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Rusty Greaves

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About Rusty Greaves

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  1. Owain, Thanks for the inscription translations and including the additional Libyan photos. The only translation I came across was associated with flickr photostream of askamel (https://www.flickr.com/photos/askamel/2074544038/) showing a badge that is not specifically identified beyond the tag: "The Egyptian Parliamentary Star". Today I paid attention to the inscriptions on the central medallion, and realized that I had not done so in my previous post and made some errors in attribution of the badges. I have cheated and gone back to correct those in yesterday's post. The most problematic part of what I wrote yesterday, is that it now appears that the badges associated with the eMedals auction listing are a mix of the Chamber of Senators (neck badge and lapel badge) and the Chamber of Deputies (the sash badge). Of course, this leaves me unsure whether the unbordered sash in that auction grouping may represent the form for the Chamber of Deputies or the Chamber of Senators. Photo of the obverse of a neck badge or sash badge of the Egyptian Chamber of Deputies from askamel's flickr photostream. This image is copyrighted by askamel. Although not identified as to which House of Parliament this badge belongs, the inscription on the central medallion is that of the Chamber of Deputies. Askamel provides the following translations for this image: for the upper inscription line in the green enameled margin of the central medallion: "The Egyptian State" (the same as your translation); for the the white enameled central medallion: "The House of Representatives"; and for the lower inscription line in the green enameled margin of the central medallion: “All the Powers Come From the Nation”. Owain, I wonder if I can trouble you for comment on these translations and one for the central medallion inscription of the badges for the Chamber of Senators?
  2. Here are a few additional images of Kingdom of Egypt Parliament badges to complement the 1st post of Linasl and Owain's significant information about the insignia. The 1st set of images below are of another example of a neck badge with the associated ribbon. These images come from a past auction on The Orient Treasures website (https://www.theorienttreasures.com/shop-now/orders-medals-decorations/egypt-order-of-parliament-house-of-repesentatives-neck-badge-medal-nichan-rare). The only information in the auction description is that the diameter of the neck badge is 65 mm. All of these images from The Orient Treasures can be zoomed for some additional detail. Obverse of a neck badge of the Egyptian Chamber of Deputies (the Lower House of Parliament) from The Orient Treasures website. Hassan Kamel-Kelisi-Morali employs a different form of English spelling for this house of Parliament on his flicker photostream (see images below) as: Magles el Shoyoukh (just in case some form of that English spelling turns up in other info on this badge). Close-up view of the obverse of this same neck badge showing crazing and loss of some of the enamel (it almost appears to be peeling of the white enamel, especially in the upper left of the central inscribed medallion). Reverse of the same Chamber of Deputies neck badge showing the maker's hallmark in the center of the medallion's boss. Close-up view of the reverse of this same neck badge showing the maker's hallmark in greater detail. This image can be zoomed for better detail of this mark. Although the mark "LATTES" is most common on the J. Lattes-made medals of various Egyptian orders, this Arabic mark appears to be Lattes' hallmark in Arabic. I am basing this on the signature mark in the lower left of an original Lattes design for these badges that is shown as the 6th and 7th-to-last images in this post. His signature "Lattes" appears in the lower right of these same illustrations. This image of the reverse shows the placement of the 3 Egyptian hallmarks in the long central ray of the inferior set of 5 rays composing each of the 8 groups of rays (divided from each other by a small ray) that are the embellishment of the badge. The resolution of the image is too low to read the silver hallmarks on this example. However, the hallmarks on the eMedals example illustrated below can be identified. Above is an image of set of insignia for the Egyptian Parliament, from a past eMedals auction (Item: W1572; https://www.emedals.com/africa/egypt/an-egyptian-upper-house-of-parliamentary-set-w1572). This grouping is identified in the auction description as representing the "Upper House of Parliament", which should be the Chamber of Senators that Owain mentioned above. The auction group consists of a neck badge (without a ribbon), sash with crescent & stars pin, sash badge, and lapel pin. Unfortunately, it appears that this is a combined set of regalia from both the Chamber of Senators (the Upper House) and the Chamber of Deputies (the Lower House). I did not initially pay attention to the forms of the inscriptions on the central medallions of the badges, but they indicate that the neck badge and lapel badge are for the Chamber of Senators, while the sash badge is that of the Chamber of Deputies. The auction description provides listed dimensions, but they are not specifically identified for each component; given as 63 mm (sash badge?), 30 x 41 mm (lapel badge?), and 62 mm (neck badge?). The corrosion (rust?) of the crescent & stars pin suggests that it is not silver, as are the the neck badge, sash badge, and lapel badge. Note in relation to 3 portraits at the end of this post, that there is no contrasting-colored border of the above sash. The mixture of badges leaves me unclear whether the form of the sash (not having a colored border) is that of the Chamber of Deputies or the Chamber of Senators. All of these eMedals photos can be enlarged for additional details. Obverse of the neck badge from this auction group, that is an emblem of the Egyptian Chamber of Senators insignia, showing damage to some of the green enamel of the margin of the central medallion. Oblique view of the same eMedals Egyptian Chamber of Senators neck badge, showing well the textured background underneath the green enamel of the margin of the central medallion. Reverse of the same neck badge showing the lack of any maker's hallmark, but the position of the 3 Egyptian a silver assay hallmarks can be seen in the center of the most inferior rays of the embellishment. Oblique view of the reverse of this same Egyptian Chamber of Senators neck badge showing some construction details. Image of the same eMedals neck badge's reverse, rotated to show the 3 Egyptian silver assay hallmarks in their readable orientation. The first hallmark at the left is the silver purity assay mark of the Cairo office. Although not completely clear in this image (nor in the one below) this appears to indicate 900 silver. The central hallmark is the cat (form with the raised tail) indicating that this is Egyptian-made silver. This mark was used between 1916-1946 (although there are a couple exceptions, I documented one on a King Farouk I medal commemorating the closure of the Mixed Courts on 14 October, 1949 that employed the cat hallmark with a correct date hallmark for 1948-1949). The hallmark at the right is the date hallmark that appears to be an "E" rather than an "F"; "E" indicating marking at the assay office in 1930-1931. The photo of the set of hallmarks on the sash badge of this auction grouping (shown below) is of higher resolution and shows the marks a bit more clearly. That set of hallmarks also bears the "E" date hallmark, although the sash badge is that of the Chamber of Deputies, not the Chamber of Senators as is this neck badge. Obverse of the lapel badge of this same past eMedals auction grouping that also bears the inscription on the central medallion indicating it is an insignia of the Egyptian Chamber of Senators. Oblique view of the obverse of this same lapel badge. Reverse of the same eMedals Egyptian Chamber of Senators lapel badge showing the lack of any maker's marks or silver hallmarks. It appears to show attachments for a missing set of pin, hinge, and latch rather than what may be a simple clip on the example Owain illustrated above. Such a clip also seen in the Libyan examples illustrated by Owain in his post of 18 May, 2016 on the thread "Libya-unknown order and medal" started by James Hoard on 15 May, 2016, here in "the Middle East & Arab States" section (see link to that post below). Obverse image of the sash badge from this eMedals auction grouping that bears the inscription on the central medallion of the the Chamber of Deputies, not that of the Chamber of Senators regalia. This sash badge also exhibits a fair bit of damage to the green enamel. Oblique view of the obverse of the same sash badge of this eMedals set of Parliamentary insignia of the Chamber of Deputies. The damage to the enamel provides an opportunity to see the textured background of the margin to the central medallion. Does this technical feature reflect more light and "brighten" the enamel around the inscriptions? Photo of the reverse of the sash badge from the same eMedals set of the Chamber of Deputies regalia showng the maker's mark in the center of the boss and the position of the 3 Egytian silver assay hallmarks on the center of the most inferior ray of the embellishment. This example shows the same Arabic script Lattes manufacturer's hallmark and placement of the assay hallmarks as seen on the 1st example in this post from The Oriental Treasures website. Oblique view of the reverse of this same same sash badge. Rotated close-up view of the 3 Egyptian assay hallmarks on the same sash badge of the Chamber of Deputies. This image shows the "E" data hallmark (1930-1931) somewhat more clearly, but the silver purity hallmark (probably 900 silver) from the Cairo office is not much clearer than on the photo of the hallmark on the reverse of the neck badge (of the Chamber of Senators) from this set. An example of possible Egyptian Parliament Chamber of Deputies neck badge or sash badge, from the Gramho.com Instagram site (https://gramho.com/media/1930336425275049855). This example sports a crown suspension device attached to the suspension ring. I do not know if this may be a variant of the Egyptian Parliamentary insignia or an indication of a problem with this piece? Example of an Egyptian neck badge of the Chamber of Senators on the right and the very similarly designed Parliamentary insignia (Majlis al Nawab) in black enamel that Owain mentioned on the left. This photo is from the flickr photostream of Hassan Kamel-Kelisi-Morali (https://www.flickr.com/photos/kelisli/3048891899/in/photostream/), courtesy of Catherine Bichay, and is copyrighted by Hassan Kamel-Kelisi-Morali. Owain provided good illustrations of the Libyan insignia in the following link: Below are several undated images also from Hassan Kamel-Kelisi-Morali's flickr photostream showing original painted designs of the insignia for the Egyptian Parliament's Chamber of Deputies and the Chamber of Senators. These designs were created by J. Lattes. All of these images are courtesy of Catherine Bichay and are copyrighted by Hassan Kamel-Kelisi-Morali. Original painted design for the insignia of the Egyptian Chamber of Deputies by J. Lattes (https://www.flickr.com/photos/kelisli/3049733618/in/photostream/). Above is the design employed for the neck badge (and sash badge?) and below is the design for the lapel badge. Did the Chamber of Deputies also have a sash badge that is similar to their neck badge and the sash badge example shown above for the eMedals Chamber of Senators set? Note the inclusion of the Ottoman (Khedival) crescent & 3 stars attached to the superior portion of the rayed embellishment, a feature apparently never employed in the construction of these for use by members of the Egyptian Parliament. However, the eMedals sash shown above and the portrait photos below show that this Ottoman-derived symbol was employed as a separate insignia on the Parliamentary sashes. Close-up detail of the neck badge/sash badge design from the same illustration of the Egyptian Chamber of Deputies regalia by J. Lattes (https://www.flickr.com/photos/kelisli/3049733638/in/photostream/). Close-up detail of the lapel badge design for the Chamber of Deputies from the same J. Lattes design illustration (https://www.flickr.com/photos/kelisli/3049733656/in/photostream/). Illustration of the design for the Chamber of Senators insignia by J. Lattes (https://www.flickr.com/photos/kelisli/3048892191/in/photostream/). This shows the form of the neck badge and lapel badge that was adopted for the Chamber of Senators, as seen in the eMedals set illustrated above (without the crescent & 3 stars). Note the Arabic script name of Lattes in the lower left of this illustration that matches the marks on the reverse of the neck example from The Oriental Treasures and on the reverse of the eMedals sash badge that are shown above. Detail of the lapel badge from this same illustration by Lattes (https://www.flickr.com/photos/kelisli/3049734076/in/photostream/). Illustration of a different design version of the insignia of the Chamber of Senators by J. Lattes that includes the crescent & 3 stars addition, contrasting with the design shown the Chamber of Deputies illustration above, that was apparently never adopted for either House of Parliament (https://www.flickr.com/photos/kelisli/3048891967/in/photostream/). Detail close-up of the design for the Chamber of Senators badges from the same Lattes illustration (https://www.flickr.com/photos/kelisli/3049733852/in/photostream/). Below are 3 portraits from past eBay auctions of individuals wearing either the Egyptian Parliamentary insignia or that of Libya. The eBay seller who offered these specializes in Egyptian portrait photographs, but also sells material from other Middle Eastern countries. He identified all of these portraits as Egyptians (but mistakenly as judges). There are elements in the costume that make it difficult to be certain these are Egyptian members of Parliament (as the only sash I have been able to check is the eMedals example, and whether that is associated with the Chamber of Deputies as indicated by the attached sash badge or with the Chamber of Senators because of the "associated" neck badge and lapel badge in the set is unclear; and if Egyptian, these may be portraits of individuals in the Chamber of Deputies, based on the form of the lapel badges). Unlike the eMedals sash shown above with no border, all of the sashes worn in these portraits have borders of contrasting colors. All wear a lapel badge of the form that Owain illustrated above as that of the Chamber of Deputies, but none are wearing neck badges. Unfortunately the resolution of these portraits does not permit comparisons of the inscriptions on the badge to Egyptian and Libyan Parliamentary insignia. I discussed these portraits near the end of my post of 7 November, 2018 on the thread "Egyptian Khedival Judges Badge question" that I stated on 17 November, 2016 here in the "Middle East & Arab States" section, to correct the identifications I had previously mistakenly made by included their portraits in other posts as "judges". Studio portrait of an individual who may be a member of the Egyptian Parliament showing the sash with crescent & star pin, sash badge, and lapel badge. This could be a member of the Libyan Parliament, although the eBay source of this portrait identified it as that of an Egyptian, although mistakenly stated to be that of a judge. I contacted the seller and he changed part of the identification to a member of Parliament, as can be seen in the former link: https://www.ebay.com/itm/Armenian-photographer-in-Egypt-member-of-the-Egyptian-Upper-House-of-Parliament/273500928337 to this image own eBay. The form of the lapel badge is similar to that illustrated by Owain (and in the Lattes design illustrations) above for the Egyptian Chamber of Deputies, not the Egyptian Chamber of Senators.The dark border of the sash is not seen on the Parliamentary sash from the eMedals auction set above. Was there a different border for the sashes worn by the Chamber of Deputies compared with that of the Chamber of Senators? No neck badge is present. The photo above was identified as an 18 x 13 cm original print from Egypt, taken by an Armenian studio, K. Papazian in Cairo. I previously illustrated this portrait as the 6th photo in my post of 7 November, 2018 on the Mixed Courts of Egypt. Another image of an individual who may be a member of the Egyptian Chamber of Deputies, from the same eBay seller as for the individual portrait shown above (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-Judge-with-the-scarf-/273105393192?nordt=true&orig_cvip=true&rt=nc&_trksid=p2047675.m43663.l44720). This 14 x 9 cm original print was from a past eBay auction with the identification: "Egypt old vintage photo of judge with scarf". His sash has an identical dark border to that shown above, the crescent & 3 stars pin, and he wears the same form of lapel badge as shown in Owain's post above and in the Lattes designs identifying the Chamber of Deputies. He also is not wearing a neck badge. I included this image as the 4th photo in my post of 7 November, 2018. Another eBay photo of a man who may be a member of the Egyptian Parliament (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-Judge-With-a-medal-and-scarf/273500915471). I previously used this image as the 7th photo in my post of 7 November, 2018. His sash shows what appears to be a lighter border than the two portraits above (although it can be quite difficult to distinguish actual colors in black & white images depending on lighting, etc.), it also exhibits the same crescent & 3 stars pin. His lapel badge is the same form shown in Owain's post above and the Lattes design illustrations for the Chamber of Deputies. No neck badge is present. Unlike the 2 portraits above, this man wears a turban and gallibaya. This 22 x 15 cm original print was described as from Egypt, but no studio was identified. This portrait also was mistakenly identified by the eBay seller as that of an Egyptian judge (understandably, as judges of the Egyptian Indigenous Courts wore a sash with a crescent and 1-9 stars [and 3 was a common configuration], although some scrutiny is need to see that the form of that sash and the configuration of the crescent & stars is quite different than the pins in these portraits and the one shown attached to the emedals Parliamentary sash).
  3. Amidst the COVID-19 troubles to health and the global economy, scofflaws who think masks & other health measure infringe on their "personal freedoms" (especially here in the US), ethnic injustice, political selfishness, and global warming that fill the news, this is a piece of well-needed joyous celebration about an honour recognizing Capt Tom as a Knight Bachelor. This whole story has been a very moving demonstration of selflessness & personal duty (See, among others: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/07/17/captain-tom-moore-knighthood-sir-knighted-queen-ceremony/). Three cheers for Capt Sir Tom Moore! CREDIT: Chris Jackson CREDIT: Chris Jackson/Pool via Reuters
  4. Today's news of good citizenship & a knighthood to celebrate!
  5. Freiherr, I don't see an Order of Ismail breast star among General Sir Francis Reginald Wingate's awards. In my brief research on Wingate, I could not find that he had been awarded the Order of Ismail, unlike other later Governors General of the Sudan; Sir Geoffrey Francis Archer, Sir John Loader Maffey, and Lieutenant-Colonel Sir George Stewart Symes who were awarded the Grand Cordon of the Order of Ismail, as shown in my previous post of 25 Novemeber, 2019 on this thread. The only Egyptian honors that Wingate was awarded were the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Nile in 1915 and the Grand Cordon of the Order of Mohammed Ali in 1917 (noted in my post of 25 November, 2019), and he is shown wearing those breast stars in the 2nd photo you included above.
  6. In contrast with the breast stars, sash badges, and neck badges of the 1st Class Grand Cordon, the 2nd Class Grand Officer, and the 3rd Class Officer, there are many fewer internet images of the 4th Class Knight breast badges of the Order of Ismail to compare design variations. Even fewer of these photos are good-enough resolution for a somewhat detailed a comparison of potential variation in their execution. Additionally, all of the images I have encountered are either for J. Lattes made examples, or unspecified manufacturers, so no comparisons can be done between makers. None of the images I found online for the 4th Class badges of the Order of Ismail are as high resolution as at least some of those for the other classes of medals for this order, so it is not possible to make as thorough a comparison as I could for the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Class regalia in my previous posts of 31 January, 2020, 2 Feburary 2020, and 28 March, 2020 on this thread. Given these limitations, I want to outline what the design differences appear to be for the 4th Class badges as a group compared with the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Class regalia. I have not seen any examples with similarly anomalous engraving of the gold floral elements on the 5 blue & gold arms of the star as seen on the 1st Class and 2nd Class examples I have discussed at the beginning of my posts of 31 January, 2020, addressing variations in the breast stars of the Order of Ismail (1st & 2nd Classes), the brief discussion in my post of 2 February, 2020, and at the beginning of my presentation of the design variations seen in sash badges (1st Class) and neck badges (2nd and 3rd Classes) detailed in my post of 28 March, 2020, all on this thread. There is some slight variation in the engraving of the gold floral elements on the arms of the star of the 4th Class badges, but the most important variation compared to the other classes is the form of the gold and enamel wreath. Within the higher resolution photos of examples of the 4th Class breast badge, there are no differences in the overall design of the medal from other classes. The wreath does show differences in the number and placement of the gold fruit dots of the wreath surrounding the central medallion with the inscription “Ismail” that are not seen in the other classes. As seen on the sash badges, neck badges, and breast stars of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Classes of this award, there are some variations in the engraving on the gold floral designs of the gold and blue enamel arms of the star. These appear to be due to different skill levels of the engravers across the period when these medals were manufactured, rather than any intentional design changes to the Order of Ismail. In this post, I am only using the 8 “best” images of the Knight’s badge that I have found on the internet. They are posted in order of the quality of their resolution for showing aspects of the design of this badge. I have included most of these images in previous posts. None are as high-resolution as any of the examples I have used to illustrate the design norms and variation for the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Class regalia of the Order of Ismail. Above is one of the 2 best-quality images of a 4th Class Knight breast badge that I have been able to download from the internet. This photo is an enlarged and cropped version that comes from a 12 December, 2015 auction by Heritage Auctions (Lot 47429) that includes an image of Lattes name on the reverse of this Knight Class badge in its case and the J. Lattes name on the inside of the upper lid of the case, but is missing the suspension ribbon (https://historical.ha.com/itm/military-and-patriotic/foreign-wars/egyptian-order-of-ismail-by-lattes-of-cairo/a/6144-47429.s). No date is provided in the auction description, and the date hallmark on the suspension ring cannot be read due to the low resolution of the photo. I previously illustrated this same badge as the 1st photo in my post of 21 February, 2019 and an enlarged and cropped version as the 2nd photo of that post showing the suspension ring and crown suspension device in a discussion of the placement of Egyptian assay hallmarks. I also included the un-cropped version of this image as the 10th photo in my post of 19 October, 2019 on this thread, and the version shown above as the 11th image detailing cases for all 4 Classes of Order of Ismail awards in that post. This image can be zoomed for some slightly greater detail, although it is not a high-resolution image. The distribution of the gold fruit dots within the wreath that surrounds the central medallion’s gold border (probably intended to represent 2 laurel branches) of the inscribed central boss is different on the Lattes-made Knights’ chest badges than on all of the other forms of this design element on the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Class regalia. The lowermost panel of the wreath where the 2 branches of the wreath cross has 6 gold fruit dots on the Knight’s chest badge. This contrasts with the Lattes-made 1st Class sash badge that has 9 gold dots in this panel. There are only 2 images I have encountered of 1st Class breast stars unequivocally made by Lattes that are high enough resolution to compare the configuration of the wreath element to other classes of this regalia. Both of those do show identical number and distribution of the gold fruit dots within the wreath to each other. I included the eMedals image of a Grand Cordon breast star from a pre-2016 auction as the 7th photo in my post of 31 January, 2020 discussing variations in breast star designs (that post also indicates the other times I included that image and some additional information about that star). In an oversight, I neglected to include a high resolution image of a 1st Class breast star from an April 2018 La Galerie Numismatique auction of a cased set of sash, sash badge, and breast star made by Lattes that I included as the 7th photo in my post of 15 January, 2020 on this thread (I previously included a lower-resolution image of this star from the listing archived on the liveauctioneers.com website in my 22 February, 2019 post). Of those 2 photos, the eMedals example I did include in the 31 January, 2020 post shows the distribution most clearly. The other Grand Cordon breast stars I illustrated in that 31 January, 2020 post are the problematic Fritz Rudolf Künker example (1st photo) and the Tewfik Bichay example (8th photo) from a fall 2014 auction by Künker Münzauktionen un Goldhandel, both of which have contrasting configurations of the wreath’s gold fruit dots compared with Lattes examples. The 2nd Class breast star exhibits 7 fruit dots in this position (the lowermost panel in the 6:00 position) on the wreath. Moving clockwise around the panels of the wreath between the gold and red enamel ribbon bands around the wreath (centered on the 8:00 position), the above photo appears to show 11 gold fruit dots. Other images of Knights’ badges do not show these fruits as clearly, especially in this panel, so I am unsure if that is the correct count even for this example, no less the Knight badges as a group. There may be slight differences in the thickness of the green enamel on different examples, and on some badges portions of the leaf stems may extend close to or through the surface of that enamel making the number of fruits appear different (this can be seen in comparisons of the breast stars, sash badges, and neck badges shown in my previous posts of 31 January, 2 February, and 28 March, 2020 addressing design differences in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Classes of the Order of Ismail). The sash badge of the 1st Class and the neck badges of the 2nd and 3rd Classes show a maximum of 13 fruit dots in this panel (centered at 8:00), and some examples have one or more of the smaller dots submerged deeper in the green enamel. The Grand Cordon breast star exhibits 12 fruit dots in this panel, in a different configuration than the 2nd Class breast star, the sash and neck badges, and the Knight’s breast badge. The breast star of the 2nd Class has 13 fruit dots in this panel, distributed differently than in the sash badge or neck badges. The next panel clockwise (centered on the 11:00 position) appears to show 12 gold fruit dots on the 4th Class badge. The sash badge of the 1st Class and the neck badges of the 2nd and 3rd Classes show 13 fruit dots in this panel. The Grand Cordon breast star exhibits 12 gold dots in this location. The breast star of the 2nd Class also has 13 fruit dots in this position, distributed in a nearly identical configuration to the sash badge and neck badges, bit slightly differently than the 1st Class breast star. The next panel clockwise (centered on the 1:00 position) shows at least 11 gold fruit dots. The 1st Class sash badge and the neck badges of the 2nd and 3rd Classes show 13 fruit dots in this panel. The 1st Class breast star has 12 gold dots in this portion of the wreath, some differently positioned than on the 2nd Class star. The breast star of the 2nd class also has 13 fruit dots in this position, distributed very similarly to those on the sash badge and neck badges. The final panel centered at the 4:00 position shows 11 fruit dots on the 4th Class Lattes design. The other photos included here below that have reasonable detail visible for this panel on 4th Class chest badges seem to show 10 fruit dots in this panel. The 1st Class sash badge and the neck badges of the 2nd and 3rd Classes show 13 fruit dots in this panel. The Grand Cordon breast star exhibits 12 fruit dots in this panel, with different positions than those on the 2nd Class breast star. The 2nd Class breast star has 13 fruit dots in this position, and the breast star has a different distribution of the dots than the sash and neck badges. All examples of the 4th Class Knight breast badge show thinner gold borders of the 2 crossed ribbons with red enamel binding the wreath than seen on this element in the sash badges, neck badges, and breast stars of other classes. This is likely partly due to the smaller size of the 4th Class badge (~55 mm wide x 74-76 mm tall) compared to the other regalia (1st Class sash badge = ~62 mm wide x 80 mm tall; 1s Class breast star = ~80-82 mm in diameter; 2nd Class neck badge = ~62 mm wide x ~78-79 mm tall; 2nd Class breast star = 70 mm in diameter; 3rd Class neck badge = ~61-62 mm wide x 78-79 mm tall; see my post of 13 December, 2018 on this thread that briefly discusses measurement variations). The engraving on the gold floral decorations of the blue enamel arms on the Lattes 4th Class badges are generally similar to those detailed for the other Order of Ismail regalia in my previous posts discussing that variation. All the examples below show variations within examples that are consistent with that seen on the other Order of Ismail pieces. This engraving on the Heritage Auctions example above can be best seen in the arm in the 7:00 position (oriented lowermost in the photo) showing a single engraving mark at the most distal portion of the distal flower with 3 paired marks within the body of that most distal gold element. There are no lines within the 2 stems at the base of this distal flower, extending from the 2 central flowers, as seen on sash badges, neck badges, and breast stars of the other classes. This is probably simply due to the smaller size and much thinner width of this portion of the gold design. The 2 flowers in the middle of the gold floral design each show 3 lateral engraving line and a single distal mark oriented with the most medial, slightly longer petals. The stems of these flowers do exhibit engraved lines from their origin to the flowers. Like the sash badges and neck badges, that origin point is circular, not a lozenge-shape as seen on the 1st and 2nd Class breast stars. The engraving on the most proximal leaf elements, the teardrop-shaped ornamentation above their meeting point, and the two leaf elements sweeping downward from the 2 central flowers are executed similarly to those on other classes of the Order of Ismail emblems. A Lattes-made Knight’s breast badge (Item: EG137) from an October 2017 auction by eMedals (https://www.emedals.com/egypt-a-french-made-order-of-ismail-officer-by-lattes). Although this is a better-quality image than many photos available on the internet of the Knight’s breast badge, this is not as high resolution as the Heritage Auctions example shown above. It is a better resolution example than the other images I have included here (although the Spink example shown below can be viewed as a better quality image, I could not download a version of comparable quality). Photos in the eMedals auction listing of this badge show the Lattes maker’s mark on the reverse. The images that show the positions of the Egyptian silver hallmarks on the reverse of the rayed-embellishment are not high enough resolution to read. I previously included another illustration from the eMedals auction listing showing the full ribbon and rosette of this badge as the 4th photo of my post of 13 December, 2018. I posted an image of the reverse of this badge showing the Lattes maker’s mark and the position of the 3 Egyptian silver hallmarks (no gold hallmarks are visible in the photos on the eMedals listing) as the 18th photo in my post of 11 January, 2019 on this thread. I also included an oblique image of the reverse of this badge as the 19th illustration in that post and followed it with the oblique image of the obverse as the 20th photo (that photo is shown below). There is a slightly bent finial gold and blue enamel ball at the distal end of the star arm in the 5:00 position. The wreath design appears the same as that described above for the Heritage Auctions example, although the lower-resolution of the photo makes it difficult to confirm the number and placement of some of the smaller or more lateral gold fruit dots in the wreath. There appears to be some thinner green enamel along the medial margin of the panel centered on the 8:00 position (visible in the image below), but I cannot tell is this is due to thinner application, wear, or damage. There may some collateral damage to the lowermost of the gold and red enamel bands around the wreath at this location as well. A smaller area of thin enamel is apparent on the next panel clockwise (that centered at 11:00) as well, at the most superior portion just underneath the left portion of the superior gold and blue enamel star arm. There appears to be some overflow of red enamel on the ribbons binding the wreath at the 7:00 position, at the point where the gold and red enamel ribbon elements cross. This piece does show a couple differences in the engraving of the gold floral elements in the gold and blue enamel star arms. That engraving may be more visible in the following photograph showing the obverse in an oblique view. Oblique photo of the same eMedals 4th Class breast badge from the (Item: EG137) October 2017 auction. Both this image and that above of this same piece show that the distal flower has just 2 pairs of lateral engraving lines and the single most-distal engraved mark associated with the middle petal of this flower. As seen on the Heritage Auctions example, there are no engraved lines within the 2 stems at the inferior of this distal flower that meet the 2 central flowers. Both of the middle flowers exhibit 3 lateral engraved lines and the 2 “v-shaped” marks that outline their central petals. This form of engraving also is seen on some examples of sash badges and neck badges, as well as on a few 1st and 2nd Class breast stars and is described in my posts of 31 January and 28 March, 2020. The engraving of the other portions is similar to that described in the Heritage Auctions example above. This oblique image shows well how slight variations in the thickness of the green enamel of the wreath element can potentially make some of the smaller gold fruit dots less or more visible. Above is an example of a Knights breast badge from a past Spink Auction (Auction 19001, Lot 1179, https://spink.com/lot/19001001179). As noted above, the image I was able to download and include here is not as high-resolution as can viewed in the maximum enlargement possible on the Spink website’s archived listing. I previously illustrated this 4th Class example as the 3rd photo in my post of 1 November, 2019. The auction description states that the Lattes name is marked on the reverse of this badge. It also identifies the date hallmark as “K”, indicating an assay date of 1935-1935. There is damage to at least 3 areas on the central medallion boss with the calligraphic inscription “Ismail”. The wreath surrounding the central medallion is essentially identical to those discussed above, although some of the gold fruit dots are not as visible as on the eMedals example. There is no apparent overflow of red enamel in the gold and enamel bands around the wreath. Glare in the photo makes it impossible to determine if there are any irregularities in the green enamel of the wreath or in some of the red enamel of the bands. The engraving on the gold floral elements on the arms of the star shows a couple differences from the 2 examples above. At the most distal end of the terminal flower there are 2 engraved lines below the terminus of the central petal. This is best seen on the arm in the 5:00 position and on the superior arm in the 12:00 position. They may be forming a closed (or nearly closed) loop as seen on 1 neck badge I previously illustrated (the Lattes-made example from a Fritz Rudolf Künker auction of 4 October, 2014 [Auction 253, Lot 1513] that is identifies as a 3rd Class badge with a date hallmark of “A” =1925-1926, shown in 5th photo in my post of 28 March 2020), but on none of the breast stars I have seen in high enough resolution photos to examine. The distal flower has only 2 pairs of lateral engraved marks. Again, there are no lines engraved within the 2 stems extending from the inferior margin of this distal flower to where the 2 middle flower elements are. The 2 central flowers each have 2 lateral marks and a more abbreviated engraving of the “v-shaped” engraving of the central petals that do not extend to the most distal portion of the gold flowers’ definition. The other configuration and engraving of the floral elements are similar to those described above for the Heritage Auctions and eMedals examples. However, the most lateral engraving of the curled 2 basal leaf elements seem less expertly curved and flowing. Overall, the engraving on this piece appears less skilled than on the previous 2 badges illustrated here. The example above is a low-resolution image of a 4th Class breast badge from a past auction by La Galerie Numismatique, Auction XXIX, Lot 180 (https://www.coins-la-galerie-numismatique.com/auction-xxix/order-ismail). The auction description states there is a Lattes maker’s mark on the reverse, but there are no images, or information about date hallmarks. The color of this image is odd, which must be due to the film, lighting, and apparent tarnish on this piece. I previously included an illustration of this badge showing its ribbon and rosette as the 1st photo in my post of 7 December, 2017 (although the position of the Egyptian gold hallmarks are visible in that image they cannot be read) and the above image of just the badge as the 2nd photo in that post. There is some damage to the central inscribed medallion boss. The terminal finial ball on the lower right arm of the star (in the 5:00 position) is slightly bent. The gold is extremely discolored except on the floral design elements of the gold and blue enamel arms and some of the bordering gold of those arms. The gold of the suspension ring is anomalously bright compared to the rest of the piece. The image quality is not good for the wreath element, the green enamel appears odd, perhaps because of the metal’s discoloration of the medallion frames, the gold of the red enamel bands, and the gold fruit dots. I included this image here because the engraving of the floral designs on the star arms is somewhat visible. There is a single engraved mark at the most distal end of the terminal flower and 3 pairs of marks on each lateral side of that flower. There are no engraved marks within the 2 stems running from the inferior portion of this distal flower to the 2 central blossoms. The 2 middle flowers have 3 engraved lateral lines and a single engraved mark at the end of each, generally situated under the longest medial petal or between that one and the middle petal. The engraving of the other floral decorative elements is similar to that on the other 4th Class badges shown here. There appears to be a separation between the lowermost paired leaf elements and the vertical oval gold element. This connection is thin on all of these examples, and the Heritage Auctions piece in the first photo of this post may show a similar separation on the upper right star arm (in the 2:00 position). The engraving marks in the flowers of this piece appear shorter than on the other examples shown here, looking more like punches rather than lines. However, the low-resolution of this image makes it unclear if that is a reasonable assessment of the craftsmanship. A low resolution illustration of a Knight's breast badge from a 4 October, 2014 auction by Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG, Auction 253, Lot 1514 that is archived on the acsearch.info website (https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=2146042). The auction description states this has a Lattes maker’s mark on the reverse and that it bears a date hallmark of “Y”, which would indicate an assay date of 1923-1924. I previously illustrated this badge as the 3rd photo in my post of 31 October, 2018. The photo suffers from overexposure, and possibly computer manipulation of the image. It exhibits the same configuration of the wreath element as described above for the other pieces, although the resolution of the image is problematic. The engraving of the gold floral elements on the star arms is not clear in this image. However, they do show that the terminal flower has a single engraved line accenting the central petal and just 2 pairs of lateral engraved marks. The middle flowers each have 3 lateral engraved lines and appear to have a single engraved mark in the central petal or between the central and most medial petal of each flower. There may be a “v-shaped” mark in these flowers, but the resolution of the image is too poor to be certain. What is visible of the other engraving seems consistent with the other examples shown here. A low–resolution image of a Knight’s breast star from an illustration in a forum page of I Nostri Avi, an Italian website focused on chivalric orders and genealogical information. This photo may originally have derived from past auction listings of Liverpool Medals or Medal Medaille websites (http://iagiforum.info/viewtopic.php?f=21&t=10120&start=0). Photos in this forum posting show the Lattes maker’s mark on the reverse, but the resolution does not permit reading the date hallmark. I previously included this illustration as the 1st photo in my post of 12 September, 2018 and the image of the reverse showing the Lattes mark as the 2nd image in that post on this thread. Although the detail in this image is poor, it generally confirms the design pattern of these 4th Class Lattes pieces. I cannot tell if the most distal flowers on the star arms exhibit 2 or 3 pairs of engraved marks, but 2 may be likely. It is impossible to see whether the distal engraved mark is a single line or a loop. The middle flowers appear to have 3 engraved lateral marks, but I cannot see the form of the mark(s) at the distal end of those flowers (1 line or a “v-shaped" petal outline). Low–resolution image of a 4th Class Knight breast badge from a 6 December, 2015 auction by Thies Militaria Auctions, LLC. (Lot 269) archived on the Invaluable.com website (https://www.invaluable.com/auction-lot/egypt-order-of-ismail-knight-s-badge-269-c-2744c6ab2c). The listing shows a photo the Lattes maker’s mark on the reverse of this badge. A photo of the 3 Egyptian gold hallmarks on the reverse shows the “D” assay date hallmark, indicating 1929-1930. I previously included this image as the 1st photo in my post of 15 January, 2020 on this thread, the Lattes mark as the 2nd photo, and the Egyptian gold hallmarks as the 3rd photo of that post. Although not a high quality image, this is better than many other internet images of he 4th Class badge and is the last I will include with this post. The wreath in this image shows no anomalies compared with the other examples illustrated in today’s post. I cannot discern with any certainty the forms of the engraving on the gold floral elements of the star arms. It looks likely that the most distal flower has a single terminal line and 3 pairs of engraved marks. The middle flowers may have 3 lateral engraved marks, but it is even more unclear if the distal ends of those have a single mark or a “v-shaped” outline of the central petal.
  7. Adding to the information on this thread about various manufacturers of the Mixed Courts badges, and some peripheral associations with these tribunals, I have found an example of a business card for the individual from the well-known Bichay family who designed and executed a 1949 medal issued to commemorate the closure of the Mixed Courts, Sadek Tefik Bichay. He designed and cast the King Farouk I medal issued on the date of the closure of the Mixed Courts, October 14, 1949. I have previously illustrated the silver and a bronze versions of these medals in my posts of 3 May, 2018. The reverse of the commemorative medal bears the signature initials “S.T.B.” that annab (daughter of Fahmy Tewfik Bichay) identified in her post of 3 June, 2018 on this thread as the initials of Sadek Tewfik Bichay, the brother of Fahmy Tewfik Bichay. She stated that her father did not produce any (or possibly only very few) coins, but that Sadek Tewfik Bichay did mint coins. In my posts of 17 October, 2018 on this thread I presented an image of the commemorative stamp issued on 14 October, 1949 to mark the closure of these International Tribunals (2nd photo). In that post, I identified the design on the reverse of this commemorative medal (that I illustrated as the 1st photo in that post of 17 October) as derived from the commemorative stamp. I also posted 2 different designs of first day cover envelopes issued to commemorate the closure of the Mixed Courts. On October 25, 2018 I illustrated 2 additional examples (one with a unique first day cover design stamped on the envelope) of first day cover envelopes for this event, and on 14 November, 2018 I illustrated another example of a different first day cover envelope design. The silver version of the King Farouk I medal commemorating the closure of the Mixed Courts on 14 October, 1949. This image comes from an 18 May, 2018 action by Stephen Album Rare Coins archived on the icollector.com Online Collectibles Auctions website (http://www.icollector.com/EGYPT-Farouk-1936-1952-AR-medal-32-27g-1949-EF_i29825948) and on the sixbid.com website (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=4785&category=141394&lot=3944922). The obverse (L) is a portrait of King Farouk I. The Arabic inscription on the lower right underneath the bust of Farouk is that of Sadek Tewfik Bichay. The reverse design (R) is derived from the commemorative stamp issued on the that of the Mixed Courts closure. The initials "S.T.B." on the lower right margin is that of Sadek Tewfik Bichay. I previously included this illustration as the 1st image in my post of 3 May, 2018 and as the last image in my post of 28 February, 2018 on this thread. Both of those posts have some additional information about this medal. Card of Sadek Tewfik Bichaï in an envelope (see below), from an eBay auction of May 2020 (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-Letter-Head-Card-Advertising-Tewfik-Bichai-Medals-Decorations-Badges-/274147344245). This illustration shows just the card with the English spelling of his surname as "BICHAÏ". It identifies his address as 2 rue Chérif Pacha, which is the same street where manufacturers of the Mixed Courts badges Rudolf Stobbe, Wolf Horovitz, Zivy Frére & Cie. and Laurencin & Cie. were located in Alexandria. Image from the same eBay offering showing the Sadek Tewfik Bichaï card against the reverse of an envelope with a return address marking with the more common spelling of the last name “SADEK T. BICHAY”. Front of the same envelope as shown in the previous photo from the same eBay listing. The eBay auction description identifies an approximate date of 1954 for this card. I cannot see any year date on the postmark on the envelope. However, this form of an agriculture design postal stamp was issued in a 2 mill version (printed in purple or brown), a 3 mill (printed in blue), and this 4 mill versions in green that all were issued on 23 January, 1953.
  8. I recently encountered a high-resolution image of an unmarked Mixed Courts silver badge with a couple of unique design executions. This is the same badge as I illustrated as the 7th image of my post of 24 March, 2017. I did not attribute the source of that lower-resolution image at the time, but it was from an archived past eMedals auction listing, Item W0248. Other than the dimensions, (118 x 88 mm), there was no significant information in that eMedals listing (https://www.emedals.com/africa/egypt-judicial-badge-w0248). I did not notice the couple of relatively minor design differences in that image until finding this higher resolution photo. High-resolution image of a Mixed Court silver judicial badge from an archived auction listing from the Bill and Angela Strong Medal Collection auctioned by Dix Noonan Webb on 18 May, 2011 (Lot 503; https://www.dnw.co.uk/auction-archive/lot-archive/lot.php?department=Medals&lot_uid=199538). This photo can be zoomed for additional detail of the design and execution of this badge. This 2011 listing also has no information beyond the dimensions, also given as 118 X 88 mm. There is no information about the manufacturer, and no photo of the reverse is provided. The past eMedals listing of this same badge does include 3 images of the reverse. No maker’s marks nor Egyptian (or other) silver hallmarks are present on the reverse of this badge. All aspects of the Dix Noonan Webb image of this badge are identical to the eMedals listing, including scratches on the central tablet with the enameled inscription. The workmanship of this badge is very good, and I initially thought it likely it was a Froment-Meurice manufactured badge (or possible Stobbe). However, a couple of distinctly different design elements are present that do not appear on any Froment-Meurice pieces where the manufacturer’s name is present on the reverse, where it is associated with a case labeled with the name of Froment-Meurice, or other badges that lack the Froment-Meurice maker’s mark (apparently not uncommon) but have reasonable probability to be the work of that atelier. In comparison with internet images of other Mixed Court badges, these anomalous design components also are not seen on any with secure attributions to other makers (Stobbe, Horovitz, Laurencin & Co., or Zivy Frère). I also have not seen any of these unique, though minor, design variations in any other internet images of Mixed Court badges without any makers’ attributions. The most obvious design difference of this Dix Noonan Webb silver Mixed Courts badge is the presence of 2 small relief elements on the inferior margin of each of the crossed branches of oak (left) and laurel (right). This is shown above in the detail of the inferior portion of this badge. The portion of each branch just lateral of the loop binding them with the symbol of the Ottoman Order of Medjidie, just inside the 2 proximal ends of the staffs of the tughs emerging from the inferior margin of the central inscribed tablet are not present on any other examples I have seen of the Mixed Court badges of any court (gold for the Appeals Court; gold & silver for the District Courts; and silver for the Parquet that also were used by several different court officials who were not judges). As noted, the workmanship is excellent on this piece, and otherwise strongly resembles that of Froment-Meurice badges. It also resembles the craftsmanship of the Stobbe Mixed Court badges, which I find the 2ndmost carefully made of these regalia. However, it appear that the detail is more closely similar to Froment-Meurice than Stobbe pieces. I do not know whether this could be an unusual casting of the badge by Froment-Meurice, or the manufacture of another jeweler with equivalent skill and careful production. Another apparent design difference, although more subtle, appears to be slightly different folds in the corners of the mantle tied with the tasseled cords. The bunched corner of the right & left sides of the mantle both look more like the folds seen in the 2 Stobbe examples I have included below than the Froment-Meurice examples. The details of the tassels (this is especially apparent on the detail of the upper portion of the tassle above the fringe) more closely resemble the workmanship of Froment-Meurice than of Stobbe. Note that the position of the rays of the basal embellishment relative to the more central elements of the design can vary even within single manufacturers. This can be readily seen in comparing the position of longer, shorter, and more angled rays in relation to the tassels tying the corners of the mantles of several of the examples shown below in the high-resolution photos of the Froment Meurice or Stobbe-made badges. The lozenges and dots on the headband of the crown are much thinner, smaller, and slightly more uneven than on the Froment-Meurice examples or the Stobbe pieces. This decorative headband border also is less regular than on the one Horovitz example I have encountered. Overall, the workmanship on most other elements, such as the leaves of the branches, the interior modeling of the fur of the mantle, and the ermine tails are very similar to the Froment-Meurice pieces. The fringe on the mantle is very lively, and appears identical in many aspects of the slightly irregular spacing of individual fringe elements, especially compared with the photo of the Heritage Auctions example. The Stobbe, examples are more even, lacking the feel of liveliness that the slight irregularities in the Froment-Meurice pieces show. The photo of the one Laurencin & Cie. example I have found may not be high enough resolution to show this, but it also appears quite even which does not convey the feeling of movement that the Froment-Meurice pieces do. As I noted in my post of24 April, 2019 on this thread, the Zivy Frère example exhibits the least-skilled workmanship of any example I have seen of these Mixed Court badges. These differences made me realize that while I did provide comparative images of makers’ marks on the reverse of some of these badges in my post of 28 February, 2019, I have not systematically illustrated most of the obverse designs for badges with secure attributions for comparative viewing. Below, I include the highest-resolution images of the obverse of badges with secure (or reasonably secure) attributions to these different manufacturers for comparison with the unattributed Dix Noonan Webb illustration above. I have grouped images of these other Mixed Court badges below by manufacturers for comparison of slight design differences and the craftsmanship of their execution. Please refer to the posts where I previously included some of these photos where I have discussed them for any additional information available about these particular Mixed Court badges. Émile Froment- Meurice, Paris: Above is the Froment-Meurice manufactured District Court badge that is identified as having belonged to Joseph Timmermans. This photo can be zoomed for greater detail. I initially included this very high-resolution image as the 1st photo of my post of October 31, 2018. This photo comes from a Jean Elsen & ses Fils S.A. auction of 13 Sept, 2014 archived on acsearch.info (https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=3990624). Although there is no photo of the reverse of this badge, the workmanship is consistent with other Froment-Meurice pieces and the attirbuion to this maker in the auction description seems reliable. I also illustrated this badge as the 10th photo of my post of 18 April, 2019 discussing Joseph Timmemans career with the Mixed Courts. Above is a very high-resolution excellent image of a silver Mixed Courts badge that was made by Froment-Meurice. This photo can be zoomed for good detail of the Maison Froment-Meurice design and workmanship. This illustration comes from a Heritage world Coin Auction of 15-16 January, 2019, Lot #6093, that is archived on the NumisBids, LLC. website (https://www.numisbids.com/n.php?p=lot&sid=2946&lot=36093). This photo can be zoomed for good detail of the Maison Froment-Meurice design and workmanship. The auction listing shows a photo of the reverse with the clear maker’s mark of Froment-Meurice, although the auction description incorrectly states it was made by Stobbe. I illustrated both the obverse and reverse photos of this badge in my post of 14 January, 2019 on this thread. I included an image of the reverse of this badge as the 8th photo in my post of 28 February, 2019 discussing Egyptian hallmarks and manufacturer’s hallmarks on the Mixed Courts’ badges. The auction listing shows a photo of the reverse with the clear maker’s mark of Froment-Meurice, although the auction description incorrectly states it was made by Stobbe. The high-resolution image of the silver Mixed Courts badge attributed to Herbert A. Hills. I have illustrated this badge several times on this thread. Initially I included this image as the 1st illustration in my post of 24 March, 2017. I first illustrated the reverse with the note about it belonging to Judge Herbert Hills as the only photo in my post of 7 November 2017. In my post of 3 December, 2018 I used an enlarged & cropped portion of the inferior margin of the obverse of this badge as the 6th photo and the complete obverse view as the 8th image in a discussion of the iconography of the Mixed Courts badge. I included this image and one of the reverse as the 1st and 2nd photos in my discussion of Herbert Hitless career on 18 April, 2019. I included an enlarged cropped detail of the inferior portion of this badge as the 3rd photo of my post of 24 April, 2019 for comparison with the design of the Zivy Frère example. This image comes from a Dreweatts Bloomsbury Auctions listing for a June 2015 auction, Lot 175 (http://www.dreweatts.com/auctions/lot-details/?saleId=13863&lotId=175), that is no longer available, but is archived on the acsearch.info weboste (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-gb/auction-catalogues/dreweatts/catalogue-id-drewea10199/lot-d2a1fe08-3bbf-4c29-a53d-a4aa00a27910).). The auction description only states that this badge was designed by Froment-Meurice. The handwritten note attached to the reverse covers any potential Froment-Meurice maker’s mark, but the workmanship makes that attribution most probable. This photo can be zoomed for additional design details. A high-resolution image of a Froment-Meurice manufactured silver Mixed Courts badge form a 19 June, 2019 auction by Lugdunum GmbH, Auction 16, Lot 288, that is archived on the CoinArchives.Com website (https://www.coinarchives.com/w/lotviewer.php?LotID=3972878&AucID=4100&Lot=288&Val=f97e5c722c28c73add7c029f374c845e). The reverse of this badge is marked with the Froment-Meurice diamond-shaped maker’s mark in addition to the name Froment-Meurice. I previously illustrated the obverse and reverse of this badge as the 1st and 2nd photos in my post of 14 August, 2019. This photo can be zoomed for additional design details. Another good resolution images of the obverse of Mixed Court badge that probably was made by Foment-Meurice. This badges is one I illustrated on 6 December, 2017 on this thread and comes from a Spink & Son auction of 4 December, 2017 that is archived on the saleroom.com website (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-us/auction-catalogues/spink/catalogue-id-srspi10156/lot-63685e70-7557-48b1-aabf-a83200b99d8c). This high-resolution image shows what appears to be a gold and silver District Court judge’s badge. The auction description does not identify the maker of this badge (it claims that a pawnbroker’s mark is present on the reverse). This photo can be zoomed for additional design details. Rudolf Stobbe, Alexandria: A gold and silver District Court badge from the Mixed Courts of Egypt. This image has appeared on many internet sites, and I have included it in several postings on this thread discussing aspects of these badges. This badge was made by Rudolf Stobbe, and the reverse shows the Stobbe manufactureers’ mark. One thing I have not previously noted about this badge is that the central tablet is either loose or has slipped out of position towards the left (note the gap between the rays form the star and the left superior lobe of the tablet to see the offset). This image comes from a Baldwin’s auction listing of 10 December, 2014 (Lot 844) that is archived on the saleroom.com website (A gold and silver District Court badge from the Mixed Courts of Egypt. This image has appeared on many internet sites, and I have included it in several postings on this thread discussing aspects of these badges. This badge was made by Rudolf Stobbe, and the reverse shows the Stobbe manufacturers’ mark. One thing I have not previously noted about this badge is that the central tablet is either loose or has slipped out of position towards the left (note the gap between the rays form the star and the left superior lobe of the tablet to see the offset). This image comes from a Baldwin’s auction listing of 10 December, 2014 (Lot 844) that is archived on the saleroom.com website (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-gb/auction-catalogues/baldwins/catalogue-id-srbal10006/lot-895754ae-9b9f-4f06-9d11-a3fe00ab0fe1).). The listing includes a photo of the reverse with the Stobbe maker’s mark, and the description correctly identifies the maker as Stobbe. I have previously illustrated the obverse and reverse of this badge as the 1st photo in my initial post on this thread on 17 November, 2016 (without the source information). I included that same image as the 6th photo in my post of 24 March, 2017, incorrectly stating it was an Appeals Court badge. On 4 April, 2017, I included this photo again to correct that error, identifying it as a District Court judge’s badge. High-resolution image of a silver Mixed Courts badge made by Stobbe. This image comes from a 15 May, 2018 auction by Fritz Rudolf Künker Gmb & Co., 2018 auction, archived on acsearch.info webiste (https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=4974323). I previously included the auction listing photo of the obverse and reverse of this badge as the 2nd photo, in my post of October 31, 2018 on this thread. I included an image of the reverse of this badge showing the Stobbe maker’s mark as the 16th photo of my post of 28 February, 2019 on this thread. I also included an enlarged and cropped version of the image of the Stobbe mark on the reverse of this badge as the 2nd photo in my post of 24 September, 2018. Wolf Horovitz, Alexandria: I have only encountered 2 images of Horovitz-made Mixed Courts badges. The one of a gold Appeals Court badge (the only example I have found pictures of that is an Appeals Court gold badge) is too low a resolution for inclusion here to compare design differences with the DNW badge in the 1st photo of this post. The other silver Horovitz badge, shown above, is from a past eBay auction (https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=4974323) of a cased badge. I previously illustrated the obverse of this badge as the 1st photo in my post of 1 December, 2018. The reverse showing the Horovitz maker’s mark is shown in the 2nd and especially the enlarged and cropped 6th photo of that post, and in the 18th – 21st photos and the 23rd photo of my post of 28 February, 2019 on this thread. The 22nd photo in the post of 28 February, 2019 shows the 3 Egyptian hallmarks on the reverse of this piece, the 23rd photo also shows the 2 Egyptian hallmarks on the tunic pin of this badge, and the 24th picture illustrates the W. Horovitz name and address inside the upper case lid. My post of 1, December, 2018 also shows the badge in its case (3rd photo), the case lid with the W. Horovitz name (4th photo), the medal bed of the case (5th photo), and an enlarged and cropped view of the inscribed tablet as the 7th photo in that post. I noted in the 1 December, 2018 post that the Horovitz badge exhibits less detailed workmanship than the Froment-Meurice or Stobbe Mixed Court badges. This photo can be zoomed for additional design details. M. Laurencin & Cie. Alexandria: The above low-resolution image is the only example I have encountered attributed to Laurencin & Cie. of Alexandria. This image comes from a November 2012 auction by La Galerie Numismatique (Lot 323), archived on the Sixbid.com website (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=515&category=11656&lot=539484). I included this image as the 3rd-to-last photo in my post of 28 February, 2019 on this thread. The attribution comes only from the auction description that the case is marked “M. Laurencin & Cie, Alexandrie, Egypte”, no image of the name Laurencin & Cie. on the case is shown, nor is there an image of the reverse of this badge. The name Laurencin & Cie. has only appeared in my research as an agent of the jeweler Leon Kramer of Cairo, as shown in the L. Kramer advertisement I included as the 3rdillustration in my post of 8 December, 2019. The lack of detail in this image makes it difficult to assess the workmanship of this example. Zivy Frère & Cie., Alexandria: Obverse of a silver badge made by Zivy Frère of Alexandria. This moderate-resolution image is the only example I have found pictures of by this jeweler. It comes from an auction by Heritage Auctions (Lot 74177) of 24 April, 2019 (https://fineart.ha.com/itm/silver-smalls/an-egyptian-silver-magistrate-s-badge-from-the-reign-of-abbas-ii-egypt-circa-1900marks-unidentified-cipher-zivy-fr/a/5403-74177.s), that also is archived on the liveauctioneers.com website (https://www.liveauctioneers.com/item/70835139_74177-an-egyptian-silver-magistrate-s-badge-from-the-r). I included this image of the obverse as the 1st photo in my post of 24 April, 2019 on this thread. That post also includes images of the maker’s mark on the reverse of the badge as the 4th - 6th photos. The 2nd photo of my 24 April, 2019 post also shows an enlarged and cropped image of the inferior position of the badge, detailing the lower craftsmanship in the execution of the mantle interior and ermine tails, as well as the leaves of the 2 crossed branches. I especially included that enlarged view to illustrate the unusual omission of the crescent and star design element above the Order of Medjidie symbol (I included an enlarged and cropped version of the Herbert Hills badge to illustrate this difference. That post discusses several other design aspects of this badge that I feel are less expertly crafted than the Mixed Courts badges by other manufacturers.
  9. I recently came across the image below of an individual wearing a bi-colored court sash with the crescent and single star pin of the Indigenous Court. This particular portrait is interesting as it combines what appears to be an Egyptian Royal Guard uniform with the Indigenous Court insignia of sash and crescent & star. In my discussion of the 1920 portrait image I re-posted recently as the 18th photo of my post of 6 April, 2020, I felt that this combination of sash, crescent and star with was and uniform likely a studio vanity shot, and the Court regalia would probably not have been combined with the guard’s uniform. That portrait and the one below may suggest that some guards associated with the Indigenous Courts may also have worn the sash, crescent, and star as part of their official costume. In reviewing the few photos showing the guards of the Mixed Courts and the Indigenous Courts, I have found some interesting variations that suggest most of the guards associated with the courts did not wear such regalia. I do not yet know why the individual shown below (and in the 18th photo of my post of 6 April, 2020 in a different style of military uniform) would have combined wearing the sash with Ottoman emblems with the plastron fronted uniform of the Royal Guard. I know very little about Royal Guard uniforms. I know that Egyptian Zogist does have such an interest, and several GMIC contributors added images to his thread “Kingdom of Egypt (1922-1953)” started on 30 October, 2015 here in the Middle East & Arab States section. There are a few images of Royal Guards that exhibit the same form of sleeve decoration as seen on the uniform of the individual in the portrait shown below combining this uniform with the court sash a with crescent & star insignia. There is some variation on the number lines of metallic thread (gold?) decoration of the lower sleeve in some photographs. I wonder if someone here on GMIC can clarify the different distinctions in these uniforms (an the proper terminologies than how I will mangle them in my descriptions below)? ChrisW contributed a good portrait of a Royal Guard with this same form of sleeve decoration on a differently configured uniform that has 2 lines of metallic thread decorations in his post of 13 January, 2016 on the “Kingdom of Egypt (1922-1953)” thread. The 1st4 photos that I posted in that thread on 13 September, 2018 show the same uniform on 3 individuals. The man in the center of that image has three sleeve stripes and each of the men flanking him have 2. The 5thand 6thphotos of that post show a group of Royal Guards in the front left foreground wearing this same uniform, with some additional variation in the form of the metallic thread sleeve decorations, visible only on 4 of the men in the front row. The sleeves of the man at the far right of the front row appear to show 2 lines of metallic thread, as does the uniform of the man at the far left of the front row as does the man on the far left. On both of these individuals, there also appears to be a darker accent line on the interior portion of the proximal inverted heart-shaped metallic thread ornamentation (executed in a single line of metallic thread) that is not present in the portrait on ChrisW’s post. The man second from the right has 2 lines of metallic thread and no darker accent to the interior of that most proximal heart-shaped element. The 2 men in the middle front row of my 13 September, 2018 post have the addition of 2 loops distal to a more ovate form to the most proximal sleeve ornamentation. The man in the center with the elegantly upturned moustaches has three lines of metallic thread embroidering the most distal sleeve decorations, the 2 loops and the proximal ovate element. The man 2ndfrom the left has 2 metallic lines (two even more elaborated forms of this form of sleeve decoration are shown in the 5thphoto of my post of 29 August, 2019 and in the photo of my 4 September, 2019 post on the thread “Question about the Order of Ismail/Nishan al-Ismail” that I stated on 17 November, 2017 in this Middle East & Arab States section). The sleeves of one man in a darker uniform whose cuffs are visible at the right of the 5th& 6thphotos posted on September 13, 2019 on the “Kingdom of Egypt (1922-1953)” thread (with other guards in the same darker uniform, as are some men behind the guards in the lower left in lighter colored dress) exhibit a single metallic thread line and the inverted heart-shaped proximal design element. This same form of uniform also is shown in the 1stphotograph of my post of 2 April 2019 in the thread “Question about the Order of Ismail/Nisha al-Ismail” that I stated on 17 November, 2017 in this Middle East & Arab States section on the man saluting Queen Farida on her visit to the National Library. Portrait photo of an individual that combines a bi-colored sash, crescent and star pin of the either the Mixed International Courts or the Indigenous Egyptian Courts with a Royal Guard uniform and dress sword. The upper imageis the full photo with some of the matt and the 2nd is a cropped enlargement. From a current eBay auction (https://www.ebay.com/itm/Armenian-photographer-in-EGYPT-Officer-with-sword-and-scarf-PHOTO-NADIR-ALEX/313075403095?hash=item48e4bf8957:g:6E8AAOSwvNpetCiZ). This is a 23 x 19 cm matted print from the Studio Nadir of Alexandria. This photo, and the image I posted of the man with a white uniform and the bi-colored sash with crescent and single star pins are the only images I have seen that combine a military uniform with a bi-colored sash and the crescent and star insignia of the Indigenous Courts. Cropped detail of the sword and uniform coat cuff decorations of the guard wearing the sash with the crescent and star pin shown in the above 2 photos. Although I have come across several photographs of the Mixed Courts and Indigenous Courts personnel that include uniformed guards apparently serving the court (seen in previous posts on this thread), none of those guards wear the judicial sash, crescent, and star. Several court guards are shown in some of the photos I have posted here that do not appear to be Royal Guard uniforms. However, there are 3, and possibly 4, photos that may show individuals attending the Courts who are wearing Royal Guard uniforms. Portrait of a group greffiers of Mixed Court of Appeals from the 31 December, 1916 by Alban Studio in Alexandria showing an unnamed guard standing at the far right of the 2nd row with a sash that has a round device near his left should attached by a chain to a shield-shaped pin on his right breast. This photo can be enlarged for slightly more detail of the guard’s uniform. This photo is from a past eBay offering (https://www.ebay.com/itm/Armenian-photographer-in-Egypt-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-PHOTO-ALBAN-1916/273849768153?hash=item3fc2b7d8d9:g:d-UAAOSwCrpc3fMY). that also was associated with several other images that all feature Adib Maakad Bey (seated in the center of the 1st row of this photo). I posted this cropped image as the 6th photo in my post of 6 September 2019 here on this thread (cropped from the 4thphoto in that post, that includes the names of the court officials in this group portrait). Interestingly, the guard is wearing his uniform sash over his left shoulder, as can be seen opposite to the practice of all court officials as seen in the how Adib Maakad is wearing his sash. Possibly the same guard is shown at the far left in the 10th & 11th photos of that same post of 6 September showing greffiers of the Mixed Court of Appeals in January, 1920. Photo of the Registry of Accounting of the Mixed Court of Appeals from January 1920 (https://www.ebay.com/itm/Armenian-photographer-in-Egypt-mixed-jurisdictions-of-egypt-PHOTO-NADER-1920/312613214230?hash=item48c9331816:g:GTkAAOSwEeVc3fHF). I previously included this cropped image as the 11th photo of my post of 6 September, 2019 on this thread (cropped from the 10th image). The guard at the far left in the 2nd row wears a different uniform from the 1916 portrait that has no sash (and none of the other court officials are wearing their court sashes in this 1920 image either). This may also be a Royal Guard uniform and might be the same individual as the guard in the previous photograph. The distal portion of his sword is visible behind the chair where G. Nicadimis is seated in the 1st row (again featuring Adib Maakad in the center of the first row). The 2 unnamed guards in the above photo of the District Court of Mansourah in 1907 (on the far left and far right in the 2nd row) are probably wearing plastron fronted Royal Guard uniforms that are similar to that shown on the one guard in the Court of Appeals 1916 group portrait above. Both guards wear uniform sashes over their left shoulders and the guard on the right may has the same round device on his sash near his left shoulder and there is a shield-shaped emblem over his left breast as the guard in the Court of Appeals 1916 group portrait shown above. I previously posted this plate form the 50th anniversary volume as the 8th image in my post of 18 April, 2019. Photo from pg. 190 of the Les Jurisdictions Mixtes d’Égypte 1876-1926 volume. Photo of the Indigenous Court of Appeals in 1909 showing 2 guards (at the far left and right in the 3rd row) who may also be wearing Royal Guard uniforms. These two guards wear plastron fronted uniforms with sashes over their left shoulders that also seem to bear the same round and shield shaped devices as seen on the 2 guards in the above photos of the Mixed District Court of Mansourah in 1907, and on the 1 guard in the above photo of the greffiers of Mixed Court of Appeals from the 31 December, 1916. I previously posted this as the 9th illustration of my post of April 6, 2020. (From: https://www.facebook.com/292684487584798/photos/pb.292684487584798.-2207520000.1550685816./961717970681443/?type=3&theater)
  10. In relation to the discussion on this thread about the US Stolen Valor Act, a recent German auction a US Medal of Honor from the Spanish American War in Cuba ignited a row between US Senator Ted Cruz (republican from Texas) and the Munich-based auction house Hermann Historica. A named MOH awarded to Thomas Kelly in 1898 is the featured medal in this controversy. Kelly was an Irish immigrant who enlisted in the US Army in 1894 and fought in the notorious Battle of San Juan Hill, rescuing a soldier off the battlefield. Kelly remained in the military until his death in New York in 1920. Senator Cruz wrote a letter complaining about the auction sale that he addressed to US Secretary of State, Michael Pompeo, stating: “The sale harms the dignity and honor of all recipients of the Medal of Honor”. His campaign to stop the sale apparently drove the price of the MOH well above the estimated €3,000 value for a hammer price of €14,000. As others have stated in this thread, selling medals awarded by Congress is illegal in the United States and is punishable by fines of up to $100,000 and a year in jail. Apparently, the president and CEO of the National Medal of Honor Museum in Arlington, Texas, Joe Daniels, also tried to prevent the sale of this MOH, sending complaints to Secretary of State Pompeo, President Donald Trump, Secretary of Defense Mark Esper, and Attorney General William Barr urging them to try and stop the auction sale of Kelly’s medal. Private Thomas Kelly's US Medal of Honor medal awarded on 4 July, 1898 for his valor on 1 July when Pvt. Kelly rescued a wounded man off the battlefield of the Battle of San Juan Hill. Kelly was in H Company of the 21st Infantry Regiment. The reverse is engraved: "The Congress to Private Thomas Kelly - C° H 21st U.S.Infty., for gallantry in action at Santiago, Cuba, July 1, 1898". Very high resolution images of the obverse and reverse of this medal are present on the Hermann Historica online auction catalog listing for the A82m Auction, Lot 5099, International Orders & Military Collectibles, of 28 May, 2020 (https://www.hermann-historica.de/en/auctions/lot/id/72055). The width is given as 53.3.mm. The ribbon is identified as original, of the design used between 1896 and 1903.
  11. Lars, Thanks for the good photos of these 2 additional miniatures of the Order of Ismail and the information about the other 2 examples from eBay. Do any of these other 2 have any manufacture's marks on the reverse? In your miniature collection, do you have any Egyptian minis of any medals (particularly Khedive or Kingdom era awards) with maker's marks on their reverse? Owain started a thread "Miniatures of the Middle East & Arab World" on 6 December, 2017 in this "Middle East & Arab States" section on GMIC. Owain mentions several manufacturers of Egyptian miniatures, but so far I have not found any images of manufactures' marks in any illustrations from auction listings. It would be interesting to see any Egyptian makers' marks if there are some in your collection. Rusty
  12. Owain, Many thanks for posting these high resolution images of 2 Order of Ismail minis. I have not seen the eBay listings (on US or UK eBay). I assume the descriptions provided no measurements? The second mini looks significantly like the obverse of the high resolution image I posted on 18 November, 2018 (same linear defect in the enamel of the superior arm of the star). The reverse of that mini is illustrated as the right hand image in my 23 March 2020 post (shown in the first image below). The staining on the reverse is identical to that seen in your 4th photo above. Both of the past images I have posted of what I think is the same mini show it with the 5th Class Knight's ribbon (with rosette and no galon). I wonder why the ribbon is not shown in this recent eBay listing? Rusty Image I posted on 23 March, 2020 showing obverse and reverse of what I think is this same miniature Order of Ismail as in Owain's post above. The reverse appears to have the identical staining as in Owain's 4th photo in the 20 April, 2020 post. From an 8 January, 2020 Auction by Heritage Auctions Europe (Lot 4592), archived on The Saleroom.com website (https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-gb/auction-catalogues/mpo/catalogue-id-mpo-mu10002/lot-e12f6a1a-b1cf-4f13-8be2-ab3600ab5f08) Image of the obverse of what I think is the same miniature as Owain illustrated in the 3rd photo of his recent post of 20 April, 2020. This is a higher resolution photo of the same miniature shown above from the January, 2020 Auction by Heritage Auctions Europe (Lot 4592) in my 20 April, 2020 post. I have previously included this as the lower of 2 Order of Ismail minis in the 1st photo from my post of 10 November, 2018. I also cropped this portion of that image as the 5th photo in my post of 13 December, 2018. This photo came from a 2018 auction of La Galerie Numismatique, archived on the Sixbid.com website (https://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=5367&category=168960&lot=4479891). This shows the same linear defect in the enamel of the superior arm of the star near the margin of the central medallion, and a couple irregularities in the margin of the central gold & blue enamel medallion boss with the "Ismail" inscription in the 9:00 and 11:00 positions (in addition to other similarities seen in the illustration you included above). This photo can be zoomed for much more detail and to compare with the ribbon-less example in the 3rd photo of your above post. I have seen few miniature examples with the very light blue enamel on the star's arms and the central inscribed medallion boss as shown in the first of your photos above from 20 April, 2020. Above is a very small, low-resolution images that shows this lighter blue enamel from a 28 July, 2016 auction by H. D. Rauch Gmbh (Lot 332) that is archived on the acsearch.info website (https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=3201427). This comes from a group of 11 miniatures on a chain. This is a cropped image of what I included as the 2nd photo in my post of 10 November, 2018. Owain, you also showed a better photo of the obverse of a mini of the Order of Ismail with this lighter blue enamel in the photo posted on 11 December, 2017 on the "Miniatures of the Middle East & Arab World" thread here on GMIC.
  13. I recently came across several photographs of judges and lawyers in Egypt from a group of materials curated in the New York University Abu Dhabi, Akkasah, Center for Photography’s Yasser Alwan Collection (http://dlib.nyu.edu/findingaids/html/akkasah/alwan/scopecontent.html). These images were collected by Yasser Alwan, a photographer in Cairo currently teaching photography at the German University in Cairo. The collection includes more than 2,000 photos, principally from the 1920s1940s of a broad array of ethnic and cultural diversity of Egyptian society in the early–mid 20th century. Most of the images come from purchases at flea markets and bookshops in Cairo that Yasser Alwan began collecting in the 1990s. It is an eclectic collection of family photos, studio work, tourist postcards, etc. of a diversity of Egyptian ethnicities and social roles through out he country. Within this collection are several that show individuals in the legal profession. All of those I have reviewed are Egyptians, not foreign judges, lawyers, or court professionals. Of interest, is that some of these have dates. Several show individuals who are judges wearing the bi-colored sashes (red and green) with the crescent and star emblems, such as several I have posted on this thread. I have generally been unable to identify dates for those images, and have been unsure what roles these legal professionals held. I have made several errors in how I interpreted what those individuals might represent within the Egyptian legal system. With the addition of some dates, I believe that I can more securely infer that individuals wearing this particular regalia are officials of the Indigenous Courts (sometimes called “Native Courts”), that adjudicated cases that were strictly between Egyptian citizens and not the Mixed Courts, that were designed to address a range of legal concerns with the many foreigners living and doing business in Egypt in the late 19th-mid 20thcentury. I have suggested that this need partly arose from the increase in foreign commerce associated with the downturn in the American cotton industry during the American Civil War, and continued to expand through patronage and support infrastructure (i.e., the Suez Canal) promoting continued foreign investment and business activity. I’m sure this is only a cartoon characterization of these complex events. However, while there is good literature about the costume of the judges and other officials of the Egyptian Mixed Courts, I have had a number of ongoing questions about that of the Indigenous Courts. These good-resolution images from the New York University Abu Dhabi, Akkasah, Center for Photography’s Yasser Alwan Collection (some with dates) help to move my understanding of these different judicial regalia just a little bit further. I have previously encountered several low-resolution photos of individuals identified as judges, officials in the prosecutors office (Parquet), and legal advisors, and some of those images have dates (for example a few Facebook posts), but have been unable to get more reliable information about those images. I am presenting these photos as they appear in the New York University Abu Dhabi, Akkasah, Center for Photography’s Yasser Alwan Collection online catalog, not in any chronological, geographic, or especially thematic groupings. The original images in the New York University Abu Dhabi, Akkasah, Center for Photography’s Yasser Alwan Collection online catalog can be zoomed for much greater detail than the versions I was able to download here. All of the photos below are accessed using the following catalog link for Series II: Egypt 1895-1971: (http://dlib.nyu.edu/findingaids/html/akkasah/alwan/dscref179.html). I then have some lower resolution images from a Facebook posting about Egyptian legal history, that provide additional dated images of Indigenous Court officials in their regalia. Finally, I want to try and correct some of the erroneous information I have posted here about other photos I have found of individuals in wearing similar insignia, before I figured some of this out a bit better. An undated image of a seated man wearing a bi-colored sash (red and green) with one of the Mixed Courts badges (probably silver). He also wears a 5th Class Knight Order of the Nile badge pinned to a western-style dinner jacket (tailcoat?) with white tie and a white vest (rather than the Egyptian stambouline), and a tarbush. This emphasis on western dress (other than the tabush) is seen worn in all of the photos I am posting here abut the Indigenous Court. While the stamboulin appears to have been intentionally selected or the Mixed Courts to emphasize the Egyptian nature of these Courts that included so many foreign personnel, the Indigenous Court emphasized Egypt's judiciary wearing more European style of dress. (AD-MC-002_ref104, Box 1 Folder 10). The catalog description states “An Egyptian official wearing a sash and medals. 13.6 x 8.5 cm, Unknown (Photographer)”. Below is a version of this same photo that I have enlarged and cropped. Cropped higher resolution version of the same image above. (AD-MC-002_ref104, Box 1 Folder 10). The above undated photo shows an Egyptian man wearing a lawyer’s robe (or academic robe) with silk borders on the sleeves and a silk (?) lining visible at the collar, tarbush, and the academic épitoge. He wears a crescent pin and 3 silver star pins, as seen on several images I have posted on this thread, but they are attached to the épitoge, not a sash as most of those images I’ve previously posted show. I am now convinced that the crescent and star(s) are the regalia of offcials in the Indigenous Courts. There is a very strong resemblance between this man and the previous photo (as an older man?), that may suggest this a studio portrait following his graduation from university or earlier practice as a lawyer in the Indigenous Courts before being raised to service in the Mixed Tribunals. (AD-MC-002_ref378, Box 2 Folder 13). This image is identified in the catalog as: “A man in a robe, tarbouche and sash with a crescent moon and three stars. 13.5 x 8.6 cm. London Studio, Cairo (Egypt).” A photograph date 31 October, 1941 of a man wearing a single colored (red?) sash with the decorative knot as worn by judges and some officials in the Mixed Courts with gold metallic fringe. He has a crescent and single star pins attached to his sash, indicting service in the Indigenous Courts. He is wearing the tarbush and a western (not stambouline) style coat. this image shows fairly well the same decorative knot and the gold metallic fringe of the sash as those of the Mixed Courts(AD-MC-002-ref407, Box 2 Folder 15). The catalog description states: “A man wearing a sash resting on a tall side table. 13.5 x 8.4 cm. K. Jacob, Egypt (Photographer )”. A photo dated 1 January, 1930 of a young lawyer of the Indigenous Courts wearing a legal or academic robe (with silk margins of the sleeves). He wears the épitoge with a crescent pin and 3 star pins, and tarbush. (AD-MC-002-ref1203, Box 6 Folder 11). The catalog description reads: “A young lawyer, wearing a robe and a sash”, 31.8 cm X 22.0 cm, Mitry’s Studio. Cairo.” The studio name is embossed on the mat frame of the photo (not shown in this cropped version), the handwritten name appears to be “H [L or S?] Fariq (?)” along with the date. An undated photo of officials from one of the Indigenous Courts, probably in Mansourah. I cannot tell if they would be judges or other court functionaries. In the back row, the 3 men on the left are probably guards and the other two men are dressed anomalously (the man on the far right has no tie and a more traditional rather than western-form of shirt). Almost all of these med wear bi-colored sashes (green and red) except for the men 2nd and 3rd from the left in the 1strow; and those 2nd and 3rd from the right in the 1st row (whose sashes are likely red). The man 5thfrom the right might have single colored sash (lighter color, green?), and the man 3rdfrom the left in the 2nd row may have a monochrome sash (it appears lighter and may be green?). All of the men wear a crescent and 1 star on their sashes, except the man seated in the middle of the 1st row. Above the crescent on his bicolored sash is a single larger star (same size as worn by the others) surmounted by 2 smaller stars and 2 small stars also are pinned below the crescent, making 5 stars. While all wear tarbush, none are wearing the stambouline high-collared coat, but have western style coats. (AD-MC-002-ref1299, Box 7 Folder 10). The catalog description reads: “A group of men in suits and tarbushes with sashes with the crescent and star emblem (linked ref1168 and ref1169). 41.1 x 44.5 cm. Photo Gabriel, Mansourah (Egypt)”. Undated photo (except as 1923-1952) of men in front of the Supreme Court in Cairo wearing monochrome sashes, all with tarbush, and all wearing uniformly identical western-style coats. The sash hues looks lighter-colored, suggesting it is green, which would indicate these men are judges of the Indigenous Appeals Court, or the Court of Cassation (instituted in 1930). The gold metallic fringe of some of the ends of the sash can be seen on a few of the men in the front row. There might be a few men with darker colored sashes (1st man on the left in the front row; 1st man on the left in the 2nd row; and 1st man on the right in the front row. In the original online image in the catalog that is much higher resolution it appears that all of the men (except the man 8thfrom the right or 9thfrom the left of the first row) wear a crescent pin with 3 star pins. The pins worn by the man in the centre of the front row are arranged with: above his crescent are two stars just above the horns of the crescent; and above that are 4 stars arranged in a diamond pattern; below the crescent are 2 stars oriented in line with the 2 above the horns of the crescent; and a single star is pinned below those stars centered between them; for a total of 9 stars. This man is either the President of the Appeals Court, or the Prosecutor General. All the men are wearing western style coats, not stambouline. (AD-MC-002-ref1301, Box 7 Folder 10). The catalog description reads: “A group of men in sashes with a crescent moon on them, in front of the Supreme Court, Cairo, Egypt. 29.5 x 34.8 cm, Unknown (Photographer)”. The following images are from Facebook site dedicated to some information about the history of Egypt’s legal systems. It appears to focus on the Indigenous Courts and does not present information about the Mixed Courts. (History of Egyptian Judicial system -تاريخالقضاءالمصري). Several of the images are identified as part of the Indigenous (or “Native”) Courts. All of them are moderate to low-resolution with minimally greater detail available by zooming them. Moderate-resolution photo of the legal advisors for the Indigenous Court of Appeals in Cairo in 1895. The 50th Anniversary Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 volume I have used for information about the Mixed Courts (Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926: Livre d'or Édité sous le Patronage du Conseil de l’Ordre des Avocats á l’Occasion du Cinquantenaire des Tribunaux de la Réforme, par le: Journal des Tribunaux Mixtes. Alexandrie, Egypte, Février 1926) uses this term (Conseillers) to refer to legal advisors of the court, not judges of those courts, although many of the legal advisors have been judges or later served as such. All of the men wear monochrome (green) pleated sashes, the stambouline, and tarbush. All wear a crescent and single star pin, except the man seated in the middle of the front row of men in chairs. His sash appears to exhibit a single large star centered above the crescent (same size as those worn by the other men) surmounted by 3 smaller star pins, and having 3 small stars pinned below the crescent for a total of 7 stars. This individual may be the President of the Appeals Court, or some other head of the legal advisors to the Appeals Court. (From: https://www.facebook.com/292684487584798/photos/pb.292684487584798.-2207520000.1550685816./292919867561260/?type=3&theater) A moderate-resolution photo of the legal advisors (Conseillers) to the Indigenous Appeals Court in Cairo from 1909. Except for the 2 men in military uniform at the far right and left of the 3rd row (guards?), all of the officials pictured wear a monochrome pleated sash (green), tarbush, and western-style jackets. All of their sashes include the crescent and a single star. The building behind the group is the old home of the Appeals Court. (From:https://www.facebook.com/292684487584798/photos/pb.292684487584798.-2207520000.1550685816./961717970681443/?type=3&theater) Low-resolution image of the Judges of the Cairo Indigenous Court of the First Instance, 31 December, 1933. Again, all of the men wear tarbush and western-style jackets. All of their sashes appear to be monochrome (red?) in this low-resolution image. The gold metallic fringe of the sash worn by the judge on the far right in the 2nd row can be distinguished. It is difficult to be certain, but all the insignia on the sashes appear to be crescents with a single star, it is not apparent whether any of the men have more than one star. (From: https://www.facebook.com/292684487584798/photos/a.292686157584631/292686144251299/?type=1&theater) Portrait of the Parquet (the prosecutor’s office) of the Indigenous Court from 1926, with low-resolution. The Parquet members all wear tarbush, the same style western jackets, white ties, and white waistcoats. Except for the man 5th from the right in the 2nd row (with no sash), they all are wearing bicolored sashes (red and green). The sash of the man at the far left does not show the 2 colors well, but it is most probably also a red and green sash. The poor resolution of the image makes it difficult to identify the variation in the sash insignia on the Parquet officials, but all of the men in the 2nd and 3rd rows appear to wear crescents with single stars, while all of the seated men in the first row, except that on the far right (?) appear to have multiple star pins, above and below their crescents. (From: https://www.facebook.com/292684487584798/photos/pb.292684487584798.-2207520000.1550685816./526293057557272/?type=3&theater) Low-resolution copy of a portrait of the Prosecutor General of the Indigenous Court Parquet and his chief staff officials in 1932. All wear tarbush and identical western style coats with white tie and white vests. Only the 2nd man from the left in the second row, wearing either a 4th or 5th Class Order of the Nile medal, is not wearing a sash. The man third from the right in the 1st row is wearing a monochrome sash (green or red?), but all of the other sashes are bicolored (red and green). Other than the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd seated men from the right in the first row, most appear to be wearing a single star wit their crescent pin. The first man on the right in the 1strow appears to have 3 stars above the crescent (1 near the middle of the upper portion of the crescent and two above that) and possibly 2 stars below the crescent (?). The 2nd official from the right in the 1strow wears 3 stars above the crescent (also oriented with one between the horns of the crescent and 2 stars above that spaced more laterally) and possibly 2 stars below the crescent). The man 3rdfrom the right, probably the Prosecutor General, has 3 smaller stars just within the superior portion of the crescent and another symbol above those stars. This is probably a royal crown pin, as seen below in the portrait of Adbel Aziz Fahmy. (From: https://www.facebook.com/292684487584798/photos/pb.292684487584798.-2207520000.1550685816./526293057557272/?type=3&theater) Low-resolution portrait of Prosecutor General and other chief officials of the Indigenous Courts’ Parquet, 31 December, 1933. This photo was taken on the same day and the same location as that above of the Indigenous Court of the First Instance. All are dressed in tarbush and western-style jackets. Most appear to be wearing bi-colored sashes (red and green) except the man seated 4th from the right in the front row with no sash. The man standing at the far right in 2nd row and the man standing 5thfrom the right (behind the man without a sash) may have monochrome sashes (?). It is hard to make out the number of stars pinned to their sashes, even the crescent is difficult to distinguish on some individuals. The seated man 2nd from the right in the front row has 3 stars above the crescent (a single star just above the center of the crescent and 2 stars superior to that more laterally placed). The seated man at the far right in the front row appears to have 3 stars similarly pinned above the crescent and probably 3 stars below the crescent. The man standing furthest right in the 2nd row appears to have three stars above the crescent, a single star above the open middle of the crescent and 2 stars superior to that more laterally pinned. He may also have 2 or 3 stars pinned below the crescent, 2 laterally-placed stars may be apparent below his crescent pin. The 2 colors of his sash The man standing 2nd from the left in the 2nd row appears to have 3 stars above the crescent, a single stars surmounted by 2 more laterally places stars. Note that all the men in this portrait are wearing medals. The resolution is too poor to hazard any guess about what they may be. (From: https://www.facebook.com/292684487584798/photos/pb.292684487584798.-2207520000.1550685816./526294207557157/?type=3&theater) An unspecified group of officials of the Indigenous Court in an undated low-resolution portrait. Most appear to be wearing monochrome sashes (red?) and only the man seated 3rd from the left in the 1st row, seated furthest right in the 1st row, the man on the far right in the 2nd row, and the 2 men standing 2nd and 3rd from the right in the 3rd row are wearing bicolored (red and green) sashes. The man standing furthest to the left in the third row does not have a sash. The back row appears to be guards or other non judicial staff. Except for these men in the back row, all of the others wear tarbush with western-style jackets, not stambouline. From what is visible in this image, all appear to be wearing a crescent and a just a single star. Text associated with this image discusses some aspects of variation in sash from and use prior to 1952, but mostly that after the establishment of the Republic. Of possible relevance to some of the pre-1952 Indigenous Court regalia, the Facebook text suggest that in modern usage, the head of the Judicial Council and the Prosecutor General wear 7 stars and in addition to the Eagle of Saladin (instead of the monarchy era use of the crescent). (From: https://www.facebook.com/292684487584798/photos/a.939182679601639/945654215621152/?type=3&theater) Portrait of Abdel Aziz Fahmy, one of the founders of the Wafd party in one of the most common portraits of him. This shows him wearing a monochrome sash (green) sash showing a small portion of the crescent pin, one star, and a royal crown pin (as seen on the sash of the Prosecutor General seated in the middle of the 1st row in the above picture of the Parquet in 1932). Although an important early original proponent of a parliamentary system in Egypt, Abdel Aziz Fahmy Pasha was also a monarchist. He was made the President of the newly created Court of Cassation by King Fuad I, in 1930. I have not identified a date for this photo, but it is certainly after his appointment as President of the Court of Cassation (essentially a Supreme Court above the Indigenous Appeals Courts that could hear appeals from defendants or public prosecutors), likely 1931 or just a bit later. He was awarded the Grand Cordon of the Order of Ismail and the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Nile. The medal ribbon visible in this image however, is not either one of those awards. (From: https://www.facebook.com/292684487584798/photos/a.939182679601639/971223233064250/?type=3&theater) I have previously made several mistakes about the crescent and star regalia as post-1949 court regalia, following the closure of the Mixed Courts on 14 October, 1949. I posted photos of some individuals with sashes and the crescent and star pins who are actually judges or officials with the Indigenous Courts, and some of these individuals may have been photographed during the pre-1949 period (as is the case for the 2 individuals in the dated photos from the New York University Abu Dhabi, Akkasah, Center for Photography’s Yasser Alwan Collection [the 4th and 5th photos in this post]) and the dated group portraits form the Facebook History of Egyptian Judicial system, shown above. I wish to include those images I previously made erroneous assessments of here in this post, so that the information is in one more correct placement. I apologize for duplicating these images. Except for those of lawyers, I do not know whether any of these individuals were judges or other officials in the Indigenous Courts. Among my continued questions about this regalia is what the insignia variation between the crescent and a single star (common), the crescent and 3 stars (common), and the crescent and multiple stars (7-9) may indicate about rank or roles of these different officials of the Indigenous Courts. Undated portrait of an Indigenous Court official in a bicolored sash (red and green) with a crescent and single star. He wears a western-style jacket and white tie, and is not wearing his tarbush. This image shows particularly well the decorative knot and gold metallic fringe on his sash. The glossiness of the green portion of his sash suggests it is made of silk. I included this as the 4th photo in my post of 12 September, 2018, and mistakenly identified the man as a post-1949 judge. When I created that post, I had recently been researching a commemorative medal and stamp regarding the closing of the Mixed Courts in 1949. However, I had also encountered information about a British judge who had served both on the Mixed and Indigenous Courts. As noted in my post 19 April, 2019, Alexander Cockburn McBarnet was one of the few men I could identify with service on the Native Courts who also was associated with a silver Mixed Courts judicial badge of the Froment-Meurice design. I therefore assumed it likely that at least some officials of the Indigenous Courts wore this same regalia (and as there were many more members of the Indigenous Courts, it might also partly explain why so many more silver badges were appeared on auction sites than the gold and silver badges [of the Mixed District Courts] or the gold badges [of the Mixed Appeals Courts]. A November 2017 auction by Brightwell’s included a number of medals and clothing belonging to McBarnet, including a silver Froment-Meurice designed Mixed Court badge. The auction listing states that McBarnet had been appointed as a judge of the ‘Native” Appeals Court after serving as a District Judge in Asyut (probably also in the Indigenous Courts that had courts there which the Mixed Tribunals did not). Information from the Les Juridictions Mixtes d'Égypte 1876-1926 50th anniversary volume about the Mixed Courts indicted that McBarnet was a legal advisor to the Indigenous Appeals Court and later served the Mixed Tribunals Appeals Court (also as legal advisor?). In hindsight, it is likely that McBarnet’s Froment-Meurice designed badge came from that court service, and not as a conseillerto the Indigenous courts. Only later, with my stumbling on additional photographic material of a range of officials other than judges of the Mixed Courts also wearing the Fromenet-Meurice designed badges, did it become apparent that such badges were more common than just the numbers of the judiciary of the Mixed Tribunals. That is when I started t realize that the crescent and star insignia likely designated officials in the separate Indigenous judiciary, but not before I had muddied the water here on GMIC. For that reason, I wish to try and correct some of my erroneous statements, although there is still a great deal about the Indigenous Courts and its costume variation that is opaque to me. The above image comes from a former eBay auction. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-A-small-judge-wearing-a-scarf/312191646480?hash=item48b0127b10:g:UMcAAOSw0S9bThIn) Undated portait of another official of the Indigenous Courts with a bicolored sash (red and green) and a single crescent and star pin. The western jacket (and its lapel configuration), white tie, and a white waistcoat is identicla ot the standardized dress of the men shown in the Facebook image illustrated above of the Indigenous Court Parquet form 1926, who also wear a bicolred sash and the majority have a crescent and single star as well. I previously posted this as the 5th photo in my post of 12 September, 2018. Again, I mistakenly identified him as a post-1949 judge, although I have no way of knowing when this images dates to. This studio portrait was made by Photo Varjadedian, Zagazig. From a past eBay auction (https://www.ebay.com/itm/Old-Armenian-photographer-in-Egypt-Judge-with-the-scarf-PHOTO-VARIJABEDIAN/273203620917?hash=item3f9c346c35:g:zm0AAOSwf95a80zw). A dated portrait of a man identified as a policeman, Ali Arafa of Port Said, wearing a bicolored sash (hand-tinted in green and red) with a crescent and single star. His wearing a white uniform surprises me, especially given that almost every photo of individuals of the Indigenous Court wear civilian westernized dress. There is a strong probability that the subject chose to be depicted this way as a vanity combination of 2 roles he held, rather than it representing an accepted combination of the court regalia with his police uniform. The date written on the lower right of the photo, “١٩٢٠”=1920. I previously posted this image as the 1st photo of my 6 November, 2018 post on this thread. From a past eBay auction, of a 23 x 188 cm. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-POLICE-OFFICER-Judge-HAND-COLOR-ALI-ARAFA-PORT-SAID-/273502359767?_trksid=p2385738.m4383.l4275.c10) Undated portrait of an Indigenous Court official in a bicolored sash (red and green) with crescent and 3 stars. He wears a western-style jacket. I previously posted this as the 1st photo, 1 November 2018, again spuriously identifying him as a post-1949 judge. The photo shows well the decorative knot and gold metallic fringe of the sash. This 14 X 9 cm original print was made by Studio Vart, in Cairo. From a past eBay auction (https://www.ebay.com/itm/Old-Armenian-photographer-in-Egypt-Judge-With-a-medal-and-scarf-STUDIO-VART/273500934866). Undated portrait of a young Indigenous Court official wearing a bicolored (red and green), pleated sash with a crescent and 3 stars. He wears a western-style jacket and his tarbush is resting on the prop table with book, common in many of these studio images of court officials. I previously posted this as the 2nd photo of 1 Novmber, 2018 post. 23 x 16 cm original print, Studio Abdel. This comes from a from a past eBay auction offering (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-A-young-judge-with-scarf-studio-adel/273502381828) Undated studio portrait of a man wearing tarbush, western-style jacket, a monochrome pleated sash (green?) with a crescent and 7 stars. I previously included this illustration as the 3rd photo in my post of 28 April, 2018. This portrait comes from the Photo Ramses Studio, Cairo. This man is likely a high-ranked individual (president or Prosecutor General?) in either the Indigenous Appeals Court or possibly one of the Courts of the First Instance (in which case his sash would probably be red). (This image comes from a Piccssr link that no longer funcitons: http://picssr.com/photos/kelisli/interesting/page21?nsid=7892156@N08) An interesting undated portrait of an Egyptian Indigenous Court official in traditional clothes and a uniquely configured sash. The tricolored sash (probably with red border stripes and a green central stripe) is not seen on any other photos of court officials I have encountered. A Pinterest image of a sash with 3 stripes (red borders and a green central stripe) appears in a Turkish Pinterest site with a set of crescent and 3 star pins (shown below) that I also have previously illustrated on this thread. The 9 star pins arrangement with the crescent also is quite unusual. Only the individual described in the undated group photo in front of the Supreme Court building in Cairo photo (shown above) from the Yasser Alwan Collection exhibits this many star pins. The nine star pins on that man’s sash have a different configuration: first, all the star pins on his sash are the same size (“small”); above his crescent are two stars just above the horns of the crescent; and above that are 4 stars arranged in a diamond pattern; below the crescent are 2 stars oriented in line with the 2 above the horns of the crescent; and a single star is pinned below those stars centered between them. I previously included this as the 6th photo in my post of 12 September, 2018. I also posted this portrait as the 1st photo in my post of 7 November, 2018 along with 2 additional photos of this same man. All photos of this man show him in a turban rather than a tarbush, and wearing the traditional gallebaya. The appearance of this high official in traditional, but unofficial, dress in this portrait, that in his large and well-appointed office, and the 3rd photo of him dressed equivalently seems surprising. Again, the emphasis on court officials wearing tarbush with a European-syle jacket (compared with the intentional shift in the Mixed Courts toward having foreign and Egyptian judges all wear he stamboulin and tarbush to emphasize the Egyptian nature of this International Tribunal) contrasts markedly with the 3 photos of this man. I don’t know if there is a chance he may represent a cleric, or just a very traditional (and influential) individual? It is unfortunate that no dates are identified for these three portrait photos. While the Indigenous Courts developed from Egyptian Islamic Courts, it is apparent that by the early 20th century the institution had a pronounced stamp of westernized modernity, and conformity to that “progressive” norm. I previously mistakenly identified this individual as a post-1949 judge, again assuming that the crescent and star configuration replaced the possible use of badges similar to those worn by judges and other officials of the Mixed Courts. This image comes from a past eBay auction of an original 14 x 9 cm matted print (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-Judge-with-the-scarf/273147885787?hash=item3f98e1f8db:g:5lkAAOSw13ZayXDv). A color image of a used tricolor sash similar to that worn by the man in the above portrait. This Pinterest image includes regalia of both the Mixed Courts (the silver Froment-Meurice sash badge) and the Indigenous Courts (the silver crescent and 3 star pins). The text associated with this Pinterest post does not provide any useful information. I initially thought perhaps the association of this sash with both sets of regalia implied use by an Egyptian functionary of the Mixed Courts who continued to work for the courts and retired his Mixed Courts badge for the Indigenous Courts insignia after the dissolution of the Mixed Courts in October of 1949. That could be possible, but, if they did belong to one individual, it might equally well indicate an Indigenous Court functionary transferred to serve on the Mixed Courts. Such a scenario is suggested by the 1st and 3rd photos in this post (if they do represent the same man) that might represent a young lawyer beginning his career in the Indigenous Courts and then being re-assigned to the Mixed Courts. As noted, the British judge to the Indigenous Courts, Alexander Cockburn McBarnet, whose auction materials included a Mixed Courts silver Froment-Meurice designed badge, but also should have employed the crescent and star(s) devices during his roles on the Indigenous Courts, also served both the Indigenous and Mixed Courts during his career in Egypt. I previously posted this as the 1st photo in my post of 28 April, 2018. (From: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/475340935664787041/) Undated portrait of the same Indigenous Court official in a sumptuously appointed office. I previously included this as the 2nd photo in my post of 7 November, 2018. From a past eBay auction of a 14 x 9 cm original print (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-Judge-in-his-office/273147887546?hash=item3f98e1ffba:g:k~oAAOSwlJlayXGK:rk:30:pf:0). The same Indigenous Court official standing on a boardwalk in traditional garb with no judicial regalia in an undated portrait. I previously included this as the 2nd photo in my post of 7 November, 2018. This is from a past eBay auction listing of a 14 x 9 cm original print that was still being offered into at least the end of 2019 (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-Judge-standing-on-the-bridge/312105737674?hash=item48aaf39dca:g:OPsAAOSwH1VayXIX:rk:31:pf:0). I previously posted the above undated, hand-tinted image of a female Egyptian lawyer working on the Indigenous Courts wearing a lawyers’ or academic robe with an épitoge that has a crescent pin with a single superior star pin. This was the last photo in my post of 22 August, 2019, that principally addressed the jurist and expressionist painter Mahmoud Saïd. I have not been able to identify this woman. Again I mistakenly thought she might represent a post-1949 lawyer. (From: https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-CUTE-LAWYER-WITH-THE-SCARF-HAND-COLORED-/273361632578?nma=true&si=mpDX%2FvmJ3j93DINpvfI%2FS1m09vQ%3D&orig_cvip=true&nordt=true&rt=nc&_trksid=p2047675.l2557) Above and below are a couple images of the first woman lawyer in modern Egypt, Naima el-Ayoubi. She was among the first five women who attended King Fuad I University in 1929. Those first women women law students were: Sahir al-Qalamawi, Naima el-Ayoubi, Fatma Salem, Zahira Abdel Aziz and Fatma Fahmy. They graduated in 1932 and Naima el-Ayoubi was admitted to the bar in 1933. In this image she is wearing a lawyer’s robe, rabat (scarf), and an épitoge adorned with a crescent and 3 stars. (From: https://www.facebook.com/292684487584798/photos/a.939182679601639/954572224729351/?type=3&theater) Naima el-Ayoubi on the cover of ““Al Aroussa” Magazine in 1933. (From: Women of Egypt Mag: https://womenofegyptmag.com/2018/10/18/egyptian-women-in-the-workforce-then-and-now/) Undated image of a Republic period judge showing the monochrome (green) pleated sash with the insignia of the Eagle of Saladin (replacing the Ottoman crescent) and 3 star pins of the Highest Court.The stars are placed in a different arrangement than in the recent photo below. I previously posted this as the 3rd photo of my post of 12 September, 2018. From past eBay auction (https://www.ebay.com/itm/EGYPT-OLD-VINTAGE-PHOTOGRAPH-Judge-with-the-scarf/273416587171?hash=item3fa8e607a3:g:dKkAAOSwK6NbebRb) Modern Egyptian judges of the Supreme Judicial Council in front ( with green sashes) and judges of Lower Courts (2 men with red sashes are visible behind the front group of judges). This shows the pleated sash of the Supreme Judicial Council (similar in style to those of the Appeals Courts of both the past Mixed and Indigenous Courts), the probably unpleated red sash of the lower courts, and a consistent placement of the gold Eagle of Saladin pin with 3 gold stars superior to the eagle. This is a photo taken of Egyptian judges during protests, March 4th 2006. I previously posted his image as the 4th photo of my post of 28 April, 2018 on this thread. (From: http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger/3388/941/1600/IMG_2412.jpg)
  14. gfh, Many thanks of the additional information and illustrations. Have you encountered images of any of the other executed badges made from the designs shown in the lower panel? I also want to thank you for the very informative eBay listings for your FFL pins and the very thorough photographic documentation you provided. As a non-collector, I rely on a lot of auction sites for some comparative images in my amateur research, and of course, the quality of photos and information runs the full range from excellent to drek. I was very impressed with the effort and knowledge you put into those eBay listings. Military issue (1941) identity card for Fahmy Tewfik Bichay (spelled "Fahmi Tawfik Bishay") from a section of the MP Antique et Militaria website that illustrates and identifies a number of South African Air Force squadron pins that the site moderator obtained personally from Fahmy Tewfik Bichay in the 1950s after he had emigrated to Canada (http://www.militaria.qc.ca/air-force/south-africa.html). I previously posted this ID as the last photo in my post of 21 October, 2019 where I was illustrating some variation in J. Lattes cases (mostly for the more common Order of the Nile in that post) & labels as well as the fewer examples of labels I've encountered for Tewfik Bichay and Fahmy Tewfik Bichay, on the thread "Question about the Order of Ismail/Nishan al-Ismail", started on 8 November, 2017, in the "Middle East & Arab States" subsection, under the "Rest of the World: Medals & Military" section here on GMIC. Are the illustrations in your last post from Sadek Tewfik Bichay? He designed a medal commemorating the closing of the Egyptian International Tribunals (the Mixed Courts) on 14 October, 1949. One of the requirements for service as a judge on those Courts was fluency in French.
  15. I was interested to see this Cairo-made Free French Forces badge. I mostly dabble in research on a small number of Egyptian medals (I'm not a collector), but Fahmy Tewfik Bichay, one of a Egyptian family of medal makers, recently turned up in my auction site searches of photographs with a few Cairo-made Free French Forces enamel pins. Only one has a "T. BICHAY" maker's mark on the reverse, apparently it was quite common for his work on these pins to be unmarked. The original auction listing show images of the reverse of all 6 of these badges, but only the first example is marked. The seller of these pins also notes in the auction description that: "This and other Free French badges I have listed originally had locking pin reverses. Mr. Fahmy Bichay removed these and replaced them with clutch style pins in the early 1980s; traces of the original pin mountings are visible in some cases. At the same time these were altered, he also replaced the pins on a series of South African "Sweetheart" style squadron badges that the company had also made during the war." The first 5 of these image come from an 18 February, 2018 eBay auction, archived on the WorthPoint.com website. The 3rd-to-last image is also an eBay auction listing archived on WorthPoint.com, but I cannot identify the auction date for it. The seller states that all of these are original, not replica Cairo-made pieces. The final 2 photos in this post, from the same seller, show a pin identified as a copy that was made by Fahmy Tewfik Bichay in 1977. Obverse of a Free French Forces enamel pin featuring the design of the Croix de Lorraine, that the seller states was adopted as the symbol of the Free French Forces in 1940 and was featured as part of many Free French Badges. The auction description does not identify the measurements of this pin, but one of the photographs is provided with coins (a US 25¢ piece and a 1€ coin) for scale (From: https://www.worthpoint.com/worthopedia/cairo-made-croix-de-lorraine-badge-1915138740) Reverse of the same Free French Forces enamel pin with the design of the Croix de Lorraine on the obverse. This is the only example of the 6 pins this seller had on offer in this auction with Fahmy Tewfik Bichay's maker's mark on the reverse. Obverse of a Cairo made Free French Forces enamel pin identified by seller as made for the Commandant Dominé by Fahmy Tewfik Bichay (Cairo). The seller provided Wikipedia information that: the Commandant Dominé was an Elan class vessel made as a minesweeper, although none of these vessels were apparently used in that capacity; and that the Commandant Dominé served with the Free French Forces after following use in the Dunkirk evacuation and having been interned in England. An image of the reverse is included in the archived auction listing, showing no maker's mark but evidence of the refitting of the clutch pin replacing the locking pin, situated in the middle of the reverse. No measurements on this pin are provided, but again, but one of the photographs is provided with coins (a US 25¢ piece and a 1€ coin) for scale. (From: https://www.worthpoint.com/worthopedia/original-cairo-made-fnfl-badge-1915140208) Obverse of an enamel pin identified by the eBay seller as a 13th Demi-Brigade of the Foreign Legion, and identified as a Cairo-made example by Fahmy Tewfik Bichay, The seller states that the "13th Demi-Brigade of Foreign Legion was created in 1940, and, with the Senegalese Tirailleur Regiment of Tchad, one of the two regiments which rallied as a constituted unit of the Free French Forces (FFL)." Two additional photos accompany this auction list, one illustrates the unmarked reverse showing the location of 2 pins at both lateral ends of the pin and the other showing the obverse in comparison with a US 25¢ piece and a 1€ coin for scale. (From: https://www.worthpoint.com/worthopedia/cairo-made-badge-free-french-13e-1915136126) Obverse of an enameled pin identified by the seller as an insignia for the Régiment de Tirailleurs du Cameroun, made in Cairo by Fahmy Tewfik Bichay. The seller includes the Wikipedia information that: "This Free French regiment existed from 1940 to 1944 and participated in the following actions according to the French Wikipedia: The Battle of Bir Hakim; The Campaign in Gabon and the Campaign in Syria." The two addition photos that accompany this auction listing show the unmarked reverse showing the location of the pin (slightly more superior than the middle of the pin, and showing the scar from replacing the locking pin with a clutch pin) and the obverse in comparison with a US 25¢ piece and a 1€ coin for scale. (From: https://www.worthpoint.com/worthopedia/original-cairo-made-ffl-regiment-de-1915137548) Obverse of a pin identified by the seller as for ambulance chirurgicale légère, of the Free French Forces, made in Cairo by Fahmy Tewfik Bichay. A photo of the unmarked reverse in the auction listing shows the showing the location of the 2 pins (at the superior and inferior ends of the piece, and showing the scar from replacing the locking pins with a clutch pins) and the obverse in comparison with a US 25¢ piece and a 1€ coin for scale. (From: https://www.worthpoint.com/worthopedia/cairo-made-badge-ambulance-1915137854) Obverse of an enamel pin identified by the eBay seller as an insignia for the 4e Régiment de Tirailleurs Sénégalais made in Cairo by Fahmy Tewfik Bichay. The two other photos include in the auction listing show the unmarked reverse showing the location of the pin (in the middle of the pin, and showing the scar from replacing the locking pin with a clutch pin) and the obverse in comparison with a US 25¢ piece and a 1€ coin for scale. (From: https://www.worthpoint.com/worthopedia/cairo-made-badge-4e-regiment-de-1915138513) Examples of some of the South African Air Force stick pin insignia for various squadrons that were made by Fahmy Tewfik Bichay in Cairo, of the kind mentioned by the seller of the above FFL pins, are shown in low-resolution illustrations, but with good identifications, on the MP Antique et Militaria website (http://www.militaria.qc.ca/air-force/south-africa.html). The same seller of the above eBay Fahmy Tewfik Bichay FFL pins also listed this example on an undated past eBay auction that is archived on the WorthPoint.com website. This is stated in the auction listing to be copy of a pin insignia of a: "Free French 1ére Compagnie de Chausseurs Parachutists badge that was made during the Second World War in Cairo, Egypt by Maison Tewfik Bichay. This particular badge was made by Fahmy T. Bichay using the company's original dies in 1977 at the request of a collector." The description identifies the mark on the reverse "R 77" as having been placed there by Fahmy Tewfik Bichay to mark this piece (and others?) as modern replica(s) of a genuine WWII pins. The seller did not know how many such copies may have been made by Bichay. (From: https://www.worthpoint.com/worthopedia/cairo-made-copy-1ere-compagnie-de-1915140395). Reverse of the same replica of a FFL Parachutist pin showing the "R 77" mark identified as a mark used by Fahmy Tewfik Bichay to indicate this was a replica of a pin manufactured from the original dies in 1977. The dimensions of this pin are not given, but again the seller has included a photo of the obverse with a US 25¢ piece and a 1€ coin for scale.
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