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Rusty Greaves

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  1. I am including a photo of a neck badge (or possibly a sash badge?) from a 28 April, 2021 auction by Pescheteau-Badin, Paris, Lot 212, archived on the Lot Art.com website (https://www.lot-art.com/auction-lots/Egypt-Order-of-Ishmael-founded-in-1915-1st-class/212-egypt_order-28.4.21-pescheteau). Moderate-resolution photo from the 28 April auction by Pescheteau-Badin of Paris (Lot 212), archived on the Lot Art.com website. The auction description of this badge calls it a "first class jewel (grand-cross)" insignia. It is unclear if this may be a 1st Class Grand Cordon sash badge, or if it may be a 2nd or 3rd Class neck badge (it is more likely a 3rd Class Commander neck badge, note the description wording that it lacks the ribbon). No ribbon or sash is identified as being included in this lot (the listing says "without ribbon"). The description states that the Lattes name is marked onto reverse (However, note comments below about the wreath configuration), that it measures 79 mm x 59 mm, and weighs 40 g. It also identifies the Egyptian hallmarks marking it as 18 carat gold and a date hallmark of "Y" = 1923-1924. The lower right ball finial is bent (noted in the description, along with a chip in the enamel), the suspension linking the upper arm to the crown suspension is bent slightly to the viewer’s right (also noted), the wreath and central medallion with the inscription is rotated slightly counterclockwise (not identified in the auction description). Although the resolution makes some aspects of the engraving on the gold floral elements of the arms unclear, they exhibit 2 lateral pairs of marks (looking more like "V"-shaped marks in enlargement) and a single distal mark on the most distal petals of these floral elements (that mark appears rather large in this image). The 2 central flowers show 3 lateral marks on each and it appears this example has the the "V"-shaped mark outlining the central petals. The listing states that a brevet in its envelope is associated with this lot, dated 2 April, 1923, and named Albert Sarraut. The award date is congruent with the date hallmark. Albert Sarraut is probably the French radical socialist and politician (b. 19872-d. 1962). He served as member of the Chamber of Deputies (1902-24), as Undersecretary of State (1906-1909), as Undersecretary of War (1909-10), and Minister of Education (1914-15). He also was France's Ambassador to Turkey (1925-26), and Minister of the Interior 1926-28, 1934, 1937-40), Minister of the Navy (1930-31), and served two times as Prime Minister (1933 and 1936). Sarraut's most important colonial appointment was as the Governor General of Indochina (1911-14 and 1916-19). Sarraut served as Minister of the Colonies 1920-24 and 1932-33), coordinating French colonial policy and development of France's oversees "holdings" as exterritorial components of a “Greater France” or a “France Africaine”. It was during his time as Minister of the Colonies that he was apparently awarded the Order of Ismail, although France's formal role in dual administration of Egypt ended in 1882. How this role earned him the Order of Ismail is unclear to me. Cropped image of the same auction photo to show the configuration of the wreath on this badge. This photo can be enlarged slightly, for a small amount of additional detail. The wreath on this badge is not the work of Lattes, but is clearly a Tewfik Bichay-made component. The configuration of the gold laurel fruit dots are the pattern seen on Bichay badges (compare the Sarraut badge with the 2nd Class neck badge of Dr. James Ferguson Lees, shown in the 2nd photo of my post of 23 September, 2021, as well as other examples of the Bichay wreath design, shown and described in several previous posts on this thread), not on Lattes pieces (see the 2nd photo in my previous post of 4 October, 2021 on this thread, and elsewhere). The gold and red enamel bands on the wreath also exhibit the thinner gold borders, and slightly uneven overall thickness that also mark Bichay's execution not that of Maison Lattes. Finally, the size of the wreath is anomalously large, covering the narrow area of gold at the most central portion of each of the gold and blue enamel arms (as noted for the other example of an apparent Lattes badge body with a Bichay-made wreath, that periodically keeps re-appearing at different auctions, which I have discussed in several previous posts of on this thread: 28 March, 2020 about an eMedals listing of that badge; 13 August, 2020 of the Spink listing for the same badge; 14 August, 2020 also discussing the Spink listing; and 9 September, 2021 a Liverpool Medals listing of that same badge). This is only the second badge I have seen in online auction images that exhibits a combination of elements from Lattes and Bichay. It is unknown whether this "repair" and recombination of these elements may be recent or a past attempt to fix some loss or damage of the central medallion (perhaps associated with the other damage to the final and link with the crown suspension element on this piece). Photo of Albert Sarraut from 1921 (from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Sarraut#/media/File:Albert_Sarraut.png) Photo of Albert Sarraut from 1930 (from: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e7/Albert_Sarraut_1921.jpg)
  2. I am including pretty-good images of two different archived auction offerings of Order of Ismail insignia. I had saved these photos a while ago, but then started researching additional photos and information regarding the Sir Jeffrey Francis Archer 1st Class Grand Cordon Order of Ismail set I ran across from a Toovey’s auction (my post of 25 November, 2019 on this thread). I just found these examples while tidying-up some image files on my computer. The breast star above is from a 2 April, 2009 auction (Sale 90, Lot 3863) by Noble Numismatics Pty Ltd (https://www.noble.com.au/auctions/lot?id=238462). The brief auction description identifies it as a Grand Officer Class, no measurements of the breast star are provided. The brief description states that it is marked “Lattes” on the reverse, but no photo is provided. No information is given about the date hallmark. This moderate-resolution photo can be zoomed for a small amount of additional detail. The workmanship and configuration of the wreath is consistent with Lattes, and the pattern of the gold laurel fruit dots in the wreath matches exactly those on comparative internet images of 2nd Class breast stars with confirmation of the Lattes name (photos, measurements, or cased with the neck badge; as well as too few with illustrated or noted date hallmarks). The engraving on the gold floral elements on the arms shows the style with 3 lateral marks on each side of the terminal blossom with a short single mark distal to those oriented with the central petal; and 3 lateral and one medial mark on each of the central flowers (the central petal of each is not outlined with a “V” mark). Even in this lower resolution image, the engraving on the Noble Numismatics Lot 3863 example seems quite flowing and elegant, as with some other pieces I have noted elsewhere in this thread. Moderate-resolution photo image (https://www.noble.com.au/auctions/lot?id=238464) from this same Noble Numismatics auction (2 April, 2009, Sale 90). This is identified as a Commander Class neck badge (Lot 3865), and not the neck badge for the 2nd Class breast star shown above. The description states it is marked “Lattes” and that it is hallmarked, but no photo of the reverse is included. This image can be zoomed slightly. The wreath design and execution is an exact match for Lattes examples of 3rd Class neck badges (documented with photos of the reverse). Although unclear when enlarged, 3 Egyptian assay office dates on the suspension link to the crown may show a date of "D" =1929 - 1930 (?). The configuration of laurel fruits is the same as seen on other Lattes-made 3rd Class neck badge, the 2nd Class neck badge, and the 1st Class sash badge. Although not completely clear when enlarged in the photo above, the gold floral elements on the blue enameled arms show 2 lateral marks and a long central marking in the terminal blossom and the central flowers each have 3 lateral marks and a “V”-shaped mark outlining the central petal. The engraving is clearly different than that on the 2nd Class Breast star (Lot 3863), but similar to other examples described previously on this thread.
  3. Paul, Many thanks for the observation about the medal and the case. I noticed it was easy to find low-quality images on lots of eBay and other sites, and the jewel is not expensive. Is the scarcity you note only for the elaborate & sturdy case shown above marked "SPENCER'S MASONIC DEPOT, OPPOSITE MASONIC HALL, 16 GT QUEEN ST, LONDON W.C.", or are the cardboard cases with the Masonic coat-of-arms also less common than the medals as well? Above is a moderate-resolution cropped image of the 1717-1917 Duke of Connaught Masonic medal from the 22 June, 2021 auction Lot 79 by Woolley and Wallis (https://www.woolleyandwallis.co.uk/departments/medals-coins-arms-armour/ma060521/view-lot/29/) of medals and documents belonging to Dr. James Ferguson Lees. This is the only image of this medal from that auction listing, shown in the cardboard case marked "SPENCER & CO., LONDON, W.C. 2." (same as the above case for the current eBay example, eBay item number: 203348652342). No photo or description of the outer lid cover to determine whether the same embossed U.G.L.E. coat-of-arms is present.
  4. I recently stumbled upon a very good portrait photo of an individual wearing the full-sized regalia of the Order of Ismail, as well as the miniature for this Order. This comes from a 22 June, 2021 auction by Woolley and Wallace (https://www.woolleyandwallis.co.uk/departments/medals-coins-arms-armour/ma060521/view-lot/29/), archived with lower-resolution images on the Drouot Digital website (https://www.gazette-drouot.com/lots/15319018), and high-resolution photos are archived with this listing on the saleroom.com website (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-gb/auction-catalogues/woolley-and-wallis/catalogue-id-srwo10279/lot-8de16daa-647c-4e71-a699-ad3b010c7ff6#lotDetails). The Woolley and Wallace auction includes full-sized medals, a miniature medal bar, award documents, extra ribbons, a notebook journal from the Boer War, and the portrait photo of the individual associated with these items. All of the items in this auction Lot (29) belonged to Dr. James Ferguson Lees , CBE, who was the Director General of Public Health in Egypt (1920-1925). He also was the Acting Under Secretary of State from 1920-1922. The medal bar of miniatures is included in the same Spink & Sons case that houses all of Dr. Ferguson Lees full-sized awards. I posted about all of those items from the auction offering yesterday, 23 September, 2021, in the thread "Question about the Order of Ismail/Nishan-al-Ismail" here in the "Middle East & Arab States" section. I apologize for the redundancy of posting some of the same information here, but this auction lot had a very complete collection of medals and documents that represent very thoroughly detailed information and provenance for these 3 examples of Middle Eastern miniatures, and I felt I wanted to include them in this topic. Above is a moderate resolution photo of the Spink & Sons case holding all of the full-sized medals and medal bar of miniatures for Dr. J. Ferguson Lees. From L-R the full-sized awards are: an OBE Commander’s neck badge (Britannia type) with neck ribbon; the neck badge of the 2nd Class Grand Officer Order of Ismail (upper) with neck ribbon; the breast star of the 2nd Class Grand Officer Order of Ismail (lower); the full sized badges above the bar of miniatures are the Queen’s South Africa Medal (2nd type with 3 clasps: Cape Colony, Orange Free State, South Africa 1901); a 1914 star, British War Medal, and a Victory medal; a neck badge (probably of the 2nd Class Grand Officer Order of the Nile) with neck ribbon (upper); below that the is the breast star for the 2nd Class Order of the Nile; the 3rd Class Order of Medjidie with neck ribbon (upper); and below that a neck badge that is probably the 3rd Class Commander Order of the Nile. In the center lower row is the miniature medal bar, detailed in the photo and description below. Cropped moderate-resolution image showing a close-up view of the miniature medals of Dr. James Ferguson Lees. As noted above for the full-sized insignia, the miniatures on this medal bar represent, from L-R: the OBE; the Queen’s South Africa Medal with 3 clasps; a 1914 star, British War Medal; a Victory medal; the Order of Medjidie (with rosette); the Order of the Nile (with rosette but without the gold & silver galon for the 2nd Class award, it seems unlikely this mini would represent the 3rd Class Commander Class of this award); and the Order of Ismail (with rosette but lacking the appropriate gold & silver galon for this award). The miniature of the Order of Ismail should precede the Order of the Nile, as shown in Owain's 3 photos of King Farouk I's uniquely configured medal bars (with unusual forms of the Order of Ismail mini on 2 of those bars), shown as the 2nd-4th-to-last photos in my post of 31 October, 2020 on the thread "Question about the Order of Ismail/Nishan-al-Ismail". The miniature of the Order of Ismail in Dr. J. Ferguson Lees' group is the most common form that I have previously illustrated with examples in other posts on this thread. High-resolution portrait photo of Dr. James Ferguson Lees wearing his Egyptian Order of Ismail neck badge, the Order of Ismail breast star (upper star on Dr. Ferguson Lees’ right chest that is partially visible), and the 2nd Class Order of the Nile breast star (the lower partially visible breast star on the right chest). He also wears the miniature medal bar with all of the medals noted above. This photo can be zoomed for additional details. The Order of Ismail miniature is at the viewer’s far right in this image, James Ferguson Lee was born 29 January, 1872 and died 12 January, 1935. The auction information further states that Dr. Ferguson Lees: “…served in the South African War on the Hospital Ship Spartan, at a base hospital in the East End of London, and in the field attached to the 1st Battalion Connaught Rangers. Having become an M.D. in 1902, he joined the Egyptian Government Service as Port Health Officer for Alexandria in 1908, rising to become Director General in 1920, and acting as Under-Secretary of State from July to October 1920. He served in the Great War as Inspector of Prisoner of War Camps in Egypt, E.E.F.”
  5. I recently came across a Duke of Connaught 1717-1917 Masonic Medal as a component in a large lot of medals, award brevets, Royal licenses to wear foreign orders, and a personal journal kept during the Boer War, that was associated with a British physician who worked in Egypt in the early 20th century. I checked GMIC for information and saw that no images had been added to this thread about the medal and that Paul Wood had a question about a portion of the motto on the reverse of this badge. There are a few threads addressing the Duke of Connaught’s awards and background here on GMIC (i.e., see “Duke of Connaught’s medal”, started by freiherr on 28 June 2010 in the “Great Britain: Orders, Gallantry, Campaign Medals” section; “Duke of Connaught” started by Mervyn Mitton on 9 October, 2011, also in the “Great Britain: Orders, Gallantry, Campaign Medals”; and “Did or Not the Duke of Connaught received the Sachsen-Koburg-Gotha Medals” thread started by lilo on 30 January, 2009 in the “Germany: Imperial: The Orders, Decorations, and Medals of the Imperial German States” section, among information in other threads, all here on GMIC). The recent auction of the awards and other materials belonging to Dr. Ferguson Lees included a Duke of Connaught Masonic Medal 1717-1917 in a Spencer & Co., London cardboard presentation case (identical to that in the 5th photo shown below). I realize this is a bit of a cold topic, but thought I would at least add a few photos to round out the topic. I came across this medal as a part of a 22 June, 2021 auction of several orders and medals that belonged to Dr. James Ferguson Lees, CBE (https://www.woolleyandwallis.co.uk/departments/medals-coins-arms-armour/ma060521/view-lot/29/). This listing also is archived with lower-resolution images on the Drouot Digital website (https://www.gazette-drouot.com/lots/15319018), and high-resolution photos are archived with this listing on the saleroom.com website (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-gb/auction-catalogues/woolley-and-wallis/catalogue-id-srwo10279/lot-8de16daa-647c-4e71-a699-ad3b010c7ff6#lotDetails). The Woolley and Wallace auction included medals, award documents, extra ribbons, a notebook journal from the Boer War, and a portrait photo of Dr. Ferguson Lees wearing his Egyptian, Ottoman, and British full-sized awards and a medal bar of miniatures for the same insignia (however, he is not wearing the Duke of Connaught Masonic medal in that portrait). All of the items in this auction Lot (29) belonged to Dr. James Ferguson Lees, who was born 29 January, 1872 and died 12 January, 1935. The Woolley & Wallace auction information further states that Dr. Ferguson Lees: “…served in the South African War on the Hospital Ship Spartan, at a base hospital in the East End of London, and in the field attached to the 1st Battalion Connaught Rangers. Having become an M.D. in 1902, he joined the Egyptian Government Service as Port Health Officer for Alexandria in 1908, rising to become Director General in 1920, and acting as Under-Secretary of State from July to October 1920. He served in the Great War as Inspector of Prisoner of War Camps in Egypt, E.E.F.” The photo of the Duke of Connaught Masonic Medal belonging to Dr. Ferguson Lees is not good enough resolution to include here (and does not show the reverse), so I had to fish for other online images of this medal. Above are photos of the obverse and reverse of an example of the Duke of Connaught Masonic Medal 1711-1917. This comes from a 3 February, 2018 auction by Whytes of Dublin (Lot 71), archived on the invaluable website (https://www.invaluable.com/auction-lot/1717-1917-duke-of-connaught-medal.-0B044AB94A#).). As noted by Paul Wood, this is a Masonic decoration. The 1717-1917 Duke of Connaught's Medal commemorates the bicentenary of English freemasonry. Other sources identify this medal as being solid sterling silver, with the following dimensions: 30.2 mm in diameter x 43.5 mm tall, 3.5 mm thick, weighing 26.2 g, and manufactured by the silversmith Richard Spencer. The obverse shows a bust of the Duke (Earl) of Connaught on a background of the English Rose. The reverse has a motto around the upper ¾ of the margin reading: “H.R.H. THE DUKE OF CONNAUGHT M.W.G.M. 1917”. To answer Paul Wood’s question here of 1 February, 2010, the “M.W.G.M.” is an abbreviation for “Most Worthy Grand Master”. The reverse shows a coat of arms of the United Grand Lodge of England, U.G.L.E., (see the last image in this post) with a banner below bearing the abbreviated Latin motto: “AUDI VIDE TACE” (= Hear, See, and Be Silent), with the dates 1717-1917. Below that is the inscription; “SPENCER RD” followed by a space and then the digits that are the registration number. In my limited image searches, I have seen three other examples of this medal with the clip reading: “23 JUNE 1917”, the date of the bicentenary. Above is a high-resolution, more detailed view of the obverse of this medal, from a current eBay offering, eBay item number: 363549546410, (https://www.ebay.ie/itm/THE-DUKE-OF-CONNAUGHT-H-R-H-BI-CENTENARY-1717-1917-WW1-MASONIC-SILVER-MEDAL-/363549546410?hash=item54a53dd7aa). The pin on this piece also is marked “SPENCER LONDON” identical to that seen on the Whytes example above, but lacks the clip marked “23 JUNE 1917”. High-resolution image of the reverse of this same eBay example of the Duke of Connaught Masonic Medal 1711-1917, showing the design in better detail than in the Whytes photo above, eBay item number: 363549546410. A very high-resolution photo of the obverse and reveres of a Duke of Connaught Masonic Medal 1711-1917 without an associated ribbon. This image comes from a 3 September, 2016 auction by Maruhdar (Auction 21. Lot 727), archived on the Sixbid.com website (https://www.sixbid-coin-archive.com/#/en/search?text=Duke Connaught masonic medal). The brief auction description gives a diameter of 29.94 mm and a weight of 26.3 g for this piece. This image can be zoomed for significantly greater details. An example of this medal in its case with the Spencer name and location as the Masonic Depot (from a current eBay offering, eBay item number: 154607723196: https://www.ebay.ie/itm/Duke-of-Connaught-Silver-Bi-Centenial-1717-1917-Jewel-Pin-Bar-by-Spencer-Box-/154607723196?hash=item23ff56a2bc). An example of a different form of the case for this medal, in coated cardboard, with the marking SPENCER & CO., LONDON, W C 2.” From a current eBay auction, eBay item number:203348652342 (https://www.ebay.ie/itm/Antique-Duke-of-Connaught-Centenary-Silver-Medal-Cased-Freemasonry-/203348652342?hash=item2f58863136). The exterior of the upper lid of this same case from the current eBay auction (eBay item number:203348652342) showing the form of the U.G.L.E. coat of arms embossed on it. Above is an illustration showing details of the U.G.L.E. coat of arms that is on the reverse of the Duke of Connaught Masonic Medal 1711-1917 (from: http://www.freemasonry.bcy.ca/grandlodge/seal/ugle.html). See the following website for a description of symbolic elements of the U.G.L.E. coat of arms, including the colors not seen in the above illustration or on the reverse of Duke of Connaught Masonic Medal: https://www.hertsmasonicbanners.uk/united-grand-lodge
  6. I have come across a very good portrait photo of an individual wearing the full-sized regalia of the Order of Ismail, as well as the miniature for this Order. This comes from a 22 June, 2021 auction by Woolley and Wallace (https://www.woolleyandwallis.co.uk/departments/medals-coins-arms-armour/ma060521/view-lot/29/), archived with lower-resolution images on the Drouot Digital website (https://www.gazette-drouot.com/lots/15319018), and high-resolution photos are archived with this listing on the saleroom.com website (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-gb/auction-catalogues/woolley-and-wallis/catalogue-id-srwo10279/lot-8de16daa-647c-4e71-a699-ad3b010c7ff6#lotDetails). The Woolley and Wallace auction includes medals, award documents, extra ribbons, a notebook journal from the Boer War, and the portrait photo. All of the items in this auction Lot (29) belonged to Dr. James Ferguson Lees , CBE, who was the Director General of Public Health in Egypt (1920-1925). He also was the Acting Under Secretary of State from 1920-1922. The offering included several medals all in a single Spink & Sons case; brevets for 3 Egyptian awards; license documents signed by King George the Fifth giving permission to wear the insignia of Egyptian Grand Cordon Order of the Nile, the Ottoman Order or Medjidie, and probably the Grand Officer Order of Ismail along with an award document (?) for his OBE; the portrait photo of Dr. Ferguson Lees, and a notebook that is a personal journal of the Boer War. Within the cased set of medals offered are: 3 medals from Egypt (a 2nd Class Grand Officer set of Order of Ismail insignia, the 2nd Class Grand Officer Order of the Nile; and a 3rd Class Commander neck badge of the Order of the Nile); a 3rd Class Ottoman Order of Medjidie neck badge, in addition to several British awards: an OBE Commander’s neck badge; the Queen’s South Africa Medal; a 1914 star, British War Medal, and a Victory medal. A medal bar of miniatures is included in the same case that Includes the OBE, the Queen’s South Africa Medal, the 1914 star, the British War Medal & Victory medal, the Order of Medjidie, the Order of the Nile, and the Order of Ismail. The listing also includes a photo of 4 ribbons, (either extras or the ribbons from the awards photographed separately?), and one additional medal (the Duke of Connaught's Medal commemorating the bi-centenary of British Freemasonry). Above is a moderate resolution photo of the Spink & Sons case holding all of the full-sized medals and medal bar of miniatures for Dr. Ferguson Lees. From L-R they are: an OBE Commander’s neck badge (Britannia type) with neck ribbon; the neck badge of the 2nd Class Grand Officer Order of Ismail (upper) with neck ribbon; the breast star of the 2nd Class Grand Officer Order of Ismail (lower); the full sized badges above the bar of miniatures are the Queen’s South Africa Medal (2nd type with 3 clasps: Cape Colony, Orange Free State, South Africa 1901); a 1914 star, British War Medal, and a Victory medal; a neck badge (probably of the 2nd Class Grand Officer Order of the Nile) with neck ribbon (upper); below that the is the breast star for the 2nd Class Order of the Nile; the 3rd Class Order of Medjidie with neck ribbon (upper); and below that a neck badge that is probably the 3rd Class Commander Order of the Nile. In the center lower row is the miniature medal bar with, from L-R: the OBE; the Queen’s South Africa Medal; a 1914 star, British War Medal, a Victory medal; the Order of Medjidie; the Order of the Nile; and the Order of Ismail, it seems unlikely this mini would represent the 3rd Class Commander Class of this award); and the Order of Ismail. Cropped moderate-resolution image of Dr. J. Ferguson Lees' neck badge of the 2nd Class Order of Ismail, identified as being made by Lattes (no mention of an observed maker’s mark is in the description). However, the configuration of the wreath on this neck badge is clearly identical to those I have identified as made by Tewfik Bichay in my post of 28 March, 2020 (see especially the probable Bichay-made badge that is the 16th photo in that post; and the 18th photo shows a 1st Class sash badge, with the wreath incorrectly rotated slightly to the viewer’s left, that has a Tewfik Bichay maker’s mark illustrated on the reverse; also compare the above wreath with the illustrations of the anomalous wreath on a badge with a Lattes maker’s mark [that appears to combine a Bichay-made wreath on a Lattes star element of this badge], that keeps re-surfacing at auctions, as shown in the 17th photo of the 28 March, 2020 post, in the first 3 photos in my post of 13 August, 2020, and compare the oblique view of that badge with a Lattes example in my post of 14 August, 2020 that also shows the shallower green enamel and differences in execution of the leaves in the wreath). The inferior panel of the wreath where the 2 laurel branches cross contains just 7 gold laurel fruit dots. This is diagnostic of Bichay-made wreaths, J. Lattes wreaths for the 1st Class sash badges and the 2nd and 3rd Class neck badges all exhibit 9 fruit dots in this panel (see the 2nd-3rd, 5th-13th, and the 15th photos in my post of 28 March 2020 on this thread showing Lattes badges; see also the Lattes badges shown as the 4th-6th photos in my post of 13 August, 2020). The positions of the gold fruit dots in other panels of the Ferguson Lees badge also are different than on Lattes-made examples but identical to those on Bichay-made badges. The workmanship of this piece, as identified in the configuration of the wreath, indicates that this is a Tewfik Bichay produced piece. The engraving on the gold floral elements of the neck badge shows a single mark in the central petal of the most distal flower and 2 lateral engraving marks. The two middle flowers exhibit three lateral marks and the “V”-shaped marks outlining each of the central petals. The round element from which both of the central flowers arise has a single round mark. There a single engraved mark within the basal bud element of the most central portion of this gold ornamentation (see the high-resolution photos and discussion of the engraving in my post of 28 March, 2020 on this thread). It seems likely that this Order of Ismail is attributed to Lattes only because that was a common maker of many auction examples. The description of the 2nd Class and 3rd Class Order of the Nile insignia are notes that only “one badge marked for (sic) Lattes”, no other potential maker’s marks are described for the other neck badge or the breast star. Above is a moderate-resolution image of the Dr. James Ferguson Lees' 2nd Class Order of Ismail breast star. The gold floral elements on the arms breast star show essentially the same configuration of marks as described above for the neck badge. The pattern of the gold laurel fruit dots (their number and distribution) on this breast star also does not match those seen on confirmed Lattes-made pieces (with images of the reverse showing the “LATTES” maker’s mark) but strongly indicate this is probably the work of Tewfik Bichay (as expected for this as a set). The number and distribution of the fruit dots is different in this example from those shown for Lattes in my post of 31 January, 2020 on this thread (Lattes-made 2nd Class breast stars are shown in the 4th-6th photos in that post). While the number and placement in the lowermost panel of the wreath are nearly identical on both Lattes and Bichay-made Grand Officer Classes, their distribution in the other panels is quite different. There may also be some of the contrasting aspects of execution of the leaves, the thickness of the green enamel, and the narrowness and possible irregularities in the red bands around the wreath that also are distinctive of Bichay-made wreath elements. Those are difficult to see with clarity in this photo, but the different fruit dot distribution is distinct. There are no 2nd Class Tewfik Bichay-made breast stars with good images for comparison with this example. The closest match is the wreath shown in the high-resolution image of a 2nd Class breast star from Hassan Kamal-Kelisi Morali’s flickr site that has anomalous engraving on the gold floral elements of the arms of the star (the 2nd photo in my post of 31 January, 2020). Also compare the form of the leaves in the wreath of the Ferguson Lees example with that on the 2nd image in my 31 January 2020 post and with the wreath on the 1st Class breast star made by Bichay (with slightly different distribution of laurel fruit dots but comparable workmanship). The breast star shows bending of the gold & enamel ball finial on the lower right arm. The auction description does not identify any date hallmarks on either the neck badge or the breast star, and no photos of their reverse are shown. Cropped moderate-resolution image showing a close-up view of the miniature medals of Dr. James Ferguson Lees. As noted above for the first picture in this post, the miniatures on this medal bar represent, from L-R: the OBE; the Queen’s South Africa Medal with 3 clasps (Cape Colony, Orange Free State, South Africa 1901); a 1914 star, British War Medal; a Victory medal; the Order of Medjidie (with rosette); the Order of the Nile (with rosette but without the gold & silver galon for the 2nd Class award, it seems unlikely this mini would represent the 3rd Class Commander Class of this award); and the Order of Ismail (with rosette but lacking the appropriate gold & silver galon for this award). The miniature of the Order of Ismail should precede the Order of the Nile, as shown in Owain's 3 photos of King Farouk I's uniquely configured medal bars (with unusual forms of the Order of Ismail mini on 2 of those bars), shown on this thread as the 2nd-4th -to-last photos in my post of 31 October, 2020. The miniature of the Order of Ismail on Dr. J. Ferguson Lees' group is the most common form I have previously illustrated with examples in various posts on this thread. High-resolution portrait photo of Dr. James Ferguson Lees wearing his Egyptian Order of Ismail neck badge, the Order of Ismail breast star (upper star on Dr. Ferguson Lees’ right chest that is partially visible), and the 2nd Class Order of the Nile breast star (the lower partially visible breast star on the right chest). He also wears the miniature medal bar with all of the medals noted above. This photo can be zoomed for additional details. The Order of Ismail miniature is at the viewer’s far right in this image, Dr. Ferguson Lees wears white tie, a white vest, an evening jacket, and tarboosh. The matted portrait comes from a studio in London (Salayed[?]). James Ferguson Lee was born 29 January, 1872 and died 12 January, 1935. The auction information further states that Dr. Ferguson Lees: “…served in the South African War on the Hospital Ship Spartan, at a base hospital in the East End of London, and in the field attached to the 1st Battalion Connaught Rangers. Having become an M.D. in 1902, he joined the Egyptian Government Service as Port Health Officer for Alexandria in 1908, rising to become Director General in 1920, and acting as Under-Secretary of State from July to October 1920. He served in the Great War as Inspector of Prisoner of War Camps in Egypt, E.E.F.” Studio name penciled on the lower right portion of the mat of the portrait of Dr. James Ferguson Lees. It is difficult to identify some of the letter forms, but appears to read something like "Salayed?" (?) with the identification of the studio as "LONDON". I have not yet found any historic information that allows me to identify this studio. Moderate-Resolution photo of the 3 Egyptian brevets for Dr. J. Ferguson Lees’ Egyptian awards. A second photo of the Egyptian brevets for Dr. J. Ferguson Lees’ awards, including the envelope for one of them. Moderate-resolution photo of the 4 documents that include the license giving permission to Dr. James Ferguson Lees to wear his foreign awards, signed by King George the Fifth, and the lowermost document is probably the award brevet for his OBE. The uppermost permission document is for the 1st Class Order of the Nile. The second document in the set underneath that is for the Order of Medjidie (the word “Medjidie” can be made out in the lowest line on the left of the permission document), and the one below that is presumably that for the Order of Ismail (although no pertinent text is visible in this photo). Moderate-resolution photo of the notebook belonging to Dr. J Ferguson Lees that was his personal journal kept during the Boer War that was included in this auction Lot 29 (23 March-28 November, 1900, it also includes an earlier entry detailing the duties of an Orderly Medical Officer, dated 28 October, 1899). High-resolution photo of the label affixed to the cover of the notebook shown in the above image, detailing the text of that handwritten label on the front cover reading: “J. Ferguson Lees, Cairo, Attached R.A.M.C. (=Royal Army Medical Corps), South African Field [Force?]; South Africa, Mar 23 – Nov 28”. A moderate-resolution photo of entries in Dr. J. Ferguson Lees Boer War journal for April 19, 20, 21, & 22. Moderate -esolution photo of ribbons included with this lot (extras?) and the additional medal. From top to bottom, the ribbons are: the neck ribbon for the 2nd Class Order of Ismail, the Order of the Nile (with a triangular clip), the Order of Medjidie (with a wide loop attachment), and the OBE (with a circular attachment ring (showing some stitching of the ribbon and something in the folded ribbon that I cannot distinguish). These appear to be full-sized ribbons, Other than the Order of Ismail neck ribbon, the other appear to be configured for suspending insignia as chest decorations. It is unclear whether these are the ribbons shown attached to the insignia in the Spink & Sons case or if they may be extras. At the right is the solid sterling silver 1717-1917 Duke of Connaught's Medal (masonic) that commemorates the bicentenary of English freemasonry, offered in its original Spencer & Co. of London carbdoard presentation case (with the marking SPENCER & CO., LONDON, W.C. 2.”). Other sources identify this medal as being solid sterling silver, having a diameter of 30.2 mm, a height of 43.5 mm, a thickness of 3.5 mm, weighing 26.2 g, and manufactured by the silversmith Richard Spencer. The obverse shows a bust of the Duke (Earl) of Connaught against the English Rose. The reverse has a motto around the upper ¾ of the margin reading: “H.R.H. THE DUKE OF CONNAUGHT M.W.G.M. [=Most Worthy Grand Master] 1917”. The reverse shows a coat of arms of United Grand Lodge of England with a banner below bearing the abbreviated Latin motto: “AUDI VIDE TACE” (= Hear, See, and Be Silent), with the dates 1717-1917. Below that should be the inscription; “SPENCER RD” followed by digits that are the registration number (see my post of 24 September, 2021 on the thread "H.R.H. The Duke of Connaught M.W.G.M 1917 Medal" started by Kev in Deva on 30 January, 2010 in the "Great Britain: Militaria: Badges, Uniforms & Equipment" heading under the "Great Britain & Commonwealth Realms" section here on GMIC for images and some additional information on this medal) .
  7. Below are images of a set of Tewfik Bichay-made 1st Class Grand Cordon Order of Ismail breast star and sash badge from a 2008 listing in the UBS Tammann Collection auction catalogue. These are not high-resolution images, but provide good measurements, date information, and are another example of a Tewfik Bichay complete Grand Cordon set of this Order. Moderate-resolution image of the 1st Class breast star of the Order of Ismail from a November 2008 auction by UBS of the Tammann Collection (Ordern aus Aller Welt: Sammlung Tammann, 80. Auktion, 4.-5. November 2008, Basel. 2008. UBS AG, Gold & Numismatik Basel, plate 7, pg. 42). The auction description gives a diameter of 80 mm (in the German text, it mistakenly states 94 mm in the English translation) for this piece, identifies it as silver and partly gilt, with enamel. The weight of the breast star is not given. A maker's marks for Tewfik Bichay (in Arabic characters) is identified on the reverse along with a date hallmark of "F"= 1931-1932 (the auction listing only specifies 1931 for this hallmark). Although enlarging these images provides a small amount of additional detail, only the superior and left lateral arms show the engraving well enough to determine there are 3 lateral marks and 1 distal mark on the terminal gold flowers ornaments on the blue enamel arms, 3 lateral marks on each of the paired middle flowers and a single terminal mark oriented between the central and most medial petals. No anomalous aspects of the engraving are apparent. The wreath configuration is consistent with those seen on other Bichay-made examples. Sash badge from the same 1st Class Grand Cordon set of the Order of Ismail from the November 2008 auction catalogue by UBS. The badge is described as measuring 80 mm X 61 mm (in the German text, it mistakenly identifies the dimension in the English text as 94 mm X 63 mm), weighing 49 g (consistent with other Bichay-made examples), made of gold and enameled. The Tewfik Bichay Arabic makers mark is present on the reverse and the date hallmark of "F" also is present on the reverse. Although zooming does not provide any additional detail, the wreath is of the normal Bichay configuration. This set is noted to include the full sash and original case marked Tewfik Bichay, Cairo and to have the cipher of King Fuad I on the outer lid of the case. No illustrations are provided of the case or sash.
  8. Here is the illustration and catalog information of the Mixed Courts badge listed in the Tammann Collection auction catalog that drclaw referenced in his post that discussed the identification of the silver Mixed Courts badge he illustrated in his initial post of 9 May, 2011 that started a topic titled: “Egypt, Khedivate – Judge’s Badge of Office”, here in the “Middle East & Arab States” section of GMIC. Moderate-resolution image of a silver & gold District Mixed Courts badge from Plate 7, pg 40 of the UBS auction catalog for the November 2008 sale of the Tammann Collection (Ordern aus Aller Welt: Sammlung Tammann, 80. Auktion, 4.-5. November 2008, Basel. 2008. UBS AG, Gold & Numismatik Basel). The auction description identifies the badge as measuring 118 mm X 88 mm, made of silver, partly gilt, and enamelled. It states that the reverse is marked with the Froment-Meurice manufacturer's mark. No photo of the revere is provided, but what can be seen of the workmanship in this moderate-resolution image is consistent with other Froment-Meurice pieces (including the calligraphy and the correct orientation of the tugra in the Order of Medjidie, (the three tuğ are just visible at the top of the tugra and it appears that the positions of the beyze and sere appear to be in the correct positions as well, although the detail of them is poor when enlarged). This badge was offered in the original case marked Froment-Meurice, Paris. The calligraphy on the central tablet matches that on other examples I recently classified as exhibiting Group 1 form of the Froment-Meurice inscription.
  9. The oddly combined 3rd Class Commander neck badge that I have previously described as almost certainly a Lattes-made body with a Tewfik Bichay-made wreath has yet again surfaced on an auction listing. I first described the unusual configuration of this badge from a 23 July, 2019 listing on eMedals (Item M0306-1) in my post on this thread of 28 March, 2020 describing design variations of the Order of Ismail 1st Class sash badges, 2nd Class neck badges, and 3rd Class neck badges. In that post, I noted an anomalous combination of elements, described in relation to the 4th-to-last illustration in that post. I further elaborated on that point in my post of 13 August, 2020 when this same badge was advertised in a Spink ~July-August 2020 auction listing (Auction 20002, Lot 985), in relation to the first 3 photos in that post. The last 3 photos in that 13 August, 2020 post illustrate another neck badge (2nd or 3rd Class?) with a normal Lattes configuration of the badge star and wreath elements, from a different Spink auction (Auction 18003, Lot 908). I further illustrated my observations about an apparent size difference between the Tewfik Bichay-made wreath and the Lattes-made star body of this neck badge in my post of 14 August, 2020. This badge again re-surfaced again in an offering on the Liverpool Medals website, probably in August of 2020, as SKU 28988. That listing identified the maker as Lattes, as a 3rd Class Commander neck badge, that assay and date hallmarks were present, but incorrectly identified the badge as made of 22 k gold. In that post, I discussed the odd combination of components, and specific wear that indicated this was the same neck badge as shown in the 23 July, 2019 listing on eMedals (Item M0306-1); and on the 2020 Spink auction (Auction 20002, Lot 985). I subsequently wrote to Liverpool Medals informing them of my suspicions that this badge combined a Tewfik Bichay-made wreath onto a Lattes-made star. I received a reply that my argument was too complicated to follow. My previous posts of 13 August 2020; 14 August, 2020; and 26 August, 2020 discuss my reasons for asserting that this is a highly anomalous combination of elements on an Order of Ismail neck badge. Above is the obverse of the neck badge from the current Liverpool Medals listing (https://www.liverpoolmedals.com/product/order-of-ismail-commander-neck-badge-22ct-gold) that is the same photo from the August 2020 listing, both using the same SKU number 28988. The current listing (I believe there was a hiatus in this listing sometime after fall of 2020) also includes the same photo of the reverse used in the 2020 offer. I previously included both of these photos in my post of 26 August, 2020. Although the link still includes the identifier "...-22ct-gold" at the end, the description has been updated to correct the gold purity to 18 carat gold, as I told Spink in my communication. None of my other concerns about the combination of Lattes and Bichay elements are included in the currently updated listing. The asking price is still the same £1,795 greater than the likely price it just sold for during the 2020 Spink offering (Auction 20002, Lot 985) in ~July or early August 2020, about 1 month prior to its first listing on Liverpool Medals. Reverse of the same badge from the current Liverpool Medals listing. Although the resolution of this photo is not high enough to read the Egyptian assay and date hallmarks, my post of 22 August, 2019 that show better details of the reverse and hallmarks as the 3rd photo (frontal), 4th (oblique), and a close-up of the "LATTES" maker's mark and the 3 Egyptian gold hallmarks as the 5th image in the post. The last image in that prior post shows the Cairo assay office mark for 18 carat gold, the ibis hallmark for Egyptian-made gold, and the date hallmark of "Y" = 1923-1924 as an assay date for this badge. As noted in my 26 August, 2020 post, there is a revolving door of sales and re-listings for this particular neck badge (eMedals-July 2019; Spink July-August 2020; Liverpool Medals~August 2020; and now again recently this year on Liverpool Medals). This turnover makes me think that collectors are noticing the anomalies after their purchases. Despite this, and my email to Spink, the current price remains £1,795 greater than what Spink sold this badge for just prior to its first listing on Liverpool Medals.
  10. While looking at the central tablets on a number of badges for the post I included on this thread on 6 September, 2021, I noticed that several of these Mixed Courts badges have an inverted orientation of the tugra in the Order of Medjidie element at the inferior margin of the badge. I am not illustrating all of the badges in my previous post as only some of them have high-enough resolution photos to show this orientation of the tugra. The order I am including the photos is essentially the same as in my 6 September post, except for the silver Froment-Meurice badge from the Turkish language Pinterest site that I have included here with the other Froment-Meurice Group 2 (based on tablet calligraphy). Obviously, as can be seen below, the original Émile Froment-Meurice design included the tugra on the Order of Medjidie in its correct orientation. Only one minor variant of the precise orientation of the tugra has turned up amid auction listing photos of Froment-Meurice pieces I have reviewed. The Rudolf Stobbe-made pieces all show the tugra upside down. The tugra on the Wolf Horovitz silver badge (I cannot see the Order of Medjidie or tugra well enough on the photo of the gold Appeasl Court badge) also is oriented in an inverted manner. The silver Zivy Fréres & Cie. example has the tugra element in its correct orientation. Although Stobbe and Horovitz were either immigrants (Stobbe) or Egyptian-born children of immigrants (Horovitz), not all non-Egyptian atelier incorrectly designed the orientation of the tugra. Zivy Fréres & Cie. did design the tugra in its correct orientation, although many other aspects of their badge design are quite abbreviated and less elegant than other makers (I have found only little information on Zivy Fréres). Three unmarked badges with very similar and unique calligraphy (a silver & gold district Court badge from a 4 December, 2017 auction by Spink & Son, Lot 32; a silver badge from a 19 November, 2015 auction by Spink & Son; and a silver badge from a 6 June, 2018 eBay auction) show the tugra in the correct orientation position. I have not identified a manufacturer for these three badges. The mantle component of one badge that has calligraphy distinctive of a Stobbe-made central tablet (the unmarked silver badge from a 2019 auction listing [Item No. 326604] of Lundin Jewel & Antique auction) also exhibits this correct orientation of the tugra, and distinctive bossing of that portion of the Order of Medjidie element as on all of these three similar badges. An unmarked silver example of a Mixed Courts badge from an 18 May, 2011 auction by Dix Noonan Webb, Lot 503 by another unknown maker also shows an upside-down configuration of the tugra in the Order of Medjidie element. The British Museum example (registration number: 2009,4007.754), exhibits the tugra in its correct orientation. Tugra Some of the information I am including below also was posted previously on a GMIC thread: https://gmic.co.uk/topic/40277-ottoman-sultan-tugras/. I discussed a brief amount about Ottoman tugra in my post of 3 December, 2018 detailing aspects of the design elements adapted from the royal coat of arms to form the mantle with the central calligraphic tablet of the Mixed Courts badges. I am including a small amount of that information here as an introduction to looking at the forms of the tugra on different manufacturer’s designs of the Mixed Courts badges. The website https://www.tugra.org defines tugras as: “A Tugra (or tughra) is an outstanding calligraphic imperial design, monogram or a kind of signature of the Ottoman Sultans. It bears the names of the sultan and his father and the prayer “el muzaffer daima-ever victorious” in most of them. For example: the tugra content of Suleyman the Magnificient is “Suleyman shah bin Selim shah han el-muzaffer daima”. “bin” means “the son of”-. A tugra was not written by the sultans personally, but personnel called nisanci, tughrakesh, tughrai or tughranuvis were in charge of doing this work. It was forbidden to write a tugra without authorization. Also tugras were carved on some sultans’ seals.” (From: https://www.tugra.org/tugra-hakkinda/?lang=en) Above is a schematic of tugra elements from Wikipedia: (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tughra) Schematic of the parts of a tugra from: https://www.tugra.org/tugra-hakkinda/?lang=en The tugra of the 32nd Ottoman Sultan, Sultan Abdülaziz (the 32nd Ottoman Sultan, reign=1861-1876), who was Sultan at the time the Mixed Courts were established (1875). Although the name portion of the tugra cannot be read in the stand portion (sere, the lowermost component) of the tugra on the judicial badge, most of the form of the cipher is formulaic & artistic calligraphy, and that is what is shown on the Mixed Courts judges' badges (from: https://www.tugra.org/cesitli-tugralar/osmanli-padisah-tugralari/?lang=en#prettyPhoto/31/). Émile Froment-Meurice, Paris, tugra elements: High-resolution image of the inferior margin of the silver Mixed Courts badge made by Froment-Meurice from a January 2019 auction by Heritage World Coin Auctions, Lot 36093 (https://coins.ha.com/itm/egypt/egypt-abbas-hilmi-pacha-1874-1944-khedive-1892-1914-magistrate-badge-nd-c1892-au-/a/3072-36093.s?type=CoinArchives3072). As noted yesterday, a photograph of the reverse clearly shows the Froment-Meurice hallmark, although the auction description incorrectly attributes this badge to Stobbe of Alexandria. The above photo shows the orientation of the tugra of this piece with the vertical tuğ elements oriented at 0° (note all other Froment-Meurice pieces show a slightly clockwise orientation of the tuğ elements oriented at approximately 30°-40°). This is the only identified Froment-Meurice badge I've seen that has this orientation. I assigned this badge to Group 1 based on the calligraphy of the central tablet. High-resolution photo of the inferior portion of the silver & gold District Courts badge of the Belgian jurist Joseph Timmerman’s, identified in the auction description as made by Froment-Meurice. This image is from a September 2014 auction by Jean Elsen & ses Fils S.A.(Lot 1730), archived in the acsearch.com website (https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=3990624). Although unmarked, the workmanship of this badge is consistent with other examples of Froment-Meurice Court badges. The central tablet calligraphy belongs to my Group 1, discussed in my 6 September, 2021 post. Unlike the Heritage Auctions example above. The orientation of the three tuğ elements of the tugra in the Order of Medjidie is rotated slightly clockwise to ~30°-40°, as seen on all other Froment-Meurice badges. High-resolution cropped photo of the inferior portion showing the Order of Medjidie element of a silver badge by Froment-Meurice (attributed to this maker, no maker’s hallmarks visible on the small portion of the reverse of this badge that is visible in auction photos). From a 3 June, 2015 auction by Dreweatts & Bloomsbury, (Lot 175), archived on the-saleroom.com website (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-gb/auction-catalogues/dreweatts/catalogue-id-drewea10199/lot-d2a1fe08-3bbf-4c29-a53d-a4aa00a27910#lotDetails). Although unmarked, the workmanship of this badge is consistent with other Froment-Meurice made examples, and the tablet calligraphy matches the Group 1 variations discussed in my post of 6 September, 2021. As previously noted, this badge is attributed to the Judge Herbert A. Hills on the basis of a handwritten note attached to the reverse of this badge. As with the all of the Froment-Meuric badges other than the Heritage Auctions example, the orientation of the three tuğ elements of the tugra in the Order of Medjidie can be seen to be rotated slightly clockwise to ~30°-40°. Moderate-resolution photo of the inferior margin showing the tugra on the Order of Medjidie design element from a badge made by Froment-Meurice (maker’s hallmarks illustrated on reverse of badge). From an auction by Lugdunum GmbH, in June 2019, archived on the coinarchives.com website (https://www.coinarchives.com/w/lotviewer.php?LotID=3972878&AucID=4100&Lot=288&Val=f97e5c722c28c73add7c029f374c845e; this now links to a pay version of CoinArchive Pro that I am not subscribed to). The tablet calligraphy of this example falls within the Group 2. The orientation of the tuğ elements of the tugra in the Order of Medjidie also is rotated slightly clockwise to ~30°-40°. The inferior portion of Enzo’s Froment-Meurice gold & silver District Courts badge showing the Order of Medjidie design element, cropped from his post of 25 May, 2021 on this thread. This badge has the Froment-Meurice name and the diamond & rose form of the Froment-Meurice hallmark on the reverse. The tuğ elements of the tugra in the Order of Medjidie are rotated slightly clockwise to ~30°-40°, as on all Froment-Meurice examples except the Heritage Auctions example shown as the first photo in this post. I classified the tablet calligraphy on this badge as matching the Group 2 set of badges in my post of 6 September, 2021. High-resolution image of the inferior margin of a Froment-Meurice made Mixed Courts badge from a 10 March, 2021 auction by Ader of Paris, Lot 227 (https://www.ader-paris.fr/en/lot/110892/14446654?offset=200&). No photo is provided of the reverse of the bade but the auction description states that it is marked “FROMENT MEURICE” on the reverse, along with a boar’s head silver purity mark (800 or higher). The tugra is shown well in this photo and the ~30°-40°orientation from ciockwise of the three tuğ of the tugra is quite apparent. This badge was assigned to Group 2 of the variation in tablet insciptions in my post of 6 September, 2021. Low-resolution photograph of a silver Mixed Courts badge, resting on a bicolored green and red judicial sash (two bordering stripes of red and a central stripe of green, all 3 stripes of equal width, and good detail of the gold metallic thread border and fringe) that also shows the Indigenous Court insignia of the silver crescent pin and 3-star pins. This photo comes from a Turkish language Pinterest posting (https://www.pinterest.com/pin/475340935664787041/). The Pinterest image includes a statement that this badges as a Froment-Meurice made example. Although no image of the reverse is provided, the workmanship is consistent with other Froment-Meurice pieces and the calligraphy of the tablet is that seen in Group 2 badges by this maker. The ~30°-40°orientation from ciockwise of the three tuğ of the tugra is visible even in this low-resolution image. Rudolf Stobbe, Alexandria, tugra elements: Unlike the Froment-Meurice examples, it appears that all of the Stobbe-made Mixed Courts badges show an inverted orientation of the tugra on the Order of Medjdie design component. Good-resolution close-up photo (that can be zoomed for a bit more detail) of the inferior portion of a silver & gold District Courts’ judicial badge from a December 2014 auction by Baldwins (Lot 844) Archived on the saleroom.com website (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-gb/auction-catalogues/baldwins/catalogue-id-srbal10006/lot-895754ae-9b9f-4f06-9d11-a3fe00ab0fe1). This badge shows the Stobbe hallmark on the reverse. Although not completely clear in the photo, the three tuğ of the tugra are pointed downward, the beyze (inner & outer eggs) can be seen on the right instead of on the left, and the hançer (arms) are pointing to the left instead of the right. The tugra is inverted 180° from it’s correct orientation. Moderate resolution photo of the inferior margin of a silver Stobbe made badge from a May 2018 auction (Lot 2252) by Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG and archived on the A.C. Search.com website (https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=4974323). The badge has a Stobbe maker’s mark on the reverse. Although the photo resolution is not good, the beyze, and the sere (stand) can be distinguished in the incorrect upside-down orientation. Photo of the inferior margin of the Pierre Crabités gold & silver badge badge of the Cairo District Court. This badge is unmarked, but is in a case marked R. Stobbe, and is engraved on the reverse with Crabités name and the date of his appointment to the Cairo Courts ("PIERRE CRABITÈS, LE CAIRE, LE 19 JUIN 1911"). This image can be zoomed slightly to see that the three tuğ of the tugra are oriented downwards and the beyze can be seen on the right instead of the left side of the tugra. Low-resolution close-up of the inferior portion of a silver Mixed Courts badge whose maker is unidentified from a 2019 auction listing (Item No. 326604) of Lundin Jewel & Antique auction, archived on the worldantique.net website (https://www.worldantique.net/apstort.asp?selbinr=326604&kukat=8715&valuta=USD#valuta). The calligraphy of the central tablet matches the form seen only on Stobbe-made badges central tablet inscriptions (showing the non-parallel 5th alif stroke from the right, the slanting forward alif vertical stroke of laam that is distinctive only to Stobbe-made badges) and the workmanship of additional portions of the badge are generally consistent with other Stobbe Mixed Court badges. No maker’s mark is visible on the photos of the reverse of this badge. However, unlike all of the other Stobbe pieces, the tugra is correctly oriented on the Order of Medjidie element of this piece. Although the three tuğ of the tugra are hard to distinguish in this photo, the beyze and hançer are visible in their correct positions, the beyze on the left and the hançer on the right. If this a Stobbe-made badge, then it is the only example I have seen that shows the correct orientation of the tugra. I suspect this may be a badge combining elements from different makers. The form of the Order of Medjidie appears to show some convex bossing, rather than the flatter form seen on the above three Stobbe-made badges. There are three other badges that do show this kind of bossing of the Order of Medjidie, and the tugra is correctly oriented on all three of those badges (an unmarked gold & silver District Court badge from a 4 December, 2017 auction by Spink & Son, Lot 32; an unmarked silver badge from a 19 November, 2015 auction by Spink & Son; and a silver badge from a 6 June, 2018 eBay auction). All of these badges share the same distinctive form of calligraphy (the unique configuration of the strokes of the uppermost siin letter are discussed in my post of 6 September, 2021 for these 3 badges, the 24th-27th photos in that post). I mentioned the possibility that a tablet from a different manufacturer's badge might be attached to the body of a badge made by another maker in the introduction to my 6 September post looking at variation in calligraphy. This badge may suggest that the royal mantle (and possibly the embellishment) were made by the same unidentified atelier as the three badges just mentioned, with a Stobbe-made tablet attached during repair or for recent sale. The calligraphy of this piece decidedly looks like Stobbe workmanship and not at all like that seen on the other three badges from an unknown Maison. Moderate resolution oblique view of the Order of Medjidie element on a silver badge from a 13 June, 2018 eMedals auction, Item: EG2365 (https://www.emedals.com/egypt-kingdom-a-khedivate-badge-of-office-for-the-legal-administration-of-egypt-the-suez-canal). This badge does not have a maker’s mark on the reverse (nor any Egyptian hallmarks), however the badge was offered in an “associated” case marked Froment-Meurice. However, as noted in my post of 6 September, 2021, the calligraphy of this piece shows the 5th alif vertical stroke from the right of laam, slanting forward one noktah, identically to the noted variation seen on all identified Rudolf Stobbe-made badges. The workmanship of the body of the badge also more closely resembles the form of Stobbe badges, although the photos are not good enough for detailed comparisons. The frontal image of the obverse of this badge does not show the tugra element well, and this oblique view shows it only slightly better. Despite the low-resolution of this photo, zooming the above image slightly appears to show that the tuğ of the tugra are pointed downward and the beyze is oriented on the right instead of the left side. As with all of the other Stobbe made badges, except the silver 2019 auction badge (Item No. 326604) of Lundin Jewel & Antique shown above (that I now suspect is a Stobbe made tablet attached to an as-yet-unidentified maker's mantle element), this example also shows an inverted, upside-down orientation of the tugra. Wolf Horovitz, Alexandria, tugra element: High-resolution cropped image of the Order of Medjidie element on a silver judicial badge made by Horovitz, from a January 2019 eBay auction (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-KING-FAROUK-SILVER-GILT-ENAMEL-JUDGE-BADGE-IN-ORIGINAL-CASE-XXX-RARE-/223282793829; this link is no longer active). This badge is marked with the “HOROVITZ” name and the 3 Egyptian silver hallmarks on the reverse. The image above shows readily the inverted orientation of the tugra on this Horovitz badge; the tuğ clearly point downward, the beyze is visible on the right instead of the left, the hançer are seen on the left instead of on the right, and the sere (stand) is visible at the top of the tugra, not as the base of the tugra (that includes the main text of the tugra, i.e., the names of the sultan and his father, the appellations and the prayer “ever victorious”, etc.). None are in their correct positions. This badge is marked with the Egyptian date hallmark “N”, indicating an assay date of 1938-1939. The photos of the Horovitz gold Appeals Court badge (from a former Flickr posting) are not high enough resolution to distinguish the orientation of the tugra adequately. Zivy Fréres & Cie., Alexandria, tugra element: Tugra elements on badges with unidentified manufacturers: High-resolution close-up image of the Order of Medjidie design element a silver Mixed Courts badge that is the only example I have encountered made by Zivy Fréres & Cie. from an April 2019 (Lot 74177, Auction #5403) auction by Heritage Auctions (https://fineart.ha.com/itm/silver-smalls/an-egyptian-silver-magistrate-s-badge-from-the-reign-of-abbas-ii-egypt-circa-1900marks-unidentified-cipher-zivy-fr/a/5403-74177.s) that also is listed on the liveauctioneers website (https://www.liveauctioneers.com/item/70835139_74177-an-egyptian-silver-magistrate-s-badge-from-the-r). This image shows the distinctly more abbreviated form of the Order of Medjidie element, the wreath around it, the missing crescent and star above the wreath, the less detailed craftsmanship of the ermine tails on the interior of the royal mantle, and the more casual sculpting of the interior mantle fur with coarse tool marks of the Zivy Fréres workmanship. The high-resolution close-up shows the tugra in its correct orientation. All elements of the tugra are clearly visible, but the detail is not good enough (in the execution) for me to hazard a secure identification of the name represented by this tugra. Cropped image of the inferior margin of a silver & gold District Court badge from a 4 December, 2017 auction by Spink & Son, Lot 32, archived on the saleroom.com website (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-us/auction-catalogues/spink/catalogue-id-srspi10156/lot-63685e70-7557-48b1-aabf-a83200b99d8c). There is no maker's mark on this badge. The tugra on this piece is oriented correctly. The tuğ appear to be oriented upward, but the beyze can be readily seen in the correct position on the left of the tugra and the hançer also appear to be properly on the right. As noted in my 6 September 2021 post here, the calligraphy on this badge is distinctively similar to a silver badge from a 19 November, 2015 auction by Spink & Son, archived on the saleroom.com website (shown directly below) and a silver badge from a June, 2018 eBay auction (shown second below). All of these three badges are unmarked and I do not have any good idea of possible manufacturers. This is the first of three similar badges (the other two are shown directly below) whose mantle elements are more comparable to the Order of Medjidie element and correct orientation of the tugra seen on the unmarked badge from a 2019 auction listing (Item No. 326604) of Lundin Jewel & Antique and shown above with what appears to be a retrofitted Stobbe tablet with different calligraphy from these three unmarked badges. Note the bossing of the center of the Order of Medjidie with the tugra compared with its flatter configuration by other makers. Moderate-resolution image of the inferior portion of an unmarked silver court badge from a 19 November, 2015 auction by Spink & Son, archived on the saleroom.com website (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-gb/auction-catalogues/spink/catalogue-id-srspi10063/lot-63c1fc39-2c79-499c-af04-a53f010b14ed). This image can be zoomed for some additional detail. The stylized tugra on this piece is in its correct orientation. Zoomed, the lighting in this photo shows very well the position of the tuğ at the top of the tugra, the beyze to the left, the hançer to the right and the sere (stand) at the base of the tugra. As noted, the calligraphy of the central tablet of his piece is identical to that of the silver & gold district Court badge from a 4 December, 2017 auction by Spink & Son, Lot 32 shown above and the badge from a June, 2018 eBay auction, shown below. Again, also note the bossing of the Order of Medjidie, similar to the form on the Lundin Jewel & Antique 2019 auction listing (Item No. 326604) shown above with what appears to be a Stobbe-made tablet. As I had not previously illustrated the enter obverse of this badge, I included an image as the first photo in my 2nd post of yesterday. Low-resolution cropped image of the lower portion of a silver badge from a 6 June, 2018 eBay auction (https://www.ebay.ie/itm/263668261167; the photos are no longer available at the listing link). Although the images does not provide good detail, if zoomed a couple elements of the tugra can be distinguished enough to show it in the correct orientation (the three tuğ are at the top; the beyze is on the left; and the sere is visible at the base of the tugra). As noted, the calligraphy of the central tablet of this piece is identical to that seen on the two Spink & Son Mixed Courts badges (4 December, 2017 auction Lot 32; and 19 November, 2015 auction, both archived on the saleroom.com website) shown above. These three badges show similar calligraphy (especially notable is the distinctive form of the strokes on the uppermost siin) and all three exhibit the tugra on the Order of Medjidie in its correct orientation. Also note the bossed form of the Order of Medjidie as seen on the two badges directly above and on the badge from the Lundin Jewel & Antique 2019 auction listing (Item No. 326604) that has the Stobbe form of the tablet calligraphy. I also noted yesterday that I had not previously illustrated the obverse and reverse of this badge, and the 2nd and 3rd photo of my 2nd post yesterday show the images that were previously available on the eBay listing for this badge. High-resolution image of the inferior margin of an unmarked silver example of a Mixed Courts badge from an 18 May, 2011 auction by Dix Noonan Webb, Lot 503 (https://www.dnw.co.uk/auction-archive/lot-archive/lot.php?department=Medals&lot_uid=199538) showing the Order of Medjidie element and tugra. No photo of the reverse is included with this listing, but this same badge was previously illustrated on a past eMedals auction, Item W0248: (https://www.emedals.com/africa/egypt-judicial-badge-w0248) and showed views of the unmarked reverse of this badge. This photo above also unambiguously shows the upside-down orientation of the tugra on this badge. Zoomed, this photo clearly shows the three tuğ pointed downward, the beyze is on the right instead of on the left, hançer is on the left rather than the right, and the sere is apparent at the top of the tugra instead of at its base. High-resolution image of the inferior margin of an unmarked silver badge from the collection in the Department of Coins and Medals of the British Museum (https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/C_2009-4007-754). The museum’s Registration number of this badge is: 2009,4007.754. Its Asset Number, for non-commercial research use, is: 748897001 (This image is copyrighted by ©The Trustees of the British Museum). Although the resolution of the photo does not provide significant detail, it is evident that the tugra on this badge’s Order of Medjidie element is in the correct orientation. Zoomed, at least one tuğ is visible at the top of the tugra, the beyze is on the left, and the hançer is seen on the right.
  11. Included here are the 2 badges whose central tablets I illustrated in my last post from today, and noted that I have not not previously illustrated these badges on this thread. Silver unmarked Mixed Courts badge from a a 19 November, 2015 auction by Spink & Son, archived on the saleroom.com website (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-gb/auction-catalogues/spink/catalogue-id-srspi10063/lot-63c1fc39-2c79-499c-af04-a53f010b14ed). The very brief auction description identifies the badges s silver gilt and enamel, measuring 115 mm X 85 mm. There is no photo of the reverse and no information about a possibl3 maker. I illustrated the tablet of this badge as the 11th-to-last image in my earlier post of today, under the grouping: "Unmarked Mixed Courts badges’ examples of the tablet calligraphy that do not appear to match other identified makers". This is the badge that drclaw discussed in his initial post of 9 May, 2011 that started a topic titled: “Egypt, Khedivate – Judge’s Badge of Office”, here in the “Middle East & Arab States” section of GMIC. A noted in my previous post, this badge has a configuration that does not match other identified makers, and I do not have a suggestion of a possible manufacturer of this badge. As noted above, the calligraphy is nearly identical to two other unmarked badges; the gold & silver District Courts badge from a 4 December, 2017 auction by Spink & Son, Lot 32; and the silver badge from a 6 June, 2018 eBay auction (shown below). Low-resolution photo of the obverse of a silver badge from a 6 June, 2018 eBay auction (https://www.ebay.ie/itm/263668261167; photos no longer available at the listing link). This badge is unmarked without any maker's mark or any Egyptian silver hallmarks. Reverse of the same silver badge from the 6 June, 2018 eBay auction. The auction listing provided no information about this badge.
  12. I have been poring over images of the central tablets of the Mixed Courts’ badges with the inscription “العدل أساسالملك”; “aleadl 'asas almalk”; “Justice is the Foundation of Kingship/Governance“ looking to see if there is enough consistency in the calligraphic variation to be a useful guide to potential makers of these badges if there are no maker’s marks. Because of the complexity in comparing the variation in the other design elements of the royal mantle on these badges, I have hoped that the calligraphic inscription might offer an easier key to some variation among makers of these badges. It appears this is a potentially useful quick means of identifying some unmarked Mixed Courts badges. Because only the example by the French manufacturer Emile Froment-Meurice of Paris (the original designer of this badge, probably in 1875) and the Alexandrian maker Rudolf Stobbe are represented by significant numbers of examples in auction offerings (with available images for comparisons), those are the pieces I rely on for much of this post. Most auction examples are made by Froment-Meurice, identified either by the maker’s mark on the reverse, or associated with a case marked Froment-Meurice. Additionally, the workmanship of Froment-Meurice examples is superior in detail & execution to any other makers, and with relatively abundant photos of these badges, I feel confident that attribution on the basis of workmanship is possible for this maker (provided high-enough resolution photos are available of those badges). I have encountered images of only 2 examples made by Wolf Horovitz of Alexandria (one is the only gold Appeals Court judge’s badge I have seen, and the other is a silver example). Only one silver example made by Zivy Frere & Cie., of Alexandria has turned up in my searches of internet auction photos. One example I have seen is attributed to Laurencin & Cie. of Alexandria in the auction description, but I believe I have been able to more closely link the calligraphy on this piece to the style used by Rudolf Stobbe. One unmarked example with a very anomalous calligraphy is housed in the British Museum. In this post, I begin with examples that can be securely attributed to a manufacturer (at least for Froment-Meurice, Stobbe, and Horovitz) and that have excellent-good resolution images that can be cropped for comparisons of the tablet calligraphy. All of the photos shown below are cropped from larger images of the obverse of these badges. I have previously described all but two of the badges used in this comparison elsewhere on this thread, and provide information here on those posts for reference. It is unfortunately not uncommon for some of these badges to lack any makers' mark on their reverse. Froment-Meurice-made pieces also lack any date hallmarks, so it is not easy to identify a potential chronology of any possible die changes that may be responsible for some minor variation in the calligraphic inscriptions (minimally it appears that at least 2 groupings may be identified for Froment-Meurice, shown below). The central tablet with the inscription is a separate piece of this badge attached with rivets along with the royal mantle and crown element to the rayed embellishment (see the oblique photo of the obverse of the badge from an eMedals offering in the 2nd and 5th photos in my post of 23 July, 2018 on this thread that shows the construction well), so die changes for the tablet could have been made independently of those for the mantle and embellishment. This construction also could result in the replacement of a central tablet from a different manufacturer, although I have not encountered an example where this appears to be a possibility. Infrequently, an attribution to an owner can be linked to some historic data about the possible date for those few attributed pieces. Most of the Egyptian-made pieces lack any date hallmarks or the photos of the reverse are not high enough resolution to permit reading the date hallmark. I also have included examples of the calligraphy inscription from several badges that lack any maker’s mark. In some cases, I believe I have been able to match those unmarked pieces with the different patterns of the motto’s spacing, line forms, and diacritical marks to present a likely manufacture for such unmarked badges. There remain a few examples I cannot match, suggesting at least 4 additional makers I have not yet identified, or other die changes that are difficult to associate with any particular maker. Émile Froment-Meurice, Paris - Group 1 There appear to be (at least) 2 forms of the calligraphy associated with badges that can be securely identified as being made by Émile Froment-Meurice of Paris, the original designer of this badge for Khedive Isma’il Pasha, probably in 1875. This first grouping of badge inscriptions (shown here) that have identified Froment-Meurice maker’s marks on their reverse have similarities in the spacing of the stroke elements and the forms of the diacritical marks that appear to contrast with some other identified Froment-Meurice Mixed courts badges (shown below as Group 2). These may represent die changes by Froment-Meurice. As is true for any of the badges shown in theses posts, some minor differences in camera angles may account for what I think may be minor differences in the form of some diacritical marks (especially the uppermost loop of the 2 marks that are second to the right in the upper portion of the inscription). Also damage to some of the enamel may obscure details on some of the lower-resolution images. This first group may be the earliest form of the tablet calligraphy made by Froment-Meurice. Note that the District Court badge attributed to Joseph Timmerman may date to 1883 or 1894 and the badge attributed to Herbert Hills might date to 1875. High-resolution image of the central tablet with inscription of a silver Mixed Courts badge made by Froment-Meurice from a January 2019 auction by Heritage World Coin Auctions, Lot 36093 (https://coins.ha.com/itm/egypt/egypt-abbas-hilmi-pacha-1874-1944-khedive-1892-1914-magistrate-badge-nd-c1892-au-/a/3072-36093.s?type=CoinArchives3072) and was formerly archived as well on the NumisBids .com website. A photograph of the reverse clearly shows the Froment-Meurice hallmark, although the auction description incorrectly attributes it to Stobbe of Alexandria. I first illustrated the obverse and reverse of this badge in my post of 14 January, 2019. Most recently, I included a high-resolution image of the obverse of this badge as the 4th photo in my post of 6 July, 2020 on this thread in a comparison of the obverse design & execution among identified makers of these badges. Although the tablet shows some possible damage to the black enamel of the inscription and normal wear from use, it is one of the best images of the calligraphy of this maker’s design. The Froment-Meurice calligraphy is, in my opinion, the most elegant of all the manufacturers of this badge. The flowing variation in line thickness, with delicate thin portions, is quite distinctive, especially compared with the thicker calligraphy of the Stobbe pieces. The two Horovitz examples illustrated below show some comparable elegance in the thinner portions of the lines, as does the one Zivy Frere example, but those lack the contrasting thickness in some calligraphic flourishes. This particular example has one minor anomaly compared with the other Froment-Meurice badges with available high-resolution images of the design and workmanship of the royal mantle element. The 3 central lines (tuğ) of the tugra (calligraphic monogram) in the Order of Medjidie design element at the inferior margin of the mantle show it oriented vertically. However, other Froment-Meurice examples (most visible in the photo of the J. Timmerman example and the H. Hill examples shown below) have the tuğ, oriented slightly to the right (~30°to the right), although the embellishment margin of the Order of Medjidie remains in the same orientation on all Froment-Meurice (and all other makers designs are essentially similar in this although the tugra is not always visible on many lower-resolution photos). High resolution photo of the central tablet of gold & silver badge of the Belgian jurist Joseph Timmerman’s district Court badge made by Froment-Meurice (auction description attributes the badge to this maker, but no image of the reverse is provided. The description states it is in its original case that is marked Froment-Meurice (no photo of the case is present in the auction listing). The high-resolution photo of the obverse allows assessment that the workmanship is consistent with that seen on other Froment-Meurice badges). From a September 2014 auction by Jean Elsen & ses Fils S.A.(Lot 1730), archived in the acsearch.com website (https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=3990624). The form of the calligraphy is almost completely identical that seen on the above Froment-Meurice example from the 2019 offering by Heritage Auctions. Although there is no date hallmark on this piece, Joseph Timmerman was appointed to the District Court of Alexandria in 1883, was assigned to the Parquet 1892, and re-appointed to the District Court of Alexandria in 1894. So, this badge probably dates to either 1883 or 1894. This also is one of the best images of the calligraphy of the Froment-Meurice badge motto. I previously illustrated and described the obverse of this badge in my post of 31 October, 2018, and described Timmerman’s appointments in my post of 18 April, 2019, both previous posts on this thread. I also included the high-resolution photo of the obverse of this badge recently as the 3rd photo in my post of 6 July, 2020 on this thread. High-resolution cropped photo of the central tablet of a silver badge by Froment-Meurice (attributed to this maker, no maker’s hallmarks visible on the small portion of the reverse of this badge that is visible in auction photos). The other design elements and craftsmanship are consistent with a Froment-Meurice badge. From a 3June, 2015 auction by Dreweatts & Bloomsbury, (Lot 175), archived on the-saleroom.com website (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-gb/auction-catalogues/dreweatts/catalogue-id-drewea10199/lot-d2a1fe08-3bbf-4c29-a53d-a4aa00a27910#lotDetails). Although some of the enamel of the inscription has been damaged, the calligraphy is identical to the above 2 examples. This badge is attributed to the Judge Herbert A. Hills on the basis of a handwritten note attached to the reverse of this badge. The paper obscures any possible maker’s mark on the reverse. I have illustrated this badge previously in a few posts on this thread, but my post of 18 April, 2019 provides the most detailed description and photos of the obverse & reverse as the first two images in that post. I also included the high-resolution image of the obverse of this badge recently as the 5th photo in my post of 6 July, 2020 on this thread. Herbert Hills was appointed to the District Court of Alexandria in 1875, the year that the Mixed Courts were created. However, as noted in my post of 18 April, 2019 , the badge for the any of the District Courts (Alexandria, Cairo, or Mansourah) should be gold and silver. This also is one of the best available images of the central tablet inscription on these badges. Low resolution image of the central tablet of a silver badge offered in an ongoing eBay auction that was made by Froment-Meurice (https://www.ebay.com/itm/324752955655?_trkparms=aid%3D111001%26algo%3DREC.SEED%26ao%3D1%26asc%3D20180105095853%26meid%3Dcb14b13fbecb458a9763a497b5cedbba%26pid%3D100903%26rk%3D1%26rkt%3D20%26sd%3D324752955655%26itm%3D324752955655%26pmt%3D0%26noa%3D1%26pg%3D2510209&_trksid=p2510209.c100903.m5276). Photos of the reverse show the Froment-Meurice hallmark. There is some damage to the enamel in the central portion of the tablet inscription of this piece. Despite the low-resolution of the photo of the obverse of this badge, the calligraphy is more similar to the Froment-Meurice Group 1 pieces than to Group 2. However, the uppermost middle diacritical mark opening to the viewer’s right (to look like a “c”) is anomalous compared with all other tablet inscriptions. Émile Froment-Meurice, Paris - Group 2 Moderate-resolution photo of the central tablet inscription from a badge made by Froment-Meurice (maker’s hallmarks illustrated on reverse of badge). From an auction by Lugdunum GmbH, in June 2019, archived on the coinarchives.com website (https://www.coinarchives.com/w/lotviewer.php?LotID=3972878&AucID=4100&Lot=288&Val=f97e5c722c28c73add7c029f374c845e; this now links to a pay version of CoinArchive Pro that I am not subscribed to). I previously illustrated the obverse and reverse of this badge in the first 2 photos in my post of 14 August, 2019 on this thread. I most recently included an image of the obverse as the 6th photo in my post of 6 July, 2020. Although this piece exhibits a Froment-Meurice hallmark, some elements of the spacing of the calligraphy and a couple diacritical marks appear slightly different than on the above examples that I have called Group 1. This does not appear to be a tablet element from another maker, the calligraphy does not match any of the other identified or unidentified manufacturers’ variation in the inscription. The consistency in this variation in the calligraphy across a group of badges that are marked Froment-Meurice inclines me to think these represent a different die for the tablet element from those shown above (as Group 1). For that reason I have included these badges under this “Group 2” category. Cropped photo of Enzo’s silver & gold District Court badge from his post of 25 May, 2021 on this thread. This badge has the Froment-Meurice name and the diamond & rose form of the Froment-Meurice hallmark on the reverse, as illustrated in his posting. The calligraphy of this piece is identical to the above example from the 2019 Lugundum auction. Most notably, the lower right diacritical mark on both pieces appears as a thinner horizontal line than on many Froment-Meurice badges, possibly supporting the inference that an additional die may have been employed for these inscriptions at some period in the Froment-Meurice manufacture of these badges. As noted in Enzo’s post, there is an informal etching of the initial “JH” on the reverse of this badge. My post of 25 May, 2021 identifies a few possible judges who served on different District Courts (and would have had silver & gold badges) and may have used those initials, either with initial appointments of 1875, 1876, 1878, or in 1901. The list I provided is incomplete (not covering appointments made between March 1926 and the end of the Mixed Courts in October of 1949), so those possible associations are not secure relative dates for any possible change in the form of this inscription because of die replacement. Also note that the 2 badges with alleged attributions above (Herbert Hills and Joseph Timmerman) could potentially have relatively secure dates of the earlier period of the Mixed Courts. As noted above for the second badge, the silver & gold District Court badge attributed to Joseph Timmermans, that badge could represent his initial appointment to the Alexandria Court in 1883, and that badge shows a thicker lateral portion of this horizontal diacritical mark. The 3rd badge shown in this post. from a 2015 auction by Dreweatts & Bloomsbury, also shows this same lateral thickening and is attributed to Judge Herbert Hills, appointed to the District Court of Alexandria in 1875. I have noted in other posts that the lack of any gold gilt on that badge is slightly anomalous, as Hills should have had a silver & gold badge if the attribution of this badge to him is correct. Good-resolution enlargement of the central tablet of a badge from a 10 March, 2021 auction by Ader of Paris, Lot 227 (https://www.ader-paris.fr/en/lot/110892/14446654?offset=200&). The auction description states that the badge is marked “FROMENT MEURICE” on the reverse, although it does not provide a photo of the badge’s reverse. The listing also identifies the presence of a boar’s head hallmark. This is a French fineness mark used by the Paris assay office between 1838-1961(or 1973?) for silver with a fineness of 800 or higher. The workmanship of this badge is consistent with that on other Froment-Meurice pieces. I previously illustrated this badge in my post of 3 March, 2021. There is a small amount of enamel loss in some of the inscription. The form of the calligraphy on this piece is identical to that of two badges above (the Lugundum example from the June 2019 auction; and Enzo’s badge). Unfocused low-resolution photo of the central tablet of the silver badge attributed to Apostolo N. Gennaropoulo that was made by Froment-Meurice, from a past eBay auction archived on the worthpoint.com website (https://www.worthpoint.com/worthopedia/ottoman-empire-egypt-khedivate-judges-982926374). The reverse of this badge does show the Froment-Meurice name and diamond with rose hallmarks. This badge was offered in its presentation case also labeled Froment-Meurice and with an accompanying associated photo of Gennaropoulo in his court regalia. The calligraphy of this example generally appears very similar to other Froment-Meurice Group 2 examples, but not to Group 1. However, the image resolution is poor. The only anomaly is the appearance that the superior portion of the vertical alif stroke of the letter laam (2nd from the right) appears to be lower than the other strokes (the previous 2 badges show a less pronounced expression of this). I am unsure whether this difference suggests the probability of a different die used to produce this central tablet compared with other Froment-Meurice Group 2 examples. I have not yet been able to find any historical data on Apostolo N. Gennaropoulo, and am unsure whether he was a judge or a functionary of the Mixed Courts. The image of Apostolo N. Gennaropolou wearing tarboosh, stambouline coat, bicolored sash (green over red) and this badge is shown in the last photo of my post of 24 March, 2017 on this thread that illustrated both the badge in its case and the portrait of Gennaropolou (from the past eBay auction). Low-resolution image of the central tablet of a silver badge made by Froment-Meurice from a July 2015 auction by Clark Auction Gallery, Lot 0235, archived on the liveauctioneers.com website (https://www.liveauctioneers.com/item/38904932_silver-froment-meurice-egyptian-badge). This badge was in a Froment-Meurice case and the reverse was illustrated showing a Froment-Meurice hallmark. This listing also included 2 photos of an unidentified individual wearing a bicolored sash and a silver judicial badge, along with another unidentified medal in a case. Although the lower resolution of this photo does not make comparison as easy, the calligraphy on this piece appears most similar to the Group 2 Froment-Meurice badges. It is unclear whether a couple apparent differences in some of the diacritical marks could be indicative of a different die. Note that the thickness of the upper diacritical mark (line) in the lower right appears thicker than those in the above 4 examples. The bow-shaped diacritical mark in the upper left may exhibit slight differences in thickness and length of the unlooped ends compared with the other Group 2 examples. The loop in that mark is more similar to Group 2 in its smaller loop opening than any of the Group 1 examples. I included the auction photos of this the badge in its case, the obverse & reverse, images of the Froment-Meurice maker’s mark on the reverse, the Froment-Meurice name on the inside of the case, and the 2 associated portrait photos of an Egyptian man wearing the tarboosh, stambouline coat, probably a bi-colored sash, and presumably this badge in my post of 22 January, 2019 on this thread. Mixed Court badge alleged to have been made by Froment-Meurice ("associated" with a case marked "Froment-Meurice") Moderate-resolution photo of the central tablet of a silver badge from a 13 June, 2018 eMedals auction, Item: EG2365 (https://www.emedals.com/egypt-kingdom-a-khedivate-badge-of-office-for-the-legal-administration-of-egypt-the-suez-canal). There are several photos of the reverse provided, however the reverse has no manufacture’s hallmarks. However, this badge was offered in a case labeled Froment-Meurice. The lower resolution of this photo makes it problematic to evaluate whether the workmanship of the mantle element is consistent with a Froment-Meurice or a Stobbe badge. However, even compared with the Group 2 Froment-Meurice made badges above, the calligraphy on this tablet element appears to lack some of the elegant differences in the thickness of lines. The forward non-parallel orientation of the 5th alif vertical stroke from the right of laam, slanting forward one noktah, is identical to the noted variation seen on all identified (and a couple suspected) Rudolf Stobbe-made badges (see below). The form of other aspects of the calligraphy also is nearly identical to the Stobbe examples shown below. Although the eMedals association with a Froment-Meurice case suggested a Paris-made badge, the tablet inscription indicates at least that element is the work of Rudolf Stobbe. Despite the lower-resolution of the photo of the obverse of this badge, comparison of the workmanship of the royal mantle element makes me strongly feel that also is more similar to Stobbe examples rather than Froment-Meurice. In addition to some details I have mentioned in other posts (not all visible on this eMedals badge), the lower relief of Stobbe pieces appears to be present in this example. Images of the obverse, reverse, and the badge resting in the case marked Froment-Meurice are shown in my post of 23, July 2018. Rudolf Stobbe, Alexandria I have only come across two examples of judicial badges from auction sites that that illustrate the reverse showing the hallmark for Stobbe of Alexandria. The gold & silver badge belonging to my wife’s great grandfather, Pierre Crabités, does not have the Stobbe maker’s mark on the reverse but is in a case labeled inside with R. Stobbe’s name. Good-resolution close-up photo of tablet calligraphy on a silver & gold District Courts’ judicial badge from a December 2014 auction by Baldwins (Lot 844) archived on the Saleroom.com website (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-gb/auction-catalogues/baldwins/catalogue-id-srbal10006/lot-895754ae-9b9f-4f06-9d11-a3fe00ab0fe1). This badge shows the Stobbe hallmark on the reverse. Like the eMedals badge from a 13 June, 2018, Item: EG2365, shown above, the 5th vertical stroke from the right is slightly out of parallel with the others, (the alif vertical stroke of laam, that is slanting forward one noktah), a feature that appears to be characteristic of the Stobbe inscription and is seen on the other 2 identified Stobbe examples below. This also is seen on a few other badges shown in this post I suspect to be Stobbe-made on the basis of this calligraphic detail. I noted the slippage of this tablet in my post of on this thread that can be seen in the offset of the lower right margin of the tablet and in the left superior lobe. Unlike the eMedals example shown above as the last image in the Froment-Meurice Group 2 listing (the 10thbadge illustrated in this post), that has a Stobbe-made tablet possibly added to a Froment-Meurice badge mantle & embellishment, this piece has a Stobbe maker’s mark on the reverse and a form of the calligraphy consistent with Stobbe manufacture. The tablet offset is either from damage during the badge’s lifetime or a faulty repair of this piece. I have previously included images of this badge in several posts on this thread. I recently included an image of the obverse as the 8th photo in my post of 6 July, 2020. High-resolution close-up of the central tablet calligraphy on a silver badge made by Stobbe of Alexandria from a May 2018 auction (Lot 2252) by Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG and archived on the A.C. Search.com website (https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=4974323). This badge has a Stobbe hallmark on the reverse. There is a date hallmark which is unclear in an image of the reverse of this badge (possibly 1923?). The thicker and less elegantly varied lines and thicker execution of some of the diacritical marks are very similar to the 2014 Baldwin’s offering shown above (note the thicker portion of the lateral portion of the horizontal diacritical mark in the lower right compared with the thicker medial aspect of this mark on the silver & gold Stobbe badge tablet shown above and on the Crabités example shown below, evidence of another die?). I previously illustrated the obverse and reverse of this badge as the 2nd photo in my post of 31 October, 2018 on this thread. Most recently, included an image of the obverse as the 9th photo in my post of 6 July, 2020. Zoomed moderate-resolution view of the central tablet of the Pierre Crabités gold & silver badge for his role on the District Courts of Cairo with the calligraphic inscription. This badge does not have a Stobbe manufacturer’s mark on the reverse but is in the original Stobbe case. The calligraphy of this piece is very similar to the other 2 identified Stobbe-made pieces shown above. (although the 3 diacritical marks on the upper left of the tablet show some differences in execution). Although there are no Egyptian hallmarks on this piece, Judge Crabités obtained this badge and inscribed it with his name and appointment date at the beginning of his appointment in 1911 ("PIERRE CRABITÈS, LE CAIRE, LE 19 JUIN 1911"). The dating of this piece is quite secure. In addition to the known appointment date for Judge Crabités (June 18, 1911, the day before that inscribed on the reverse of the badge), the inscription on the reverse of the badge, there also is a photo of Crabités wearing his judicial regalia, including this badge, from 1911 (shown in several previous posts on this thread, note especially the last image in my post of 7 November, 2018 and the 4th photo in my post about this badge on 2 December, 2019). Because of the retention of this badge with the descendant family of Pierre Crabités (in its case marked: "R. STOBBE, Joaillier, ALEXANDRIE, L'EGYPTE" with “Crabités” name written on the underside), the known initial appointment date for Judge Crabités, and the name and date he had inscribed on the reverse of this badge, this is one of the most securely datable examples of any extant Mixed Courts badges by any maker of this judicial insignia. The Alexander Cockburn McBurnett badge (shown in a very-low resolution image of it framed with other awards from an 8 November, 2017 auction by Brightwells [Lot 282], archived on the-saleroom.com website), illustrated in the 3rdphoto of my post of 18 April, 2019 on this thread; also see Egyptian Zogist’s post on this thread of 4 November, 2017 describing the items in this lot and providing the link to the listing on the-saleroom.com website) may be as datable. McBurnett’s appointment to the Mixed Appeals Court was in 1920, but it is unclear without better photographs or examination whether it can be attributed to a particular maker. Although other such well-associated badges may exist (note the potential ambiguities mentioned for the Timmermans and Hall examples above), none with this level of secure provenance documentation have appeared on recent internet auction listings. Wolf Horovitz, Alexandria Above are two moderate-resolution close-up images of the central tablet calligraphy of a gold example of the Appeals Court judicial badge. A photo of the reverse of this badge shows the Horovitz name as the manufacturer’s mark on this badge. I initially came across the images of this badge on Flickr, but it no longer appears there, and I have not yet found an original source for the photo of this unique gold (Appeals Court) example I have run across in my research. The Alexander Cockburn McBurnett badge, mentioned above, may be gold (he was appointed to the Mixed Appeals Court), but the low-resolution auction photo and description does not allow confirmation of this. There are some notable differences between the tablet calligraphy on this gold Horovitz example and the silver one shown below. The thickness of the lines shows less variation (fewer thin portions) and most of the diacritical marks are thicker with a slightly different form than the Horovitz pieces shown below. One diacritical mark is missing on this tablet, compared with the silver Horovitz example below. However, overall the calligraphic design is similar to the silver Horovitz badge. I first illustrated the obverse (resting in its case) & reverse of this badge this badge as the 4th & 5th photos in my post of 24 March, 2017 on this thread. High-resolution cropped image of the tablet calligraphy on a silver judicial badge made by Horovitz, from a January 2019 eBay auction (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-KING-FAROUK-SILVER-GILT-ENAMEL-JUDGE-BADGE-IN-ORIGINAL-CASE-XXX-RARE-/223282793829). This image, and the one below, are from a badge offered in a 2018 eBay auction that I first illustrated on this thread in my post of 1 December, 2018. That post provides several my description of some of the unique aspects of the Horovitz workmanship exhibited on this piece. It also provides photos of the obverse and reverse of this badge, details of the case, and images of the “HOROVITZ” name and the 3 Egyptian silver hallmarks on the reverse. The date hallmark seen in a photo of the reverse (and on the tunic pin) of this badge is “N”, indicating an assay date of 1938-1939. My post of 28 February, 2019 shows these hallmarks in detail as the 6th & 7th-to-last photos. The photo below also is of the same badge. Moderate-resolution close-up view of the same badge made by Horovitz from a January 2019 eBay auction (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-KING-FAROUK-SILVER-GILT-ENAMEL-JUDGE-BADGE-IN-ORIGINAL-CASE-XXX-RARE-/223282793829; this link is no longer active). This silver badge is shown in the auction listing with good images of the reverse showing the Horovitz manufacturer’s hallmark and the case with the Horovitz label printed on the satin lining of the upper lid. The calligraphy on this tablet is very similar, but not identical, to that of the gold Appeals Court version of this badge with a Horovitz hallmark on the reverse, shown above. This is evidence that Horvitz may have employed at least 2 dies for making the tablet elements. These two badges are the only I have found in auction listings that can be identified as the work of Wolf Horovitz (but also see the odd Mixed Court badge design-inspired pin illustrated as the last image of this post that also bears a Horovitz mark). I recently included the original full-size photo that is the source of this cropped image of the obverse as the 10th photo in my post of 6 July, 2020. Zivy Fréres & Cie., Alexandria Moderate-resolution close-up image of the tablet calligraphy on the only example I have encountered made by Zivy Fréres from an April 2019 (Lot 74177, Auction #5403) auction by Heritage Auctions (https://fineart.ha.com/itm/silver-smalls/an-egyptian-silver-magistrate-s-badge-from-the-reign-of-abbas-ii-egypt-circa-1900marks-unidentified-cipher-zivy-fr/a/5403-74177.s) that also is listed on the liveauctioneers website (https://www.liveauctioneers.com/item/70835139_74177-an-egyptian-silver-magistrate-s-badge-from-the-r). This unique example of a Zivy Fréres-made Mixed Courts badge exhibits many distinctively different aspects of the obverse design and execution compared with all other examples. I have described these design aspects and included photos of the obverse, reverse, and the Zivy Fréres maker’s mark in my post of 24 April, 2019 on this thread. Most recently, I included the photo of the obverse of this badge ss the 12th image in my post of 6 July, 2020. The calligraphy is similar to that seen on the silver Horovitz-made tablet shown above. There appears to be some damage to portions of the enamel on this piece. Mixed Court badge alleged to have been made by M. Laurencin & Cie., Alexandria Close-up low-resolution cropped image of the tablet calligraphy on a cased silver example that was identified as made by Laurencin & Cie. From a November 2012 auction (Lot 323) by La Galerie Numismatique archived on the Sixbid.com website (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=515&category=11656&lot=539484; this link may no longer work). The auction listing did not provide a photo of the reverse of this badge, and I do not know what the Laurencin & Cie. hallmark looks like. The auction description states that this badge is “In original case of issue by “M. Laurencin & Cie, Alexandrie, Egypte”. The photo showing the case does not illustrate the maker’s labeling that appears to be present inside the upper lid of the case. This is the only example I have found on auction listings that identifies this manufacturer of the judicial badges. The resolution of the photo of this badge is too poor to assess the workmanship of the mantle components compared with other pieces with identified makers. I have always been troubled by the attribution of this piece as no other example by this maker has been documented in other auction listings and because of the lack of any photos of the reverse or the supposedly associated case for this badge. However, the calligraphy on this tablet is identical to that seen on the 3 Stobbe examples shown above (and especially the non-parallel 5th vertical alif stroke from the right, the alif vertical stroke of laam, that is slanting forward one noktah), and it seems almost certain that the attribution to Laurencin & Cie. is incorrect. Although the resolution of the photo is not good, the workmanship of the royal mantle element appears consistent with Stobbe, and less similar to some aspects of Froment-Meurice execution, including exhibiting lower relief than Froment-Meurice but as seen on Stobbe pieces. I have previously illustrated this badge in the 3rd to last photo of my post of 28 February, 2019 (discussing hallmarks) on this thread, showing the auction listing illustration of the obverse of the badge, the unmarked outer case lid, and the badge resting in its case. I also enlarged that low-resolution image of this badge somewhat and included it as the 11th photo in my post of 6 July, 2020 on this thread. The only information I have found about Laurencin & Cie. is the name attached to an advertisement for the well-documented watchmaker and jeweler Leon Kramer. The 3rd photo in my post of 8 December, 2019 shows an advertisement for L. Kramer & Co. of Cairo that identifies “Laurencin & Co.” as one of 2 agents of L. Kramer, with a shop situated on rue Chèrif Pacha, in Alexandria. That advertisement comes from: The Sphinx, Vol 26, No. 422, 29 March, 1919, (Société Orientale de Publicité), page 3 (from the American University of Cairo digital archive). Unmarked badges’ examples of the tablet calligraphy that are potentially identifiable The following 3 images of 2 different badges come from auction listings that did not identify any manufacturer of these badges. Based on the information above, I believe that the calligraphy on the first badge (2 photos shown) is distinctively indicative of manufacture by Rudolf Stobbe of Alexandria. The calligraphy of other badge illustrated below matches well the Froment-Meurice Group 2 badge inscriptions. Comparisons of the workmanship of the royal mantle element further support the inferences made about the makers of these unmarked Mixed Court badges. Moderate-low resolution close-up photo of the central tablet of a judicial badge whose maker is unidentified from a 2019 auction listing (Item No. 326604) of Lundin Jewel & Antique auction, archived on the worldantique.net website (https://www.worldantique.net/apstort.asp?selbinr=326604&kukat=8715&valuta=USD#valuta). The reverse of this badge has no maker’s mark nor visible Egyptian silver hallmarks. I previously illustrated the obverse and reverse of this badge as the last 2 photos in my post of 10 September, 2019. The calligraphy on this tablet closely resembles that seen on the silver Horovitz piece or the Stobbe tablet element. However, the non-parallel 5th alif stroke from the right (the slanting forward alif vertical stroke of laam), is distinctive only to Stobbe-made badges. Low-resolution image of the central tablet of a silver badge from a 2018 auction on the Lundin Antiques website (http://www.lundinantique.com/medals.html). This is the same Mixed Courts badge as shown above from a 2019 auction listing (Item No. 326604) of Lundin Jewel & Antique auction that is archived on the worldantique.net website. This illustration appears to show damage to the central tablet that is not visible in the 2019 listing photo seen above. Staining on the medial side of the 2nd vertical stroke from the right is identical in both photos. The item number for this badge (326604) also is the same as that of the 2019 listing by Lundin Jewel & Antique. I illustrated the obverse of this badge as the last photo in my post of 23 July, 2018 on this thread. The manufacturer of this badge is not identified in the auction description, which only indicates that it allegedly comes from the Mixed Courts in Alexandria. As described above for the better-resolution image of this badge from the more recent auction, the distinctively non-parallel alif 5th stroke from the right of laam identifies this as Stobbe manufacture. That also is consistent with the purported provenience of this badge from Alexandria where Rudolf Stobbe had his shop. The above low-resolution cropped image comes from a color photograph of a silver Mixed Courts badge, resting on a bicolored green and red judicial sash (two bordering stripes of red and a central stripe of green, all 3 stripes of equal width, and good detail of the gold metallic thread border and fringe) that also shows the Indigenous Court insignia of the silver crescent pin and 3-star pins. This photo comes from a Turkish language Pinterest posting (https://www.pinterest.com/pin/475340935664787041/). An associated brief text identifies the badges as made by Froment-Meurice, however there is no image of the reverse or description of an actual hallmark. It has been unclear to me whether that attribution is just a mention of the known designer or whether there was any evidence that this is a Froment-Meurice made silver badge. I previously illustrated this as the 1st photo in my post of 28 April, 2018, and have most recently included the photo of the entire ensemble as the 8th-to-last photo in my post of 6 April, 2020 on this thread, discussing regalia of the Egyptian Indigenous Court. The calligraphy of this badge tablet closely resembles that seen on the Froment-Meurice Group 2 examples illustrated above, especially the June 2019 Lugdunum GmbH badge; Enzo’s badge illustrated on 25 May, 2021, and the Ader example from the 10 March, 2021 auction (Lot 227), all of which are shown above. The Lugdunum badge and Enzo’s are marked, and the Ader badge is stated to have a Froment-Meurice maker’s mark on the reverse. I believe the workmanship of the above example matches that of Froment-Meurice and the calligraphy of this piece most closely matches that of the Group 2 badges shown above. Unmarked Mixed Courts badges’ examples of the tablet calligraphy that do not appear to match other identified makers I have not had any luck identifying the makers of the badges shown below. I believe this represents 5 badges in total whose manufacturers are not Maison-Froment Meurice, Rudolf Stobbe, Wolf Horovitz, or Zivy Fréres & Cie. (plus the British Museum badge shown after these 5 auction badges). The Mahmoud Saïd badge has some similarities in calligraphy to the following two Spink & Son auction badge offerings, and the June, 2018 eBay auction badge. However Saïd’s badge does not match the inscription completely. The quality of the color book plate from which this image comes is not high-enough resolution for close comparison of other portions of the badge’s design and workmanship. I believe that the Mahmoud Saïd badge probably represents a maker (or die variant) I have not yet seen other examples of among auction listing photos. The two Spink & Son badges (Lot 32, a silver & gold District Court badge from a December, 2017 auction; and the silver badge from a November, 2015 auction by Spink & Son, both archived on the saleroom.com website) have a number of similarities. The inscription on the central tablets are nearly identical, and the workmanship and certain details of the other portions of both badges. The silver badge from the June, 2018 eBay auction has calligraphy that is nearly identical to both of the Spink & Son badges, and is essentially identical the November, 2015 Spink & Son auction example. In a thread topic titled “Egypt, Khedivate – Judge’s Badge of Office” in the Middle East & Arab States section started by drclaw on 9 May, 2011. Paul Wood indicated in his post of 10 May, 2011 that he had seen French-made examples (not Froment-Meurice?) and others made by J. Lattes and Bichay (Tewfik or Fahmy Tewfik Bichay?), and suggested a likelihood that other local jewelers also may have made some. Paul did not identify Rudolf Stobbe, Wolf Horovitz, or Zivy Fréres & Cie., as possible makers. I have not encountered images of any badges identified as made by other European (non-residents of Egypt) nor by Lattes or Bichay. Interestingly, the badge that drclaw illustrated in this topic is the same badge as shown below from the 19 November, 2015 auction by Spink & Son, archived on the saleroom.com website. These three badges are very similar, unmarked, and that do not match the design and workmanship of other makers of the Mixed Courts badges. I believe they represent a single unspecified manufacturer of these court insignia. The Dix Noonan Webb, Lot 503 silver badge from a May, 2011 auction has contrasting calligraphy and several different treatment elements of the royal mantle that indicate it is the product of yet another maker. I separated the silver Mixed Court badge in the British Museum collection as it is a well-documented and curated museum specimen, but it also represents the work of a different atelier. In total, this makes six badges that are unmarked and appear to be the work of 4 distinctly different makers: 1. The silver Mahmoud Saïd badge; 2. the silver & gold Spink & Son 4 December, 2017 auction District Court badge, Lot 32; the Spink & Son 19 November, 2015 auction silver badge (the same badge as one illustrated by drclaw here on GMIC); and the silver eBay auction badge of 6 June, 2018; 3. the Dix Noonan Webb silver badge, Lot 503, from an 18 May, 2011 auction (the same badge was also illustrated from a pre-2017 eMedals offering, Item: W0248); 4. The British Museum silver badge (Registration number of this badge is: 2009,4007.754). The above badge belonged to the Judge, Court Official, and well-known Egyptian modernist painter, Mahmoud Saïd. This example is housed in the Mahmoud Saïd Museum in Alexandria, and this cropped portion of the photo comes from an appendix to an art volume publication on Mahmoud Saïd’s paintings (Didier Hess, Valérie & Hussam Rashwan (eds.), 2016. Mahmoud Saïd: Catalogue Raisonné Volume 2. Drawings. Skira Editore, S.p.A., Milano. [distributed in the USA, Canada, & South America by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York; distributed elsewhere by Thames & Hudson Ltd. London]. Plate A 177, pg. 865 [incorrectly identified as a “Medal of Justice”]. ©2016 Valérie Didier Hess; ©2016 Dr. Hussam Rashwan; ©2016 Mahmoud Saïd Estate; ©2016 Skira editore). The calligraphy on this badge does not match well with other examples shown here that can be identified with known makers. However, it does appear similar to several aspects of the calligraphy of the first three badges shown below: the silver & gold District Court badge from a 2017 auction Spink & Son shown directly below; the silver badge from a 19 November, 2015 auction by Spink & Son shown 2nd below; and the June 2018 eBay auction badge shown 3rdbelow. However, although somewhat similar, the calligraphy of the Mahmoud Saïd badge is not an identical match for first 3 badges shown below. The most apparent differences with those badges below are the shape of the upper diacritical mark of the set of 2 second from the left that is shape like a “J” rather than a more “U” shape as seen in the three badges below. Compared with the three badges below, the lines on the Mahmoud Saïd badge do not exhibit some of the width variation that the examples below show. I previously illustrated the obverse of this badge as the 6th photo in my post of 21 August, 2019 on this thread. As noted, in the intro to this section, this badge is likely representative of a manufacturer I have not yet identified, not seen other examples of, or a die variant of a one of the unidentified examples listed here. High-resolution photo of the central tablet of a what appears to be a silver & gold District Courts badge from a 4 December, 2017 auction by Spink & Son, Lot 32, archived on the saleroom.com website (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-us/auction-catalogues/spink/catalogue-id-srspi10156/lot-63685e70-7557-48b1-aabf-a83200b99d8c). I have previously illustrated the obverse of this badge in a few posts on this thread, most recently as the 7th image my post of 6 July, 2020 on this thread (where I prematurely stated this badge: “probably was made by Froment-Meurice”). No manufacturer of this badge is identified in the auction description and no photos are available of the reverse of this badge. The description states that an undescribed “pawnbroker’s” mark is present on the reverse. There are some similarities to the Mahmoud Saïd badge calligraphy shown above, but the two are not identical (mostly differences in the forms of diacritical marks). The form of the uppermost script of siin is distinctively unique on this and the following two badges. There is some similarity to the calligraphy of the Heritage Auctions Zivy Fréres badge from an April 2019 auction (Lot 74177, Auction #5403). However, the lines on the above unmarked badge are much thicker than those on the marked Zivy Fréres badge. Additionally, the royal mantle element of this piece bears no resemblance at all to the distinctively less-detailed workmanship differences evident on the Zivy Fréres badge. The calligraphy of this inscription is most similar to that of the following badge from a November 2015 auction by Spink & Son. The design and workmanship of the mantle element on this piece appears to be identical to that of the next illustrated badge on this post, the silver badge from a 19 November, 2015 auction by Spink & Son, archived on the saleroom.com website. Especially notably similar is the form of the Order of Medjidie (the central tugra portion is more convex and looks like a boss, rather than it flatter expression on other makers’ designs. Additionally, the execution of the ermine tails lining the mantle are quite similar, and the ermine tail inside the margin of the fringe of the uppermost mantle fold on the viewer’s left side that are present and highly visible on all other examples [possibly not on the Mahmoud Saïd badge?] is either missing, higher into the fold than on other designs, or minimally expressed on both this Spink & Son, Lot 32 piece and the badge from the 19 November, 2015 auction by Spink & Son). These same similarities in the workmanship of the royal mantle also are apparent on the June, 2018 eBay silver badge. Note some slight slippage of the central tablet element from the mantle portion of this badge, evident at the lower right edge of the tablet. I do not know if this might suggest damage or a replacement tablet has been attached to this piece. However, the similarity of the calligraphy and details of the body of these three badges suggests all are representative of manufacturer of these badges I have not yet identified. Above is a moderate-resolution image of the central tablet of an unmarked silver court badge from a 19 November, 2015 auction by Spink & Son, archived on the saleroom.com website (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-gb/auction-catalogues/spink/catalogue-id-srspi10063/lot-63c1fc39-2c79-499c-af04-a53f010b14ed). The auction description does not identify any maker of this badge and no photo in the offering shows the reverse of this badge. The description only states that the badges is 115 mm x 85 mm, and made of silver-gilt and enamel. I have not previously illustrated the obverse of this badge. The calligraphy on this badge is very similar to that of the badge above from a 4 December, 2017 auction by Spink & Son (Lot 32) and the and the June 2018 eBay example, shown below. Note especially the unique configuration of the strokes of the uppermost siin. As noted above, the workmanship of the royal mantle element of this badge also appears identical to that on the Spink & Son Lot 32 piece. Several aspects of the calligraphy also are somewhat similar to that on the Mahmoud Saïd silver badge. This is a low-resolution cropped image of the central tablet of a badge was included by drclaw in the initial post of 9 May, 2011 starting a topic titled: “Egypt, Khedivate – Judge’s Badge of Office”, here in the “Middle East & Arab States” section of GMIC. An auction reference for this badge (auxiliary information, this is not about the badge drclaw bought or this is illustrated in the above low-resolution image) identified by drclaw in his gallery album description as: ”UBS Auction 80 (Tammann Collection, November 2008)”, which is the UBS auction catalogue for a 4-5 November, 2008 auction (titled: World Orders - Collection Tammann: Auction 80, published by UBS, Basel, Switzerland, in 2008). However, he notes his concern in that post about the authenticity of this badges as it was unmarked, unlike the 2008 UBS example that he states is marked Froment-Meurice and is in its original case. The initial post by drclaw was just after he had received a Mixed Court badge from Jorg at Sammler-Cabinett (Jörg Kalies). I linked to drclaw’s post illustrating and discussing this badge in my first post of on this thread. 17 November, 2016. It appears that the illustration drclaw included is of the unmarked badge from Sammler-Cabinett, not the UBS Auction 80 example. The photo that drclaw includes shows the same badge illustrated above in the higher resolution photo of the badge from the 19 November, 2015 auction by Spink & Son. The staining on the upper right and left lobes of the central tablet (as well as some tarnish stains around the star above the central tablet) are identical to that seen on the photo from the November, 2015 Spink & Son auction As noted above describing the calligraphy of the November 2015 Spink & Son listing of this same badge, the inscription calligraphy is the same as on the Lot 32 Spink & Son auction badge from the December, 2017 auction (shown above), and for the June 2018 eBay example (shown below). Cropped moderate-resolution image of the central tablet of a silver badge from a 6 June, 2018 eBay auction (https://www.ebay.ie/itm/263668261167; photos no longer available at the listing link). This badge is unmarked. There is no information about the badge that accompanied this listing. The auction description did not identify any maker and no manufacturer’s mark is visible on the image of the reverse included in the auction photos. No Egyptian silver hallmarks appear on the reverse either. Again, the script of the uppermost siin is uniquely configured on this example (and identical to the other 2 badges shown directly above). The calligraphy of the other two badges above (the badge from the November, 2015 auction by Spink & Son and the badge from the December, 2017 auction by Spink & Son, Lot 32) are essentially identical to this example (especially as seen on the badge from the 19 November, 2015 auction by Spink & Son), and bear some similarity to the Mahmoud Saïd silver badge. I have not previously illustrated the obverse or reverse of this badge here on this thread. High-resolution image of the central tablet on a silver example of a Mixed Courts badge from an 18 May, 2011 auction by Dix Noonan Webb, Lot 503 (https://www.dnw.co.uk/auction-archive/lot-archive/lot.php?department=Medals&lot_uid=199538). The auction listing provided no identification of the manufacturer of this badge and no photo of the reverse. However, this same badge was offered in a past eMedals auction, Item W0248, and that listing provides 3 images of the reverse of this badge (https://www.emedals.com/africa/egypt-judicial-badge-w0248). The eMedals photos show no maker’s mark and no Egyptian silver hallmarks on the reverse of this badge. This example has excellent workmanship on the mantle components that appear very similar to that of Froment-Meurice badges. The most obvious difference from Froment-Meurice design execution (there are several more subtle dissimilarities with Froment-Meurice and all other manufacturers described in my 6 July, 2020 on this thread) is shown in the above photo on this example’s mantle components are the slight projections on the inferior side of the oak and laurel branches just lateral of the binding with the suspended crescent & star inside the proximal ends of the 2 tughs. As noted in my post of 6 July, 2020 illustrating the obverse of this badge, this is the only example I have seen of any maker’s work that shows these 2 projections. Additionally, in comparing this badge with other examples I noticed some variation in the orientation of the central tugra (calligraphic monogram) on this piece and several others that I had not noticed before. On this Dix Noonan Webb badge, the Order of Medjidie element is rotated 180°, or slightly less, clockwise from the correct orientation, as seen on Froment-Meurice pieces. The three central vertical lines (tuğ) point downward in the example above and the looped eggs (beyze) that should be on the left are situated on the right. This tugra is essentially upside down, and may suggest a non-Arabic designer to have created this design element. Interestingly, all of the Stobbe-made Mixed court badges with high resolution photos showing the Order of Medjidie element also exhibit this inverted orientation of the tugra. I will post a note with illustrations about this design difference after I get this post completed. The calligraphy is quite different from that on both the Group 1 and Group 2 Froment-Meurice badges. The calligraphy matches best one of the Stobbe made pieces shown above (the unmarked Lundin Jewel & Antique badge from a June 2019 auction [Item No. 326604] that exhibits the nonparallel 5th alif stroke from the right of laam, indicative of a Stobbe-made tablet), also notably in the form of the diacritical marks. It also is similar to the calligraphy on the Horovitz silver badge shown above. However, most of the other lines are much thinner than those seen on the documented Stobbe pieces shown above and importantly there is no non-parallel vertical stroke 5th from the right. Uniquely, several of the vertical alif strokes show greater variation in the upper height compare with other inscriptions. The workmanship of the royal mantle element does not look like either Stobbe or Horovitz-made examples. Moderate-resolution cropped image of the central tablet from the same badge taken from an image archived as a past eMedals auction (unspecified pre-2017, the first time I saw this image), Item: W0248 (https://www.emedals.com/africa/egypt-judicial-badge-w0248). Marks and a scratch in the upper right quadrant very clearly show this is the same badge as illustrated in the Dix Noonan Webb Lot 503 auction listing for May 2011. I previously illustrated the obverse and the unmarked reverse of this badge as the 2nd and 3rd-to-last photos in my post of 24 March, 2017. High-resolution image of the most unusual form of the calligraphy in the motto inscription that I have encountered. This unmarked silver badge shown above comes from the collection in the Department of Coins and Medals of the British Museum (https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/C_2009-4007-754). The museum’s Registration number of this badge is: 2009,4007.754. Its Asset Number, for non-commercial research use, is: 748897001 (This image is copyrighted by The Trustees of the British Museum). I illustrated the obverse, reverse, and this same cropped image of the tablet calligraphy this silver badge in my post of 5 November, 2020 on this thread. Several of the diacritical marks are missing, differently inscribed, or have different placements compared with the normal configuration of this motto. There is no maker’s mark or other hallmarks on the reverse and the museum catalogue does not have any additional provenience data beyond the name of the donor and the date of the gift. Overall, the workmanship of the mantle element exhibits less relief and coarser execution than most of the Mixed Court badges. The workmanship of this piece is of fair quality in my subjective assessment: less detailed than Stobbe or Horovitz badges, and generally not as abbreviated as several parts of the Zivy Fréres & Cie, badge, but similar in the less detailed treatment of the overall design. There are several design and workmanship differences that I have described in my post of 5 November, 2020 on this thread. The tugra in the Order of Medjidie elements is correctly oriented. I have not encountered another example with this form of the calligraphic inscription and do not currently have an idea about the potential maker of this badge. The British Museum catalogue description formerly identified the “Producer name” (maker) for this badge as: “Jacques Charles Francois Marie Froment-Meurice", a jumbled combination of François Froment (Pierre Henri Émile Froment-Meurice's paternal grandfather) and Pierre-Jaques Meurice (François Froment's business partner and later the husband of Émile Froment-Meurice's paternal grandmother following François Froment's death in 1804). I wrote the registrar and the name has recently been corrected to: “Pierre Henri Émile Foment-Meurice”. I also pointed out that he was the original designer of this badge, but that the workmanship strongly indicates another manufacturer. However, those comments about workmanship are considered my personal subjective view, and are not included with the catalogue updates now associated with this badge. Odd non-official badges The following two examples exhibit workmanship and materials that indicate they were not actual judicial regalia but are some form of jewelry that use the design of the Mixed Courts' badges. The first illustration is of the tablet on a bronze piece that looks similar to a judicial badge, however the workmanship is far inferior to any actual badge. Additionally, no Mixed Court badge was made of bronze. The second piece shown below is clearly intended only as jewelry and bears only inspirational resemblance to the iconography of actual Mixed Court badges. Moderate -resolution photo of the central tablet of the odd bronze version inspired by actual judicial badges form that was offered in a June 2019 auction (Auction 16, Lot 289) by Lugundunum GmbH, and archived on the CoinArchives.com website (https://www.coinarchives.com/w/lotviewer.php?LotID=3972879&AucID=4100&Lot=289&Val=efc6a2fa2700e6a994f8217cb7d28a9c; this now links to a pay version of CoinArchive Pro that I am not subscribed to). This auction included a genuine silver Mixed Court badge made by Froment-Meurice. I previously illustrated the obverse and reverse of this unusual piece as the last 2 photos in my post of 14 August, 2019 on this thread. No manufacturer is identified on the reverse of this piece. There are notable differences in the placement and execution of several of the diacritical marks on this tablet compared to inscription on any of the obviously authentic Mixed Court badges. Close-up of good-resolution image of the central tablet calligraphy on a silver or bronze pin that is based on the design of the official judicial badge (from a December, 2018 auction by Bamfords Auctioneers & Valuers listing, Lot 3620A (https://auctions.bamfords-auctions.co.uk/catalogue/lot/1672cda7783734d000495e169152f06c/e4ebea155a08e205e5ea6a89010099d0/two-day-gentleman-s-library-stamps-grand-tour-curio-lot-3620a/), that also is archived on she saleroom.com website (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-gb/auction-catalogues/bamfords/catalogue-id-bamfor10553/lot-546dbbb8-f7b1-4f6a-a2ba-a9a0009cb8b5). This piece is clearly cast, but appears to have a Horovitz maker’s mark on the reverse. Interestingly, compared with the bronze copy of a Mixed Court badge from the 2019 Lugundunum auction piece shown above, the form of the calligraphy and diacritical marks on this tablet are consistent with those on actual court badges. As noted in my description of this pin in my post of 2 December, 2018 on this thread, most other elements of this piece are more stylized and incomplete interpretations of the design on real badges. That 2 December, 2018 post also includes high resolution images of the obverse and reverse (showing part of the Horovitz name and blurry resolution of the Egyptian silver hallmarks) of this pin. Badges of Court Officials in photographic portraits Few of the photos of judges or other officials of the Mixed Courts are detailed enough for good resolution of the form of the calligraphy on their badges. One exception is a cropped image from an eBay offering of a group of photos of Adib Makaad Bey, that I illustrated in my post of 6 September, 2019. A 1915 portrait of Adib Makaad Bey, a greffier of the Court of Appeals, mounted in a round mat (shown as the 14th photo in my post of 6 September, 2029 on this thread, with a close up of the badge as my 15th photo in that post) clearly shows the distinctive non-parallel 5th alif stroke from the right of laam on Adib Makaad’s badge, indicating that it was Stobbe-made. Two other portraits I have previously included on this thread also provide a small amount of detail so that an unidentified man in the second portrait below is shown wearing what is probably. Stobbe-made badge. The last portrait photo below only has enough detail to indicate that the Appeals Court official Mahmoud El Toayar Bey is not wearing a Stobbe-made badge. Cropped portion of the portrait of Adib Makaad Bey from 1 March, 1915, wearing tarboosh, stambouline coat, bicolored sash (green above red) and the silver Court insignia badge, identified as a portrait from the Appeals Court. Adib Makaad was likely the Greffier en Chef at this point, several photos of him with other officials of the Appeals Court show him centrally placed in those group photos in 1916 and in 1920 (also with his name in larger handwriting). The Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 anniversary volume published in 1926 identifies Adib Maakad as the Greffier en Chef du Tribunal d’Alexandrie. Portrait by an unspecified studio (other photos from this potential set were made by Photo Dorés Studio in Alexandria [Aziz & Dorés Studio], Alban Studio of Alexandria, Nadir Studio [of ?], and Racine Studio of Alexandria). This image came from a former eBay listing by shebacoin in 2019 (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-1915-Judge-With-medals/312613240155?hash=item48c9337d5b:g:H7QAAOSwOTZc3fR5; this link is no longer active). I previously included this and other photos of Adib Makaad in my post of 6 September, 2019 on this thread. The photo shows enough aspects of the inscription to identify this as a Stobbe made-badge. The non-parallel 5th alif stroke, from the right, of laam that is inclined forward one noktah is clearly visible, a feature I have only seen on the pieces made by Rudolf Stobbe. Other aspects of the calligraphy also match that seen on Stobbe’s pieces. Cropped close-up of a portrait of an unknown Mixed Court official wearing tarboosh, western style jacket (rather than stambouline), bicolored sash (green over red), and a silver Mixed Court badge. He also wears a 5th Class Knight Order of the Nile. This image can be zoomed slightly to see the detail I am describing for this badge. Although a lower-resolution image than the above photo of Adib Makaad Bey, the non-parallel 5th alif stroke from the right of laam with a forward slant is visible (especially apparent as a gap between the 4th & 5th alif strokes) indicating that he is wearing a Stobbe-made badge. This image comes from the New York University Abu Dhabi, Akkasah, Center for Photography’s Yasser Alwan Collection (AD.MC.002) online catalog (http://dlib.nyu.edu/findingaids/html/akkasah/ad_mc_002/ad_mc_002.html). This photo from the Yasser Alwan Collection is identified as: AD-MC-002_ref104, Box 1 Folder 10 (“An Egyptian official wearing a sash and medals”). The photographer and studio are unknown. I included the original image from which this is cropped as the 1st and 2nd photos in my post of 6 April, 2020 on this thread. Close-up cropped image of the badge worn by Mahmoud El Toayar Bey of the Appeals Court from an eBay auctions by shebacoin between ~October 2017-September 2018. El Toayar Bey wears tarboosh, stambouline coat, a green pleated sash, and a gold judicial badge in these portraits from the Jean Weinberg Studio in Cairo. I originally included illustrations of this judge without any identification of the subject of these 2 portraits, as the 4 photos of my post of 27 October, 2017 on this thread. I later made several comparisons with individuals shown in photos of the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 anniversary volume, and believe that I have identified this individual as Mahmoud El Toayar Bey (discussed in my post of 1 April, 2019). El Toayar Bey was promoted to the Court of Appeals in May, 1922. His role on the Appeals Court appears to have been as Conseiller (advisor) to the Court as reported in the The Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 anniversary volume published in 1926, possibly not as a judge. This photo can be zoomed for a bit more detail of the inscription on the badge. Although not high-enough resolution to identify the calligraphy with any certainly, it does show that this is not a Stobbe-made badge (it does not exhibit the slightly forward slanting 5th alif stroke from the right of laam).
  13. Owain, Congratulations on getting this mini & saving it from more auctions as an "Order of Ismail". Was it still suspended on a ribbon similar to Ismail? It seems you've found some info on the marks. Maybe this is redundant, but 925 is the silver fineness mark for sterling silver, 92.5% silver.
  14. A news story in Artnet News has several photographs of some of the artifacts discovered by a local history teacher doing home repair work following recent flood damage in a home in the city of Hagen. This story has been reported by several German and English language news services, but this article provides a few good images of some of the items, apparently associated with the home's use as the headquarters of the Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt. https://news.artnet.com/art-world/history-teacher-discovers-hidden-nazi-artifacts-1999220?utm_content=from_&utm_source=Sailthru&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=US News Morning 8/17/21&utm_term=US Daily Newsletter [MORNING]. I'm including some of the photos from this article below. The descriptions of each image are quoted directly from this Artnet News article, and credited to the Stadtarchiv Hagen. I hope this is an appropriate section to post this, and that the information is not too amateurish. I am not knowledgable about this area, but interested in such finds as an historical archaeology discovery. A local history teacher has discovered a secret cache of items belonging to the local office of the Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt, or NSV, a Nazi welfare agency, hidden behind a wall in his aunt's house. Photo courtesy of the Stadtarchiv Hagen. A gas mask belonging to the local office of the Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt, or NSV, a Nazi welfare agency. Photo courtesy of the Stadtarchiv Hagen. A revolver belonging to the local office of the Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt, or NSV, a Nazi welfare agency. Photo courtesy of the Stadtarchiv Hagen. A medal belonging to the local office of the Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt, or NSV, a Nazi welfare agency. Photo courtesy of the Stadtarchiv Hagen. Brass knuckles belonging to the local office of the Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt, or NSV, a Nazi welfare agency. Photo courtesy of the Stadtarchiv Hagen. A medal belonging to the local office of the Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt, or NSV, a Nazi welfare agency. Photo courtesy of the Stadtarchiv Hagen. An SA whistle belonging to the local office of the Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt, or NSV, a Nazi welfare agency. Photo courtesy of the Stadtarchiv Hagen.
  15. I am including below 2 high-resolution photos showing the obverse & reverse of the very rare original 1917 design US Department of State Special Agents' Division badge #12 taken by a professional photographer. These offer superior views of this badge and its design compared with my own less skilled efforts shown in a couple previous posts on this thread.
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