was, nor the date of the photograph. This same photograph appears on several Arabic language websites with an apparent identification. This individual wearing a military uniform and a neck badge of the Commander Class (3rd) of the Order of Ismail (in addition to 6 other decorations) appears to be a well-known person. Most of the information I have been able to find is in awkward translations from Arabic websites, but I will try to outline what seems relatively secure bit of information about this person. I believe this is Abdullah Al-Nagoumi Pasha ("Nagoumi" is the preferred spelling among many appearing in English language texts), dressed in a uniform that 922F commented on 23 March, 2019 as likely being that of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudanese Condominium military services. I have been informed by an Egyptian friend whose grandfather served with Nagoumi Pasha in the Sudan that the uniform is actually similar to a Field Marshall uniform that the king wore, except that it has only 1 star on the sleeve instead of 3, as did the king's. He stated this is a uniform worn by high officials of the state to be worn on official state occasions (i.e., the opening of Parliament). My friend indicated this is the highest class of dress uniform, aside form the mess dress of evening wear. To the viewer's right of the Order of Ismail is an Order of the Nile (the 3rd Class, Commander's neck badge). 922F also identified the medals I am unfamiliar with in that same post as: "Jordan Independence, and Iran Taj [Crown]. Two breast medals appear to be UK Sudan & Khedive's Sudan. Star too washed out for me - maybe Jordan Independence". I also was told by the same Egyptian friend cited above that Nagoumi Pasha was certainly invested with the neck badge of the Order of the Crown of Iran (Nishan i-Taj-i-Iran) by Prince Reza Pahlavi, during his visit to Egypt to marry Princess Fawzia (see the 2nd photo, and the last image of the banquet in my post of 2 April, 2019 on this thread for an images of this event). Both of the first 2 websites cited below include the above photo and identify it as Abdullah Al-Nagoumi (there are probably addition Arabic language sites with this photo, but I am having trouble accessing them a second time to check through Google image search). A translation of the information on the website http://egyhistory.com/الحملة-العسكرية-على-السودان-1820م/ identifies him with the title “Major General”, however, it appears likely that he served in a brigade under Major General Muhammed Naguib, rather than holding this rank himself. The egyhistory.com website states that he served as the head of the Royal Guard until 1952, and then held a post as a board member on the first Fuad Institute for Desert Research. At least two additional Arabic language websites feature this same photo and contain apparently identical biographical texts with other details about Abdullah Al-Nagoumi Pasha: http://www.ahram.org.eg/News/51466/121/362829/تراث-و-حضارة/«عبد-الله-باشا-النجومى»-المثقف-الموسوعى.aspx. Both of these texts, and other sources, provide a range for his birth between 1880-1885 and identify his father as an Emir in the Madhi revolution, Abdul Rahman Al Nagoumi , who was killed in the Battle of Toshka on 3 August, 1889 (http://sudapedia.sd/en/content/399). Allegedly, young Abdullah was discovered asleep in the vicinity of the battlefield, taken by the army and handed over to Khadio Tawfiq. Abdullah was educated in the royal palaces and graduated from the military academy in 1918. He subsequently served with the brigade of Major General Muhammed Naguib. The translation available to me for this text is unclear about his subsequent career. However, it appears he may have had a role in relation to King Farouk I’s interest in hunting and a later association with animal conservation after the 1952 revolution. A couple of additional photos have turned up in my searches, both attached below, that may show what appears to be Abdullah Al-Nagoumi Pasha as an older man in a military uniform with King Farouk I. The facial features in these images of an older man to the viewer’s left of King Farouk I (shown below) are very similar to the earlier image above I previously posted. One other image from the news magazine Life also appears to show Abdullah Al-Nagoumi with other members of the Royal Guard in one of the Royal Palaces (Abdine Palace?) The above undated images shows the individual to the viewer's left of King Farouk I that I believe may be an older Abdullah Al-Nagoumi Pasha than shown in the above photo I previously posted of him. However, I would be interested if other individuals have a different identification of this man in a military uniform. I do not know the date of this photo and the next one below. A dated photo of King Farouk I attending the 25th anniversary of King Fuad I University in 1950 shows him in a darker suit than this one, although his mustaches and the dark glasses are identical. It is possible this is a different event associated with that jubilee celebration, but I currently cannot date this image. King Farouk I is wearing the ceremonial academic robes associated with his role as President of King Fuad I University (originally named as Egyptian University from its founding in 1908 until 1940, renamed as King Fuad I University from 1940 until 1952, and then renamed as Cario University [Gām‘et El Qāhira] after 1952 to the present). I illustrated a commemorative medal celebrating the 25th jubilee anniversary of King Fuad I University (1925-1950) showing busts of both Fuad I and Farouk I on the obverse face in my post of 22 July, 2018 on the GMIC thread "Egypt Khediveate Judge's Badge question" that I started on 17 November, 2016 here in the Middle East & Arab States section. Several other photos of King Farouk I's attendance of this jubilee also show him in the same Presidential academic robe. (From: https://www.pinterest.com/offsite/?token=165-195&url=https%3A%2F%2Fi.pinimg.com%2Foriginals%2F6f%2F9a%2Fe1%2F6f9ae18bbb8cf019606b0966395a221f.jpg&pin=4222193379989428&client_tracking_params=CwABAAAAEDcxMzE2OTI2MTk4MjE0NDYA~0) Another photograph, probably from this same event with King Farouk I wearing the Presidential academic robe of King Fuad I University, that shows the same man 2nd from the viewer's left of King Farouk I that I believe is the older Abdullah Al-Nagoumi Pasha. (From: https://i.pinimg.com/originals/2d/72/e4/2d72e40ee2bbe5a708ee6febde96fb2d.jpg) This is the text associated with a version of the above image. I do not know if the Arabic provides any additional information about the photo. (From: https://i.pinimg.com/originals/2d/72/e4/2d72e40ee2bbe5a708ee6febde96fb2d.jpg) Photograph from the American magazine Life, showing an image of a younger Abdullah Al-Nagoumi Pasha at the far left on the couch, wearing the same dress uniform as in the first photo above. Nagoumi Pasha is not wearing his Order of Ismail (probably indicating this is prior to the award of the Order of Ismai), and appears younger than in the 1st photo above. He is wearing 4 of the same medals seen in the first image posted here: the 3rd Class Order of the Nile, the Order of the Crown of Iran (Nishan i-Taj-i-Iran), the Egyptian Khedive's Sudan medal, and what I believe is the the British Sudan Defense Force General Service medal (indicated by the ribbon configuration, exhibiting the wider central blue stripe than seen in some examples, bordered by yellow stripes and the outer black stripes are not visible in this and the above photo of Nagoumi Pasha). Hassan Kamel-Kelisi-Morali has identified the 3 men on the left in this image on Zeinab Mohamed's Flickr photostream as (L-R): HE Abdullah Al-Nagoumi Pasha, HE Omar Fati Pasha (and a contributor, Metro50, identified him as the King’s aide-de-camp); and Osman El Mahdi Pasha. The man on the far right is unidentified. Of additional interest in this photo, Osman el Mahdi is wearing on the viewer's left center of his uniform the 4th class Order of Ismail (with a ribbon bearing the rosette) and the 4th Class Order of the Nile (also showing the ribbon with its rosette). I cannot distinguish the other medals he is wearing. I believe that the photo I posted on 31 October, 2018 of an individual identified only as a Royal Guard may be a younger image of Osman El Mahdi Pasha. I do not yet know whether this photo was published in Life magazine, if it is part of photography taken by Life staff but not included in magazine publication, or used in some other Life publication. An article in the edition of Life from 10 April, 1944 of a unique set of photos from Abdine Palace (pp 85-93) shows various behind-the-scenes with service staff, but principally features the kitchen and dining room staff. 1944 is the most probable date for the above photograph. Several images of Abdine Palace with attributions to Life (as in the lower left of the above photo) appear to be associated with a date of 1933, but Najumi Pasha and El Mahdi Pasha only worked for King Farouk I, and were never in the service of King Fuad I. I cannot yet locate the publication or other reference for those 1933 images either . (From: Zeinab Mohamed's Flickr photostream: https://www.flickr.com/photos/96884693@N00/3086912058/) Above is the image I posted on 31 October, 2018 in this thread showing an unidentified man in a photo offered on an eBay auction. This photo is from the Riad Shehata Studio in Cairo, the official photographer to King Fuad I and King Farouk I. I do not know the founding date of the studio, but it did continue under that name for an unspecified time after Riad Shehata's death in 1942. I currently feel that this may be an photo of a younger Osman El Mahdi, shown in a somewhat later photo in the Life magazine image above. Although his mustaches are smaller in this eBay photo, several aspects of his facial features (especially his chin) are extremely similar. The individuals in both photos are wearing identical uniforms (this is Royal Guard uniform design was created by King Fuad I when Egypt became a Kingdom in 1922), and this earlier image shows several medals that also appear in the Life photo, although the low resolution of that photo makes identification of the additional awards very difficult. The Life photo clearly shows the rosettes on the ribbons for the Order of Ismail and the Order of the Nile that are partially obscured in this photo. 922F identified a couple of the medals in this photo that I did not know in his post on this thread of 31 October, 2018. He identified the 3rd medal (to the viewer's right of the Order of the Nile) as either the Egyptian Medal for Meritorious Actions or the Medal of Devotion; we both identified the 4th as the Khedive's Sudan Medal; 922F id'd the 5th as the Iranian Order of Homayoun [Humayun]; the 6th as the Belgian Order of Leopold II; and we both identified the 7th as an Italian Crown. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-MILITARY-OFFICER-WITH-SWORD-MEDALS-PHOTO-Riad-Shehata/273359918693)
  9. The 2006 JOMSA article describing the Order of Ismail in Vol 54, No 4, in Figure 15 on pg 20 shows what appears to be a very similar clip used to attatch the sash badge of the Grand Cordon Class of the Order of Ismail as the illustration above in my post of 22 August, 2019, from a past eMedals auction . From: 2006. Journal of the Orders and Medals Society of America (JOMSA) 54 (4): Fig 15, pg. 20
  10. I hope someone loves the above Yemeni Order of Saba'a medals, but given my interest in the Order of Ismail, their design looks like scary chimera of Frankensteined leftovers from defunct Egyptian orders. I have an identification of an individual I have shown wearing an Order of Ismail that I am putting together for a future post, but I just want to add another few photos of the Nishan al-Ismail to chase away how these Order of Saba'a images look like disarticulated insects to me. Below are some moderate-low resolution images of what is identified as a 3rd Class Commander's neck badge of the Order of Ismail. These come from a July 2019 auction on the eMedals website(https://www.emedals.com/egypt-kingdom-an-order-of-ismail-in-gold-i-class-commander-by-j-lattes-c-1924). The badge was made by Lattes of Cairo and lacks the neck ribbon. The auction description calls it a "1st Class Commander" version of this award. The suspension loop on this example does appear to be that seen on the 3rd Class Commander configuration (but also see the variant shown in Owain's example made by Fahmy Tewfik Bichay in his post of 5 April, 2018 on this thread that clearly shows a circular loop attached to the crown suspension device attached that encircles the ribbon). However, that same form of suspension loop also was used for the neck badge of the 2nd Class Grand Officer Class and may be the most common form on the 1st Class Grand Cordon sash badge as well. Most examples of the 1st Class Grand Cordon sash badge seems to be attached with the same suspension loop, but they may be attached to the decorative knot of the sash slightly differently on some, although good images of this configuration are not common on auction sites, probably as fewer Grand Cordon sets are available. The Grand Cordon Order of Ismail in the photo of my post of 6 December, 2017 on this thread (by Lattes) is ambiguous in what kind of gold suspension loop is used to attach the sash badge to a cloth loop in the decorative knot of the sash. The example shown in the 4th photo of my post of 13 November, 2017 that also was made by Lattes exhibits the same suspension loop attachment of the sash badge, and the 3rd photo shows in that post shows it attached to a cloth loop on the sash's decorative bow. The Grand Cordon sash badge shown in the 3rd, 4th, and 5th photos of my post of 22 February, 2019 on this thread (made by Lattes) are the identical suspension loop to that used for the 2nd and 3rd Classes. The Grand Cordon set made by Tewfik Bichay illustrated in my post of 30 April, 2018 shows the same style of suspension loop as can be seen in the many available auction images of the 2nd and 3rd class badges of this award. The 28th and 29th photos (the 4th and 3rd from final images) in my post of 11 January, 2019 show the sash badge suspension loops for a Grand Cordon Grand Cordon sash badge made by Tewfik Bichay that also has the same style of suspension loop as the Lattes examples of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Class badges. The only clear suggestion of a different style of suspension loop unfortunately comes from an example of the Grand Cordon sash that lacks the sash badge. The last illustration in this post shows a suspension device attached to the cloth loop of the decorative sash knot from a past eMedals auction. I obviously cannot determine whether the normal suspension loop attached to the crown suspension device would have attached to this apparently brass (indicated by the green corrosion?) clip attached to the cloth loop on the sash bow by a circular loop. The auction description states that this badge measures 59.38 mm wide X 81.77 mm high (including the suspension device and loop). The weight is given as 40.1 g. Although the photo resolution is not good enough to see any of the hallmarks in any of the photos of this piece (or other details of interest) other than those visible on the close-up of the reverse of the central boss, the eMedals description states that it is "...hallmarked on the reverse, suspension, suspension loop, crown reverse...", indicting all the normal locations for hallmarks as shown in several of my previous posts on this thread. As discussed in my post of 13 December, 2018, the dimensions of the Grand Cordon sash badge, the Grand Officer neck badge, and the Commander neck badge all show overlapping size ranges. Unlike the breast star that is consistency larger for the 1st Class of this award (mostly 80 mm in diameter, with reported variance of 81 or 82 mm on a few examples) compared with that of the 2nd Class (70 mm in diameter), where size alone can distinguish which class a breast star represents, other elements are needed to securely identify the Grand Cordon sash badge and the Grand Officer neck badge from the Commander neck badge. The 40.1 g weight of this eMedals example is quite a bit less heavy than the range reported for other 1st Class sash badges, 2nd Class neck badges, or the 3rd Class neck badges that vary from ~47-49 g. Obverse of the July 2019 eMedlas auction example identified as a 3rd Class Commander's neck badge. (From: https://www.emedals.com/egypt-kingdom-an-order-of-ismail-in-gold-i-class-commander-by-j-lattes-c-1924) Oblique obverse view of the same eMedals July 2019 3rd Class neck badge showing some good detail of the construction of this badge. Reverse view of this same eMedals 3rd Class neck badge. Oblique view of the reverse of this same Commander's neck badge, useful in shown some construction aspects of this badge. Close -up via of the reverse boss of this same Commander's neck badge showing the "LATTES" hallmark and below it the three Egyptian precious metal hallmarks, right-left: the Cairo assay office mark for 18 carat gold; the ibis mark identifying Egyptian produced gold work; and the date letter of "Y" indicating manufacture in 1923-1924. The auction description correctly identifies all of these hallmarks. High-resolution image of the suspension clip attached by a circular loop to a cloth loop on a 1st Class Grand Cordon Order of Ismail sash from a past eMedals auction (https://www.emedals.com/order-of-ismail-1915-a-sash-w01278). The material the clip his made from is not identified in the auction description. This example of the sash did not have the sash badge nor a breast badge associated with it. No probable manufacturer for this sash is identified in the eMedals description. This is the only image I have found showing such an attachment clip. As noted in the text above, I still have several questions about the attachment configuration (and potential variation) that is represented for the sash badge of the Grand Cordon Class of this award compared with the attachment of the Grand Officer's or Commander's neck badges.
  11. I have promised for some time to provide a higher resolution image of Judge Mahmoud Saïd in the District Court of Mansourah, and some other associated materials about Mahmoud Saïd. Although not famous for his legal career, Saïd was the son of a former Prime Minister of Egypt, Mohamed Saïd Pasha (1863-1928, served 1910-1914 and again for a short term in 1919), the uncle of Queen Farida of Egypt (Safnaz Zulificar, 1921-1988), Mahmoud Saïd is best remembered today as an important Egyptian modernist painter. He is most well-known for his works depicting rural scenes in early-mid 20thcentury Egypt, female nudes, and some portraits. A couple of simple websites about Mahmoud Saïd are: http://www.mahmoud-said.com/aboutMS.html and https://www.christies.com/features/10-things-to-know-about-Mahmoud-Said-8134-1.aspx. Many examples of his artwork, memorabilia, his judicial badge (shown below), his Order of the Nile, and his Order of Independence of the Republic (sans ribbon), in addition to several art medals awarded to him by Egypt and France are housed in the Mahmoud Saïd Museum in Gianaclis, Alexandria. The museum is located at 6 Sharia Mohammed Pasha Saïd (6 Mahmoud Saïd Pasha Street), Gianaclis; tlf: 03-582-1688. The hours are 10am-6pm Tue-Thu & Sat-Sun, visitors need to show a passport to get in. As noted in my post of 5 March 2019, I do not yet have all aspects of Saïd's legal career identified securely. He worked principally in the Parquet, the prosecutor's office. He was appointed the deputy district prosecutor (Parquet) in 1921 (substitute) and promoted in that position in 1922. He was named Chief of the Parquet in Mansourah in 1925, and probably served on the district Courts in Alexandria starting in 1937, and retired from his legal career in 1949, the year of the closing of the Mixed Courts. Saïd was awarded the Egyptian Kingdom Order of the Nile (4th Class) probably after his retirement in 1949, the Republic-era Order of Independence of the Republic, the Egyptian State Merit Award for Arts in 1960 and the French Légion d'honneur in 1951 (although some biographical sources identify it as the "Medal for Honorary Merit"). Above is a higher resolution image of the District Court of Mansourah compared with the one I posted on 5 March, 2019 on this thread showing Mahmoud Saïd (1st row, 2nd from left, Egypt, Chef du Parquet, wearing what appears to be a bicolored sash, green uppermost and red below, that is appropriate for the Parquet, in contrast with what appear to be single color sashes, red, worn by all the other judges of District Court of Mansourah shown here), Ahmed Mazloum Bey (1st row, furthest right, Egypt), and Maurice de Wee (1st row, 2nd from left, (Belgium, Vice-Président). The names of the other judges in this image are provided in that post of 5 March. This and most of the images in this post can be zoomed for greater detail. (From : Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg.194) This is the portrait Mahmoud Saïd painted of Ahmed Mazloum Bey titled Portrait d’Ahmed Mazloum Pacha, 1917. From a private collection. As identified above, Judge Mazloum is seated in the first row, at the furthest right in the above photo of Le Tribunal de Mansourah, 1926 portrait. Please note that this portrait, and all the images from the two Didier Hess & Rashwan 2016 publications that I have included here, are copyrighted images and are presented on GMIC strictly for research purposes on the topic of the Egyptian Mixed Courts. (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 1. Paintings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate 7, pg 232. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editore) This is the Portrait of Maurice de Wee probably in 1924-26, titled Portrait de Mr. Maurice de Wee, painted by Mahmoud Saïd. This portrait is probably in the possession of the family of Maurice de Wee. Mahmoud Saïd’s signature is visible in the lower left of the painting. In the above photo of the District Court of Mansourah, Judge de Wee is seated in the 1st row, 3rd from left in the above photographic portrait of the Le Tribunal de Mansourah. (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 1. Paintings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate 79, pg. 278. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editore) I have previously posted this portrait of Jasper Yeates Brinton by Mahmoud Saïd in the 1st photo of my post of 1 December, 2016, but here is a higher resolution image of the only portrait by Saïd of a judge of the Mixed Courts in his regalia, titled Portrait du president: Jasper Brinton, 1944. This portrait is in the collection of the Museum of Modern Art, Cairo, and it has been on loan to the Mahmoud Saïd Museum, Alexandria. (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 1. Paintings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate 237, pg. 442. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editore) Above is a portrait photo of Jasper Yeates Brinton from the Yale University Press, in 1930 (used in his book: Brinton, Jasper Yeates, 1931 Revised Edition. The Mixed Courts of Egypt, 1931 Yale University Press, New Haven. Opposite page 340). Brinton also is shown in the 3rd photo of my post of 1 April, 2019 of the Mixed Court of Appeals in general assembly, seated at the table, 3rd from the right). Mahmoud Saïd’s silver judicial badge (from the Mahmoud Saïd Museum, Alexandria). The bookplate legend incorrectly identifies this as a “Medal of Justice.” Mahmoud Saïd’s badge is silver because almost all of his court assignments that I can identify pertain to the Parquet, the prosecutor's office. No information is provided about the manufacturer of this badge. (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate A 177, pg. 865. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editore) Mahmoud Saïd’s Order of the Nile, 4th Class, Officer (from the Mahmoud Saïd Museum, Alexandria). (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate A 179, pg. 865. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editore) Mahmoud Saïd’s Order of Independence of the Republic (Order of Istiklal), probably the 1st Class, Grand Cordon. The suspension clip fitted onto the larger superior suspension ring (attached to the reverse of the triangular suspension device that is ornamented in blue enamel bands with the Eagle of Saladin on the obverse but is not shown in this photo) that is partially visible, but obscured by the red embellishment ray in the 11:00 o’clock position, appears to be that used to suspend the sash badge of the Grand Cordon Class of this award (from the Mahmoud Saïd Museum, Alexandria). The bookplate incorrectly identifies this as the “Medal of Merit” (from the Mahmoud Saïd Museum, Alexandria). (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate A 176, pg. 865. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editore) Award brevet for Mahmoud Saïd’s Order of Independence of the Republic, identified in the bookplate description as a “1st Class” award, probably meaning the Grand Cordon (but perhaps one of the GMIC experts who reads Arabic may clarify the class of this award?), dated 1960 (from the Mahmoud Saïd Museum, Alexandria). (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate A 30, pg. 794. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editors) Mahmoud Saïd did often make pencil sketches during his time in the courts. Some of these I am reproducing below that depict particular identified individuals (mostly lawyers) or provide some images of the lawyer's costumes. These sketches are apparently undated, and all are identified in the Didier Hess and Raswan volume only as having been made sometime probably in the 1920s. Mahmoud Saïd also sketched some general depictions of the activity in the District Courts. Most of these are probably from the District Court of Alexandria. I am not including them here as they provide only minimal detail of judges' or lawyers' costumes, but I may post some in the future. Above is a drawing by Mahmoud Saïd, that is identified as a study of a judge or lawyer. The name “Thorn” on the sketch suggests it is probably the Judge William Hobart Houghton Thorne of Britain, shown in the 5th photo of my post of 18 April, 2019 on this thread (depicting the Mixed District Court of Alexandria in general assembly, from the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume pg. 192) sitting to the viewer’s right of Manuel Monteiro. The sash shown in the drawing is consistent with the judges’ costume, however as shown in my previous post of, some court functionaries also wore bi-colored sashes and the “judicial” badge. Judge Thorne was named to the District Court of Alexandria in October, 1916, he resigned in March of 1917, and re-appointed to the District Court of Alexandria in February, 1919 and was serving that court in 1926 at the time of the 50th Anniversary volume’s publication. (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate D 163, pg. 729. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editors) The photo of the District Court of Alexandria in general assembly that I included as the 5th photo in my post of 18 April, 2019 on this thread. Judge William Hobart Houghton Thorne of Britain is seated 3rd from the viewer's right of the person seated at the far head of the table, Judge Erling Qvale, from Norway, the President of the District Court of Alexandria at the time. The names of the other individuals are provided in the caption to this image in my post of 18 April. (From : Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg.194) This is a caricature drawing by Mahmoud Saïd titled “Maître Alfred” showing a lawyer serving the Mixed Courts. This appears to be Alfred Tilche, who also appears in some of the photos in the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume. (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate D 175, pg. 732. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editors) This is a portrait of Alfred Tilche in a section of photos of former and current heads (Bâtonnières) of the bar of the Mixed Courts, identifying Tilche as the Bâtonnière from 1911-1913. This photograph shows him at similar age to the sketch by Mahmoud Saïd shown above. (From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 211.) Alfred Tilche also is shown as an older man than in the above portrait in this photo that documents the full Appeals Court in session in February of 1926 (I previously included this as the 4th photo I posted on 1 April, 2019 in this thread). Tilche is in the row of lawyers nearest the semi-circular judges bench, 2nd from the left, with gray moustaches & glasses (in front of Judge Michael Hansson) wearing his lawyer’s gown, rabat, and beretta. The other lawyers in this row are identified as, left-right: M. Pupikofer, Alfred Tilche, Alberto Lusena, P. Colucci, & David Hazan. The names of the judges in this courtroom image are provided in my post of 1 April, 2019. (From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 198). Alfred Tilche also is again shown as an older individual in the above photo of the Board of legal Advisors to the Mixed Courts lawyers on page 199 of that anniversary publication, which is reproduced above. Tilche is the 5th lawyer from the foreground seated on the left side of the table. The other lawyers, seated from left to right around the table are: A. Scordino, R. Chalom Bey, F. Bakhoum, Alfred Tilche (former Bâtonnière), Théodore Lebsohn (former Bâtonnière), M. Tatarakis (Subistitute), Giuseppe de Semo (Bâtonnière), Alfred Catzefils (former Bâtonnière), G. Merzbach Bey (Chef del la Délégaction du Caire), N. Orfall, S. Antoine, M. Pupikofer, C. Casdagli, & R. Schemeil. Alfred Tilche also is identified in a large, official group photo of lawyers who worked in Alexandria, wearing their court robes, rabat, and some wearing the beretta, on page 204 of the the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume (it provides only low resolution of any individuals features because of the large number of lawyers in the photo, so I am not reproducing it here). Above image from: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 199). The above illustration shows Giuseppe de Semo, the Bâtonnière of the bar of the Mixed Courtsin 1926, shown seated at the head of the table in the previous photo of the advisory lawyers to the Mixed Courts in chambers. This image shows some details of his lawyer’s costume, including the robe, rabat (scarf), and beretta (legal cap). It is unclear whether some of the variation in lawyers' costumes shown in their 50th Anniversary volume may be associated with lawyers of different nationalities retaining their national legal regalia (see some of the variation in lawyers' costumes in the second picture above showing the full Appeals Court in session in February of 1926). If this is a possibility, it might explain the apparently erroneous statement by W. Burdick (W. Burdick,1939. Bench and Bar of Other Lands, pp. 495-496) stating that the costume of judges in the International Mixed Courts (both Egyptian and foreign) wore the judicial robes of their home countries (on pg. 412) that I mentioned again in my recent post of 15 August, 2019. He may have mistaken judicial for lawyers' robes in whatever observational basis he had for that statement that cannot be true of judges regalia at the period when he wrote that article. (From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 11). This is a drawing by Mahmoud Saïd made in the courts titled “Maître Cuzzer”, referring to Giulio Cuzzer. (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate D 198, pg. 737. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editors) This is a portrait of Giulio Cuzzer in a section of photos of former and current heads (Bâtonnières) of the bar of the Mixed Courts. Cuzzer was a former Bâtonnière of the Mixed Courts’ Bar from 1903-1905. (From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 210). Court sketch by Mahmoud Saïd of the lawyer titled “Maître Cassis Alex”. Two lawyers with the surname Cassis were serving as lawyers to the District Court of Mansourah in ~1926, and are shown in a photo from the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume (see photo the next photo shown below). One, named S. Cassis, exhibits a white mustache in the photograph of this corps of lawyers and the other is a younger man with smaller, dark mustaches named A. Cassis, who closely resembles this sketch portrait above. (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate D 177, pg. 732. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editors) A. Cassis shown in 50th Anniversary volume as one of the group of lawyers of the Court of Mansourah (1st row, 1st from left=S. Cassis; 2nd row 6th from left=A. Cassis). The other individuals are names as (1st row, left-right: A. Gohargui, Camel Boutrous Bey, G. Mabardi, M. Michlopoulo, A. Maksud, A. Kindynékos, P. G. Bouboulis, Abdel Guélil Samra Bey, and S. Cassis; 2nd row left-right:H. Farag, A. Fadel, Z. Gaballa, J. Gouriotis, A. El Biali, A. Cassis, N. Bouez, S. Antoine, W. Salib, F. Michel, and R. Guirguis ; 3rd row left-right: S. Ekdaoui, D. de Botton, S. Lévy, A. Belloti, E. Daoud, Abdel Fattah Fahey, K. Tewfik, Abdel Bail Raglan , E. Sammé, B. Ghaliounghi, and M. Ebbo; 4th row left-right: P. Kindynécos, H. Maksud, B. Abboudy, M. Papadakis, Z. Picramenos, N. Kaznetsis, and C. Cottan. No roles or country affiliations are provided for these lawyers. (From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg.206). Sketches by Mahmoud Saïd of a greffier "Chibli", possibly identified as serving in "Mansourah"(?) on the left and a goateed man identified as Maître “Massayardi (?) in the Didier Hess and Raswan volume 2 publication. “Massayardi’" is almost certainly Enrico Manusardi, identified in the 50th Anniversary volume as a Vétéran du Barreau on pg. 32 (with goatee). An Antonio Manusardi with a dark mustaches and no chin beard is shown as a former Bâtonnière of the Mixed Courts from the 1880s (pg. 207). Chibli is probably shown in 50th Anniversary volume in a photo on pg. 394 that I posted the 9th photo of my post of 29 April, 2019 as a Cis-Geffier of the Court of Mansourah (see the 3rd image below this one). (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate D 179, pg. 732. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editors) Another courtroom sketch by Mahmoud Saïd of Enrico Mansard (left, again with the idiosyncratic spelling or handwriting that Didier Hess and Rashwan transcribe as “Massayardi’") and of another individual named Maitre Belleli (right). The lawyer A. Belleli is shown in a large group photo of low resolution of Avocats to the Mixed Court in Alexandria on pg. 204 of the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume (2nd row 3rd from the left), showing the same style goatee sketched here by Saïd. (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate D 178, pg. 732. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editors) Portrait of Enrico Manusardi in a section of the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume showing Vétéran du Barreau. (From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 32) Portrait of functionaries serving the District Court of Mansourah in 1926 that I posted as the 9th photo of my post of 29 April, 2019 on this thread that shows an individual identified as Chibli (Cis-Greffier, no first initial or name given) in the second row, furthest to the right. It is unclear if this is the same individual sketched by Mahmoud Saïd in the 3rd picture above this photo. The names of the other individuals are provide in the legend to this image in my 29 April post. The functionary (Cis-Greffier) G. Cassis is shown in the 1st row, furthest left. (From: Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926, pg. 394) Mahmoud Saïd caricature sketch of unidentified lawyer (Alfred Tilche?) showing his robe and rabat. The curling lines and straight sketch lines on the lawyers left shoulder (the viewer's right) are probably the épitoge portion of the legal costume, rather than the braided cord shown on the same shoulder of Giuseppe de Semo's costume shown above. (identified by Didier Hess and Rashwan as a study of a lawyer or judge). (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate D 172, pg. 731. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editors) Mahmoud Saïd sketch of unidentified lawyer showing his robe and rabat. Corrctly identified as a lawyer. (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate D 252, pg. 746. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editors) Mahmoud Saïd sketch of unidentified lawyer showing his robe and rabat. (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate D 189, pg. 735. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editors) Mahmoud Saïd sketch of unidentified lawyer showing his robe, rabat, and possibly part of the épitoge on his back. (From: Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate D 164, pg. 730. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editors) Undated photo of an Egyptian lawyer from a May-July, 2019 eBay auction showing the lawyer's costume of the robe, rabat (scarf), beretta (cap), and the épitoge on the wearer's left shoulder The portion draped down his arm should normally be worn over the wearer's back (see the illustration of the full Appeals Court in session in February of 1926 posted above to show Alfred Tilche in court). The costume is derived from French legal and academic regalia. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-The-young-judge-with-the-scarf-PHOTO-KEROP/312570975092?hash=item48c6ae9374:g:BvgAAOSwumxcslyl) Undated photo of a woman lawyer in Egypt showing the épitoge on the wearer's left shoulder, in this case with the crescent and one star seen in other images I have posted, probably suggesting early republic era legal regalia. The crescent and star attached to the épitoge also is shown in the picture of the young boy from the eBay auction (incorrectly titled "The Little Judge", showing 3 stars above the crescent) that Chris W posted on 8 August, 2019 and I posted on 31 October, 2018, both on this thread. These are the only images I have seen of these insignia attached to the French academic scarf (épitoge) and not on a sash, as several images I have uploaded here in this thread show (possibly for some judges and also for lawyers after the Mixed court was abolished in 1949 and before the eagle of Saladin was attached to judicial sashes, sometime after he 1952 revolution). (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-CUTE-LAWYER-WITH-THE-SCARF-HAND-COLORED-/273361632578?nma=true&si=mpDX%2FvmJ3j93DINpvfI%2FS1m09vQ%3D&orig_cvip=true&nordt=true&rt=nc&_trksid=p2047675.l2557)
  12. I came across the portrait of Émile Froment-Meurice shown below from the French language Wikipédia site this February, but have been so busy I never posted it. I have wanted to include it here, as small homage to the man who designed this beautiful badge for Khedive Isma'il Pasha. As I noted in my 28 February 2019 post on this thread about details hallmarks on the Egyptian Mixed Court badges (principally from available photographs and information on auction listings), Maison Froment-Meurice originated as a goldsmith workshop founded by François Froment (1773-1803) in 1801. The name Froment-Meurice derives from Émile’s paternal grandmother having married her husband’s (François Froment) partner (the goldsmith Pierre-Jaques Meurice) following her husband's death in 1804, changing the workshop name to Froment-Meurice. Émile’s father, François-Désiré Froment-Meurice took over the shop in 1832. He became a very successful goldsmith and jeweler. Most sources indicate that Émile Froment-Meurice took over the workshop following the death of his father, François-Désiré Froment-Meurice (born 1802), in 1855 (some sources suggest he assumed ownership in 1859). 1907 is the date when Émile Froment-Meurice retired and sold his business (although some sources indicate that he continued to run Atelier Froment-Meurice until 1913, this almost certainly is not true). His sons did not wish to continue in the business. When Émile Froment-Meurice ran the atelier he lived at 46 rue d'Anjou in Paris. He sold the workshop and his clientele to Georges Auger in 1907, a goldsmith-jeweler living in Paris. Maison Augere was founded by Alphonse Auger (1837-1904) and the shop was moved to 54 rue Etienne-Marcel in approximately 1890. Many of Alphonse Auger's jewelry pieces are markedly art deco in design, or French Art Nouveau. George Auger began to work with Alphonse in 1900. His workshops products after 1907 are known to bear the mark "Auger-Froment Meurice" for an unspecified time (it appears that later work is simply identified as "Auger"), although I have not seen any of the Mixed Court badges with this hallmark. The address 372 rue Saint-Honoré, 75001, Paris is the one that appears in all the the photos of cases I have seen images of (11th and 13th photos in my 28 February post). This location of the atelier dates to at least 1859 (see the advertisement below). The date when Émile Foment-Meurice retired (1907) raises several questions about when Maison Froment-Meurice actually received the commission to design this badge and how long the workshop produced them. Although several sources (including Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG's auction description of a Stobbe-manufactured District Court judge’s badge made of gold and silver) identified 1907 as the date of this commission by Khedive Abbas Hilmi II, this date must be incorrect. First, It would have been impossible for Froment-Meurice to have been commissioned to produce the badges in 1907 and create a sufficient number before he retired in that same year to represent the number currently available in auctions. Second, the Mixed Courts were created by Khedive Isma'il Pasha (Abbas Hilmi II's grandfather) in 1875 following the skillful and long campaign of judicial reform by his Foreign Minister Nubar Pasha. I have not yet found a reliable reference about the date when this badge was designed by Émile Froment-Meurice as a commission from Khedive Isma'il Pasha. However, it could not have been in 1907 when Émile Froment-Meurice retired. I noted in my second post on this thread on 21 November, 2016 that Richard Beardsley, (the Consul General for the US in Cairo from 1870 -1876) described the judicial costume of the Mixed Courts in a letter of 15 July, 1875 to Hamilton Fish (the US Secretary of State from 1869-1877) including the use of these judicial badges: "...Over the shoulder and around the body is worn a broad scarf, to which is attached a large and very handsome badge of office. The badge consists of a shield resting upon a drapery, bearing various appropriate devices, from beneath which radiate the rays of a many-pointed star. On the shield is engraved in Arabic 'Law is the foundation of justice.'..." (From: EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 1875-'76. WASHINGTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 1876; PAPERS RELATED TO FOREIGN RELATIONS The United States, TRANSMITTED TO CONGRESS, WITH THE ANNUAL MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT, DECEMBER 6, 1875. PRECEDED BY A LIST OF PAPERS AND FOLLOWED BY AN INDEX OF PERSONS AND SUBJECTS. VOLUME II. WASHINGTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 1875. pp. 1347-1348). Egyptian Zogist provided a better translation of this motto in his post of 23 November, 2016 on this thread as "Justice is the foundation of kingship/governance". This indicates that the Froment-Meurice designed judicial badge was in use almost from the origin of the Mixed Courts. I also noted in my second post on 21 November, 2016 that another source (Wilner, Gabriel M. 1975. The Mixed Courts of Egypt: a study on the use of natural law and equity. Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law vol 5 (no 2): pp. 407-430) quoted a statement by W. Burdick (W. Burdick,1939. Bench and Bar of Other Lands, pp. 495-496) which claimed that the costume of judges in the International Mixed Courts (Egyptian and foreign) were the judicial robes of their home countries (on pg. 412). However, Beardsley provides an eyewitness account in July1875 of the uses of a standardized national costume for judges of the Mixed Courts and the use of these large and beautiful judicial badges. At the time that Burdick was writing in 1939, photographic evidence clearly indicates that both Egyptian and foreign judges wore the standard stamboul coat, tarboosh, sash, and the heavy judicial badge of the Froment-Meurice design. I do not know whether the other manufacturers of these badges (Stobbe of Alexandria, Horovitz of Alexandria, M. Laurencin & Cie. of Alexandria, and Zivy Frères & Cie. of Alexandria) began to make them before Froment-Meurice's retirement in 1907, or only after this date. The Mixed Courts' judicial badges were apparently not made by his successor after Froment-Meurice sold the business to Auger. As noted above, following Georges Auger's purchase of the atelier, his pieces were marked "Auger-Froment Meurice" (see the last photo of this post showing an example with that name on the inside of the presentation case of a Laotian Order of the of the Million Elephants and White Parasol). The period when Froment-Meurice manufactured these badges is most likely between 1875 and 1907. Émile Froment-Meurice and his wife Rose Tassin de Moncourt (1839-1913) both died in the catastrophic collapse of their mansion, located at No. 46 rue d'Anjou in Paris. Their son, Jacques Charles Francois Marie Froment-Meurice (1864-1947) was a sculptor who studied with Henri Michel Antoine Chapu, the celebrated French sculptor and medalist (1833-1891). Pierre Henri Émile Froment-Meurice at the age of 48 (born 21 March, 1837 in Paris, died 21 April, 1913 in Paris) from Le mode illustré, 3 October, 1885. His profession is described as a goldsmith and jeweler, and both his father and grandfather also were goldsmiths. (From: https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Émile_Froment-Meurice) Advertisement by Émile Froment-Meurice from 1859 in the Courrier des Chemins de Fer identifying the 372 rue Saint-Honoré, Paris address for the workshop that appears on the case linings for the Mixed Court judges' badges made by Froment-Meurice. (From: https://www.richardjeanjacques.com/2019/02/les-froment-meurice-2-eme-partie-emile.html) Page from Émile Froment Meurice's award as a Knight of the légion d honneur in 1869, following winning the gold medal in the 1867 Exposition universelle de Paris. His father had been awarded a Knighthood in the légion d honneur in 1832. (From: https://www.richardjeanjacques.com/2019/02/les-froment-meurice-2-eme-partie-emile.html) One of the extant pages from the reconstitution of Émile Froment Maurice's to the légion d honneur in 1877. (From: https://www.richardjeanjacques.com/2019/02/les-froment-meurice-2-eme-partie-emile.html) Front page of Le Petit Parisien of 26 April, 1913 carrying the story of the collapse of Froment-Meurice's mansion and Émile Froment Maurice's death. (From: https://www.richardjeanjacques.com/2019/02/les-froment-meurice-2-eme-partie-emile.html) Photo of the collapsed Froment-Meurice mansion at 46 rue d'Anjou in Paris (From: https://www.richardjeanjacques.com/2019/02/les-froment-meurice-2-eme-partie-emile.html) Death certificate of Émile Froment Meurice (From: https://www.richardjeanjacques.com/2019/02/les-froment-meurice-2-eme-partie-emile.html) Newspaper photo from Le Petit Parisian of François Foment-Meurice, the 20 year-old grandson of Émile Froment Meurice, who was the only other person also buried in the mansion's collapse but survived. A cook and a valet de chamber in another part of the house also survived the disaster. (From: https://www.richardjeanjacques.com/2019/02/les-froment-meurice-2-eme-partie-emile.html) An example of a medal created by Maison Auger-Froment Meurice following Georges Auger's purchase of Maison Froment-Meurice: the Laotian Order of the Million Elephants and White Parasol made by Auger-Froment Meurice. I know nothing about this award, (but see GMIC links: but it apparently was created on 1 May, 1909, by Royal Order of Laos, and amended 18 August, 1923 (or in 1927?) as 4 classes. On 10 October, 1936 a 5th class and a collar was added. The Order was abolished in 1975. It was awarded for civil and military merit relating to the Kingdom's development and dedication to France. The 1923 (1927?) amendment allowed the Order to be given to individuals with 10 years of military or civilian service in France, Indochina, or other French colonies. The address Place des Victories on the inside lid is simply a portion of the same address that Auger opened in 1900 at 54 rue Etienne-Marcel, place des Victories. (From: https://www.richardjeanjacques.com/2014/10/la-maison-de-joaillerie-auger-alphonse.html; copyright: David Fay-www.indochinamedals.com))
  13. I just came across 2 examples of Mixed Tribunals judges' badges from a recent auction (June 2019) by Lugdunum GmbH that is archived on the CoinArchives.com website. One of these is a silver badge made by Froment-Meurice. The other badge is bit odd. It is described as made of bronze, and all elements of its design are executed in much less detail than any badge I have illustrated in this thread, except the strange "pin" version in my post of 8 December, 2018. All of these photos can be enlarged to see them in greater detail. Obverse of a silver Mixed Courts judges badge (possibly from the Parquet) made by Froment-Meurice from a 19 June, 2019 auction by Lugdunum GmbH (Auction 16, Lot 288) archived on the CoinArchives.com website. The description states that this badge is from Alexandria and gives an approximate date of 1892 (probably "identified" simple as it is the year Abbas Hilmi II became Khedive of Egypt), although no basis for this identification is provided. As noted in my post of 28 February, 2019 on this thread, the auction house Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG's auction description of a Stobbe-manufactured District Court judge’s badge made of gold and silver identified 1907 as the date of this commission by Khedive Abbas Hilmi II (a highly problematic date for this commission as the badges appear to have been in use by 1875 under the reign of Khedive Isma'il Pasha, who authorized the creation of the Mixed Courts-see my next post of 15 August). The creation of this badge for the Mixed Courts’ judges may have been associated with a judicial costume change from the earliest practice of each judge (foreign and Egyptian) wearing their own country’s judicial robes to a standardized Egyptian costume of tarboosh, stamboul coat, along with the differently-colored sashes and this large badge (also see my discussion in the 4th paragraph of my 24 March, 2017 post in this thread, but also the updated information in my next post of 15 August). The auction description says it is silver plated, however these badges are solid silver. The badge measures 85 mm wide x 115 mm high and weighs 141.76 g. (From: https://www.coinarchives.com/w/lotviewer.php?LotID=3972878&AucID=4100&Lot=288&Val=f97e5c722c28c73add7c029f374c845e) Reverse of the same silver badge from the June 2019 auction of Lugdunum GmbH showing the Froment-Meurice name in the lower third of the central depression and the diamond-shaped Froment-Meurice maker's hallmark just above the fasteners for the obverse tablet inscription piece and to the right of the tunic pin (the image is not high-enough resolution to see this hallmark even when enlarged). This is only the second example I have seen photos of that has this diamond-shaped hallmark and the "FROMENT-MEURICE" name in this lower position. The other example with the diamond-shaped hallmark and lower stamped name is shown in a higher resolution image on the 12th image of my post of 28 February, 2019 on this thread; on a named badge belonging to the Greek Judge Apostolo N. Gennaropoulo of the Mixed Tribunals' Parquet of Alexandria. Below is the illustration of this hallmark that I included in that 28 February post showing the design with the "FROMENT" name above a stylized rose with the bud toward the right, and "MEURICE" below the rose. As can be seen on this thread, all other examples of Froment-Meurice manufactured judges badges that have available photos of their reverse have the name " FROMENT-MEURICE" stamped above the central fasteners. There appear to be metal tool marks visible on the lower left rivet, and possibly on the upper left rivet as well. This may suggest an attempt to disassemble the badge elements. No assay marks are present, but I have not seen any on other photos of the reverse of Froment-Meurice made badges. Drawing of the Froment-Meurice rose hallmark used by Maison Froment-Meurice. As noted in my original post of this hallmark on 28 February, 2019, I do not know the date ranges for the use of this hallmark, nor whether temporal use or other reasons are responsible for the lack of this hallmark and the higher position of the "FROMENT-MEURICE" stamped name on most examples of the judicial badge made by this Parisian workshop that created the original design of this badge. (From: https://www.langantiques.com/university/Froment-Meurice_Jewelry_Maker%27s_Mark) Obverse view of this unusual version of the Egyptian Mixed Courts judicial badge. This example also is from a 19 June, 2019 auction by Lugdunum GmbH (Auction 16, Lot 289) archived on the CoinArchives.com website. The auction description identifies the metal as bronze, a material not used for any authentic judicial badges of the International Tribunals (gold was used for the Appeals Court; silver & gold for the District Courts; and silver was used for the Parquet, but also see some complexities of costume outlined in previous posts on this thread). The description repeats the probably spurious association with Alexandria and a date of c.1892. This piece is the same size as all other judicial badges (85 mm wide x 115 mm high) and weighs 196.22 g. The offering is associated with a case identified as the original box of issue, but no manufacturer is identified. It is apparent that almost all aspects of the design of this badge are of much lower craftsmanship than any other genuine badges, with the possible exception of the rays forming the base embellishment. Even the example I posted on April 24, 2019 made by Zivy Frères & Cie. that exhibits the lowest level of detail of any badge is not of such poor artistry as this badge from the Lugdunum GmbH. The obvious jewelry mimic "pin" mentioned above and shown in my post of 8 December, 2018 in this thread was apparently never intended to be taken as a genuine judge's insignia of office, and is merely inspired by the form of the Mixed Court badges. The calligraphy on the central tablet above shows a number of differences and omissions compared with all other badges. The ornamental design in the folds of the drapery of the mantle are highly abbreviated and incompletely present on the long vertical folds. The laurel leaves on the right side of the tablet are hollowed and lack any realistic execution. The oak leaves on the left side of the tablet also are very poorly formed in comparison with all other examples. The horses' tails on the tughs (at each of the upper corners of the central inscribed tablet), the tasseled cords, the exterior mantle folds, the superior crown, the Order of Medjidie symbol, and even the star and its radiant surround above the tablet, all are much less detailed. Many of the small ermine tail embellishments on the interior of the mantle are missing, and all are made with no detail beyond mimicking the shape on other badges. The interior of the mantle is simply a rugose pattern, with no attempt to make it resemble the furred interior. It is clear this is not a genuine example used by a member of the Mixed Courts judiciary or other officials occasionally shown wearing this badge. The bronze material and poor detail are inconsistent with the range of variability seen across the several manufacturers of this insignia. I believe this could be an Egyptian manufactured replica for the tourist trade, but whether it comes from the early 20th century or was made more recently is unclear. This mock badge and the very abbreviated "pin" example shown in my 8 December, 2018 post are the only examples I have encountered of full-sized pieces based on the design of this judicial badge that are clearly not authentic regalia of the Mixed Courts. (From: https://www.coinarchives.com/w/lotviewer.php?LotID=3972879&AucID=4100&Lot=289&Val=efc6a2fa2700e6a994f8217cb7d28a9c) Reverse of the same bronze badge from the June 2019 auction of Lugdunum GmbH. The central fasteners may be somewhat different than most examples, but the broad and flat tunic pin is clearly unusual compared with all others seen on these badges (even the "pin' version has the narrower tunic pin seen on all other examples). There are no manufacture's or assay hallmarks (Egyptian bronze was probably excluded from the need to have assay, Egyptian manufacture, and date hallmarks as were required for gold, silver, and platinum). The two engraved letters, "A." and either "I." or "J.", "S.", "T.", or possibly "G.", likely are initials of an owner, or alleged owner, of this piece.
  14. Chris, yes this image is still for sale on eBay and I posted this same image in my second post of 31 October, 2018 (4th photo). Although the seller titles this "The Little Judge", the accessory on the boy's left shoulder is actually an epitoge, the French academic equivalent of the British & American hood for academic costumes. In Egypt, this is worn by lawyers, not judges. I noted in that post of 31 October that this image represents a hybrid costume, but did not state that the tarboosh should be a biretta for a lawyer's costume. See the 4th photo of my post of 1 April 2019 showing several lawyers in front of judges in the Court of Appeals in February, 1926, showing several wearing the epitoge and some wearing the biretta. I have a few images of lawyers in the Mixed Courts that I am organizing to post in this thread soon, in relation to additional images associated with Mahmoud Saïd, the judge and Egyptian modernist painter.
  15. Owain noted in his first post of 6 December, 2017 on this thread “Miniatures of the Middle East & Arab World” that some miniatures of the Order of Ismail were made by Gardino of Rome. I have not yet come across any images of Egyptian medals made by this manufacturer (but my investigations are limited to only a couple Egyptian awards), and I have not seen any manufacturer’s hallmarks for E. Gardino on any of the miniatures of the Order of Ismail, I wanted to provide some examples of Gardino’s hallmarks. I would be very interested in seeing photos of this hallmark on any Egyptian medals if some of the GMIC collectors have them. The Gardino webiste (http://www.gardino.it/chi.html) identifies the Gardino name as associated with the original Fratelli Borani medalist company that first appears in written documents approximately in 1850 in Turin, although its founding date is unknown. A branch of that office was moved to Florence in 1864 when the capital was shifted, and later to Rome in 1871 following the unification of Italy. The Borani brothers got out of the precious metals trade, and the company was taken over by Domenico Cravanzola, who had been the director under the Fratelli Borani. He sold the business in 1913 to Luigi Raviolo and Enrico Gardino. Gardino’s son, Ettore, took over the business from Raviolo in 1927 and changed the shop name to “Gardino Succ.ri Ditta D. Cravanzola s.a.s.” The above image is the only photo I have currently found that represents a miniature identified as having been made by Gardino showing a manufacturer’s hallmark. This is a photo of the reverse of a medal identified as a miniature of the Latvian Order of Three Stars. The photo comes from a current eBay auction (https://www.ebay.com/itm/371762626684?ul_noapp=true) and the description indicates a date range of 1924-1940, and suggests this is a “Grand Cross” breast star miniature. The knotted cord is a component of the wreath surrounding the central shield on several of the following hallmark photos, shown in the 5th, 8th, and 9th examples below (especially visible in the eMedals examples of the Italian Order of the Crown and the Albanian Order of Scanderbeg and less clearly on the Vatican Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem). This also is the only example of a hallmark I have come across attributed solely to Gardino and not linked to Cravanzola. The stars separating "GARDINO" and the knot from "ROMA" are seen on each side of the word "*ROMA*" in several examples of the most common form of the Gardino hallmark, also shown below in the 5th, 8th, and 9th photos. No dimensions are given for this particular miniature medal. I am not familiar with the medals produced by these workshops nor with any of the medals shown below, but am including these to show available images of potentially relevant Gardino manufacturer’s hallmarks in the hope they may stimulate contribution of some examples on Egyptian awards, especially any miniatures, and/or some discussion of these medallists. This is the reverse of full-sized Italian Order of St. Mauritius and St. Lazarus, Knight's Class from an April 2019 auction on the Very Important Lot website (https://veryimportantlot.com/en/lot/view/italy-knight-of-the-order-of-st-mauritius-and-st-174877). It reads: "D. CRAVANZOLA SUCC. F...[Frat?] BORANI *ROMA*". This is the only example of a hallmark showing the name of the Fratelli Borani linked with the name Cravanzola, that I have come across so far in my investigations. The coat of arms is the same as seen on (later?) hallmarks of "Gardino succ. Cravanzola" (see below), but there are few details visible in the wreath to determine whether the knots are present in this version or not. Reverse of a full-sized Italian Order of the Crown breast star showing the placement and approximate size of the manufacturer's hallmark. While much of the hallmark is obscured by the Tunic pin, the legend "E. GARDINO SUCC. CRAVANZOLA *ROMA*" can be read. This example is very similar to several shown below (see the 5th, 8th, and 9th photos below). Like most of the hallmarks for this medallist, they are attached cartouches not stamped hallmarks. The breast star in this cased set with the neck badge measures 74.88 mm in diameter. From a past auction archived on the Medal-Medaille website: (http://www.medal-medaille.com/sold/product_info.php?products_id=8448). Inside of the case lid for this same example of the Italian Order of the Crown from the Medal-Medaille website showing the name of "E. Gardino succ. D. Cravanzola, Gioielliere, Roma" The "E. GARDINO SUCC. CRAVANZOLA *ROMA* " manufacturer's hallmark cartouche on the reverse of full-sized breast star of the Italian Order of the Crown showing good detail of this cartouche. The knotted cords making up part of the interior design of the band around the central shield can be clearly seen in this photo, which is the symbol shown in the first photo of the Latvian miniature of the Order of Three Stars. This breast star measures 77.21 mm high X 77.76 mm wide. The auction description suggest this example may date to c.1930. From a current eMedals auction (https://www.emedals.com/italy-kingdom-an-order-of-the-crown-in-gold-commander-by-cravanzola-c-1930). The Gardino/Cravanzola name on the inside of the upper lid of the case of this same eMedals example of the Italian Order of the Crown with the spelling "Gioiellieria", in contrast with "Gioiellerie" on the Medal-Medaille example above. Another version of the Cravanzola succ. Gardino name on the inside of the upper lid of a case of a Grand Officer Class of the Italian Order of Merit of the Republic of Italy. I cannot tell if the spelling is "Gioiellerie" or "Gioiellaria" on this image. From a June 2019 auction of Bene Merenti Auktionen, archived on the Very Important Lot website (https://veryimportantlot.com/en/lot/view/italy-order-of-merit-of-the-republic-of-italy-gr-174887). The above image shows the reverse of a full-sized Vatican Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem showing a similar manufacturer’s hallmark to those above for "E. GARDINO SUCC. CRAVANZOLA *ROMA* ". The wreath in this example are more worn, and the knots are not as visible as in other hallmarks. This medal is 86.27 mm high X 87.24 mm wide. This example (Item: EG2665) comes from a past eMedals aucition and is described as dating to c.1930 and made by Gardino and Cravanzola (From: https://www.emedals.com/vatican-an-order-of-our-lady-of-bethlehem-grand-officer-s-star-by-gardino-and-cravanzola-c-1930) Good image of the E. GARDINO SUCC. CRAVANZOLA *ROMA*" hallmark cartouche on the reverse of a full-sized sash badge of an Albanian Order of Scanderbeg, identified in the eMedals description as a Grand Cross sash badge and sash (no breast star is associated with this example). The knots in the wreath around the central shield are quite visible in this image. The badge measures 75 mm X 53 mm. The manufacturer is identified as "RAVIOLO & GARDINO ROMA". From a current eMedals auction, Item:EU11564 (https://www.emedals.com/an-albanian-order-of-scanderbeg-grand-cross-badge-by-raviolo-gardino-roma). An alternative form of the "E. GARDINO SUCC. DITTA CRAVANZOLA ROMA" hallmark on a full-sized neck badge of an Albanian Order of Scanderbeg. This example is identified as a Knight Grand Cross Class of this award (the neck badge suggests it is the Grand Officer or Commander Class of this award). No dimensions are provided for this badge. From a past auction curated on the Kubel 1943 website (https://www.kubel1943.it/eng/dettaglio.php?id=3729) Another example of a slightly different lunate form of the "E. GARDINO SUCC. DITTA CRAVANZOLA ROMA" hallmark on the reverse of the breast star of a full-sized Italian Highest Order of All Saints Annunciation, chain and breast star. This breast star measures 83 mm in diameter. From an April 2019 auction of Bene Merenti Auktionen, archived on the Very Important Lot website (https://veryimportantlot.com/en/lot/view/italy-the-highest-order-of-all-saints-annunciatio-174869). A different form of the "E. GARDINO SUCC. CRAVANZOLA" hallmark that also includes an address "ROMA VIA DEL CORSO 341" in the center of the attached manufacturer's cartouche instead of the coat of arms. This example is on the reverse of a Libyan Order of the House of Representatives medal, and is identified in the auction description as a Grand Cross sash badge, possibly dating to 1951. This piece is 61 mm in diameter. From a past auction on The Orient Treasures website (https://www.theorienttreasures.com/shop-now/orders-medals-decorations/kingdom-of-libya-order-of-house-of-representatives-grand-cross-sash-king-idriss). The same form of hallmark as above, but executed in gold, lacking the shield and wreath with knots and having the address of the medallist in Rome. This is on the reverse of a Peruvian Order of the Sun, identified in the description as the breast star of a Grand Cross Class of this award, possibly dating to 1930. This piece measures 78.8 mm in diameter. (From: https://www.emedals.com/a-1930-peruvian-order-of-the-sun-grand-cross-star-by-e-gardino-roman). An additional variant of a E. Gardin hallmark is the square attached plate shown above with just the words "E. GARDINO ROMA", with a scrolling decor but lacking the knot design from the wreath around the shield. These are 2 examples of this attached cartouche on the full-sized Albanian Order of Fidelity (Urdhëri Besa). I have only seen this form of the Gardino cartouche on the Order of Fidelity. The example on the L is from a neck badge of a 3rd Class award of this Order (also in the double eagle shape), and this badge is identified as measuring 87 mm X 52 mm. From an August 2016 auction by La Galerie Numismatique archived on the Sixbid.com website (https://www.sixbid.com/en/la-galerie-numismatique/2873/albania/2399793/b-order-of-fidelity-urdheri-besa-b-br?term&orderCol=lot_number&orderDirection=asc&priceFrom&displayMode=large&auctionSessions=). The example on the R is a 5th Class breast badge of the Albanian Order of Fidelity and shows the placement and size of the hallmarked plate on the reverse of this badge. The badge is identified as measuring 45 mm X 36 mm. From the same August 2016 auction by La Galerie Numismatique archived on the Sixbid.com website as the image on the right: (https://www.sixbid.com/en/la-galerie-numismatique/2873/albania/2399794/b-order-of-fidelity-urdheri-besa-b-br?term&orderCol=lot_number&orderDirection=asc&priceFrom&displayMode=large&auctionSessions=). Reverse of full-sized Albanian Order of Fidelity sash badge for the Grand Cordon Class with the square "E. GARDINO ROMA" cartouche. This sash badge measures 88 mm high x 51 mm wide. The hallmark on the breast star of this set is the round version (like the 3rd, 5th, 8th, & 9th photos in this this post) with the inscription "E. GARDINO SUCC. CRAVANZOLA *ROMA*", with a central shield & wreath (see below). From an April 2019 auction of a set of sash badge, breast star, and sash by Bene Merenti Auktionen, archived on the on the Very Important Lot website (https://veryimportantlot.com/en/lot/view/albania-order-of-the-loyal-besa-order-2-model-174759) Reverse of the full-sized breast badge of the same Grand Cordon Class set of the Albanian Order of Fidelity. This shows the contrasting hallmark compared with the more abbreviated square cartouche on the double eagle-forms of the sash badge, neck badge, or chest medals for this Order. It is unclear from this photo whether it shows lower detail of the knots within the wreath than other examples shown in this post. From the April 2019 auction of a set of sash badge, breast star, and sash by Bene Merenti Auktionen, archived on the on the Very Important Lot website. The breast star measures 87 mm high X 76 mm wide. Inside of the upper lid of a case holding 5 miniatures from a current eBay auction (https://www.ebay.com/itm/183840989020), using the word "Gioielleria". The description of the miniatures suggests they all were made by Gardino/Cravanzola, however none are Middle Eastern miniatures and no images are provided of the reverse of any of the five miniatures to show the form of any potential hallmarks. They include: "The Orders listed include the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta (Order of Malta), the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem (Holy See), the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of St. George of the Royal House of Bourbon of the Two Sicilies, the Order of Merit of the Royal House of Savoy of Italy and the Patriarchal Order of the Holy Cross (a decoration of the Melkite Patriarchate), listed in precedence."
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