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Ed_Haynes

Pre-1947 Indian Non-Gallantry Groups

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Captain Sir Parushuramrao Ramachandrarao ?Bhav Sahib? Patwardhan, K.C.I.E., Chief of Jamkhandi

1- 1914-15 Star - CAPT. SIR P.B. PATWARDHAN K.C.I.E. CHIEF OF JAMKHANDI.

2- British War Medal - CAPT. SIR P. B. PATWARDHAN. CH. OF JAMKHANDI

3- Victory Medal - CAPT. SIR P. RAMCHANDRARAV, CHIEF OF JAMKHANDI.

4- Durbar 1911 - unnamed

Sir Meherban PARASHURAM RAO RAMCHANDRA RAO I [DHAJISAHEB] PATWARDHAN 1897/1924, adopted from the Chinchanikar branch of the Patwardhan family, Chief of Jamkhandi, born 1883, succeeded 1897, installed 4th June 1903, K.C.I.E. [cr.1913], took active part in France in 1915, during WW1, in 1918 he was granted a 9-gun salute and made Hon. Captain in the British Army, he as a supervisor of Red Cross in the Mesopotamia, married 1stly 1900 Rama Bai Raste, daughter of Bala Sahib Raste, from the village of Vai, died 1st October 1907, married 2ndly 12th June 1913 Damle, daughter of Damle of Pune and had issue, 1 son and 1 daughter. He died 25th February 1924 (by being crushed under the feet of an angry elephant).

Obviously on original mounting. wink.gif

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Political Naib Tehsildar Shahbaz Khan, Sarwekai, South Waziristan, North-West Frontier Province

1- Indian Title Badge, George V, second variety, 3rd class, Khan Sahib - Shahbaz Khan, 1st Jany, 1934.

Shahbaz Khan, Political Naib Tehsildar, Sarwekai, South Waziristan, North-West Frontier Province - Not. No. 21-H or 1 January 1934

Recommendation in F&P, 67-H/1933:

"Shahbaz Khan is the son of Honorary Captain Fateh Khan of Azizabad, a provincial darbari who rendered excellent service during the unrest of 1930. Shahbaz Khan has served in South Waziristan for the past four years. He first distinguished himself in 1929 when, in chase of the outlaw Bostan, he, accompanied by tribal maliks and Khassadars, penetrated into the heart of the Mahsud tribal territory. In November 1931 he, again at considerable personal risk, proceeded to the most jealously guarded sanctuary of the Mahsuds -- the Khaisara, in search of the murderer Zarre, Giga Khel. In March 1932 he was present with the Scouts and troops who carried out the engineer reconaissance for the proposed Rqazmak-Wana road and his skill in dealing with the tribes and the personal ascendency he has gained from his firm but sympathetic treatment of them was largely responsible for the peaceful outcome of the expedition. During the autumn of 1932 Shahbaz Khan was in charge of the negotiations with the Khaisara Mahsuds concerning the construction of the Razmak-Wana road through their country. He was most successful and road construction in the Tiarza Valley was commenced in November, and has since continued steadily under the personal supervision of this officer.

"Shahbaz Khan was of great assistance in August 1933 when certain action had to be taken against Mahsuds and Wazirs over a boundary dispute which was affecting the progress of road making. He showed courage and resource on this occasion and was largely responsible fo its successful conclusion.

"I consider his services to be most deserving of recognition"

FSGoI adds: "Political Naib Tahsildars in the N.W.F.P. have in the past been granted titles; tho' they appear to be comparatively junior officers for recognition. This gentleman however appears to have done very well & we need not raise the question of his juniority."

2- India General Service Medal, 1908-35, George V, 2nd variety - NORTH WEST FRONTIER 1930-31 - POL. NAIB TAHR. SHAHBAZ KHAN, POL. DEPT.

Political Naib Tahsildar, Political Department.

This group says a lot about "The Frontier"?

Edited by Ed_Haynes

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Sort of a "token" group to a native (of the British Isles) -- I don't normally collect to then, but this one called out to be made an exception.

Winifred, Lady Hardinge of Penshurst, C.I., K.i.H.

Only portions of her group (Crown of India, Shefkat Order, and lesser doo-dads stripped). Still, pretty.

1- Kaisar-i-Hind, gold, GV, 1st variety

2- Jubilee 1897, silver

3- Coronation 1902, silver

4- Durbar 1911, gold

5- Ottoman: Iftikhar Madalyasi (Sanay-i Nefise Madalyasi), silver - the only medal named

Fringe stuff, but pretty.

Hubby's gongs (Charles, Baron Hardinge of Penshurst, Viceroy of India 1910-16) went separately. Of course. The family group was broken!!

Edited by Ed_Haynes

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Havildar Golab Singh, 1st Regiment Sikh Infantry

1- Punjab Campaign Medal, 1848-49 - Sepoy ___aub Singh 1st Sikh Local R.

2- India General Service Medal, 1854-95 - NORTHWEST FRONTIER - unnamed (see below)

3- Indian Mutiny, 1857-58 - Havr Golab Singh 1st Regt Sikh Infy

One of the first Sikhs (probably a veteran of earlier Sikh service?) to be recruited into the Indian Army?

The IGS54, I have to admit, is an unnamed representative "restoration" (an ethically "gray" act by my personal standards). The group was obtained in India in the midst of one of the mid-70s silver "booms". I was able to save Golab Singh's Punjab and Mutiny medals even while watching his IGS with NWF clasp dissolve in front in my eyes into the silver melting pot, chocolate fondue style. The nightmare image still haunts me.

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Rai Sahib Panchanan Ghosh, B.E.M., Subdivisional Officer, Government House, Calcutta

Seen before, but now researched, dressed, and in a new home.

1- Indian Title Badge, Rai Sahib, George VI - named "Babu Panchanan Ghosh 2nd June 1943"

Babu Panchanan Ghose, B.E.M., Subdivisional Officer, Government House, Calcutta ? 2 June 1943

PSV 42-H/1943:

?Babu Panchanan Ghosh has worked in the Communications and Works Department for 30 years, and during the greater part of this period he has held charge of subdivisions relating to Government House, Calcutta or Darjeeling. He has proved to be an exceptional and tactful officer, and his work has been marked by thoroughness and accuracy of judgment. In 1938 he received the Medal of the Order of British Empire, and since that year his work has continued to be of a very high order. His present pay is Rs.325/- and he is due to retire shortly. It is recommended that his long and meritorious service should be recognized by the award of the title of Rai Sahib.?

2- British Empire Medal (civil), George VI - named "BABU PANCHANAN GHOSE"

Babu Panchanan Ghose, Sub Divisional Officer, Government House, Calcutta, Bengal ? 1 January 1938.

PSV, 10(3)-H/1937:

?FOR MERITORIOUS SERVICE.

?Babu Panchanan Ghose has put in 24 years? service under Government in the Public Works Department and has held charge of the Government House sub-divisions in Darkeeling and now in Calcuttra. In 1935 he was awarded the Jubilee Medal. In 1936 he was awarded a first class certificate for his services in connection with famine relief work in Burdwan. He is an exceptionally able and tactful officer and his work [is] marked with thoroughness and good judgment. He is striongly recommended for the award of the Medal, and is of a class lower than those considered eligible for ?Membership? of the Order.?

3- Jubilee Medal, 1935 - unnamed, on roll, p. 213, #539, as "Pachnanan Ghosh, Sub-Divisional Officer, Government House, Sub-Division, Calcutta"

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1175 Havildar Nawaz, 127th Princess of Wales's Own Baluch Light Infantry

1- East and Central Africa Medal "LUBWA'S", "UGANDA 1897-98" - 1175 Pte: NAWAZ 27/BO: L: INF: - only 88 for this clasp combination

2- Africa General Service Medal, 1902-1956, Edward VII issue "SOMALILAND 1908-10" - 1175 HAVDr NAWAZ. 127 BALUCHI L.I.

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Rai Sahib Ganesh Dass, Inspector of Police, Quetta City, Baluchistan

1- Indian Title Badge, George V, first variety, 3rd class, Rai Sahib - Lala Ganesh Dass

An undated retrospective award of 1911 for those receiving titles prior to the institution of Title Badges. Title awarded in 1907 to Lala Ganesh Dass, Inspector of Police, Baluchistan. Not. No. 10-I.C. of 1 January 1907: ?Lala Ganesh Dass, Inspector of Police, Quetta City.? Recommendation:

F, Frontier B, March 1907, 24-27:

?This officer is shortly to retire after 33 years? service of which over 20 have been in Baluchistan. After many years? approved service in the Quetta-Pishin district, he was specially selected by the Political Agent for work in Zhob in the early and difficult days of that Agency. When leaving the Agency Major McIvor noted, ?He has fully answered my expectations which were high. I have read over all his certificates and, good as they are, I think they are not one bit too good. . . . Ganeshdass has shown the greatest zeal and intrepidity in pursuing thieves right to the Kundar with next to no escort. He continued to do excellent work in Zhob for a number of years, his influence with the Pathans making him of the greatest use to successive district officers. Since his return to Quetta, his work has been equally valuable.?

?Major Archer, in again recommending this officer in March 1906, wrote:--

??He has continued to do most valuable work, and he has recently rendered excellent service in connection with the Royal visit. The anxieties connected with that visit would have been very much greater if we had not had Ganeshdas in charge of the City.?

?Mr. Tucker, Officiating Agent to the Governor-General in Baluchistan has noted as follows:--

??I endorse these remarks and shall welcome the grant of this title of honour.??

2- King's Police Medal, George V, 1st type - RAI SAHIB GANESH DASS. INSPECTOR CITY POLICE, QUETTA (BALUCHISTAN)

Gazette of India 16 December 1911, Rai Sahib Ganesh Dass, Inspector City Police (Baluchistan). Research awaits.

3- Visit of the Prince of Wales, 1905 - unnamed

Recorded in the Royal Archives at Windsor under the name ?Ganesh Dass, Native Inspector, Quetta Police.? Only seventy medals presented. Ribbon incorrect.

4- Delhi Durbar 1911, silver - unnamed

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647 Sepoy Mukhtar Singh, 6th Raghubir Kashmir Light Inantry

1- India Medal, 1895-1902, Victoria - RELIEF OF CHITRAL 1895 - 647 Sepoy Mukhtar Singh 6th Kashmir L. Infy.

2- Jammu and Kashmir - Chitral Medal, 1895 - CHITRAL 1895 - 647 SEPOY MUKHTAR SINGH 6TH KASHMIR L I

Regiment raised as a part of the ISF (2 companies of Hindu Dogras, 2 of Gorkhas, and 2 of Muslim Dogras) on 1 January 1892, though not trained until October 1893; at that time, the unit was deployed to Gilgit where it served on the Bunji-Chilas line. One hundred "Kashmir Infantry" in Col. Kelly's force. Returned to Jammu after the Chitral campaign. Disbanded 1896.

Not a great scan, sorry.

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Cook Sadhu Singh, 35th Sikhs

1- Queen's Sudan Medal, 1896-98, bronze - COOK SADHU SINGH. 35 / SIKHS.

Service in Brigadier-General Egerton's force at Suakin, 30 March 1896 to 23 September 1896.

2- India Medal, 1895-1902, Victoria, bronze - PUNJAB FRONTIER 1897-98, MALAKAND 1897 - Cook Sadhu Singh, 35 Sikhs

3- Khedive's Sudan Medal, 1896-1908, bronze - Cook Sadhu Singh, 35 Bl Infy

An unusual three-medal bronze group.

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Khan Sahib Bhicajee Dadabhoy, Military Accounts Department

1- Khan Sahib, George V - Mr. Bhicajee Dadabhoy 1st Jany 1920

No. 17-I-C of 1 January 1920 ? Khan Sahib to ?Mr. Bichajee Dadabhoy (retired), Office of the Controller of Military Accounts, 6th (Poona) Division?

F&P, Internal B, February 1920, 436-442:

?Mr. Bicajee Dadabhoy rendered loyal and faithful service to Government for a period over 31 years and retired in December 1916. On offering his services in connection with the war, he has been re-employed on Rs. 250 per mensem since June 1918 and has been of great help to the Field Accounts Officer, Aden, in organizing and running his office where he carried out his duties as Head Clerk, most efficiently. He is absolutely trustworthy, is a well known and much respected member of the Parsi community and the proposed title will be a fitting reward for a long and useful career spent in the service of Government.

?The Local Government has no objection to this recommendation.?

2- 1914-15 Star - B. DADABHOY, MILY. ACCTS. DEPT.

3- British War Medal - KHAN SAHIB ~~~ B. DADHABOY, M. A. D. (renamed by obscuring "MR." and adding "KHAN SAHIB")

4- Victory Medal - KHAN SAHIB ~~~ B. DADHABOY, M. A. D. (renamed by obscuring "MR." and adding "KHAN SAHIB")

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Subadar Major Khan Bahadur Abdul Rauf Khan, Border Military Police and retired Extra Assistant Commissioner, Peshawar, NWFP

Khan Bahadur, George V, first variety - Abdul Rauf Khan - retired Extra Assistant Commissioner, Peshawar, NWFP - title 1897 (Foreign Department, Frontier Proceedings, September 1897, 264-287). Badge named "Abdul Rauf Khan". No date on reverse of badge = from the first set of badges awarded, the pre-1911 retrospective awards (the VERY first title badges). Awarded in the context of the 1911 Durbar.

There is quite a story here, prepare to have your hair cirled.

Shown as "Subadar-Major, Border Military Police".

L. W. Dane (Settlement Collector, Perhawar Division), ?Note on the Survey of the Border of the Peshawar District during Settlement 1894,? F, Frontier A, January 1896, 128-147:

?[border from Shamshattu Border Militia Post to Aimal Chabutra, in dispuite since 1869.] In 1893, a serious dispute arose between the Kalla Khel and Adezai owners of the tip [division of produce], and Major Deane, Deputy Commissioner, deputed Subadar-Major Abdul Rauk of the Border Militia to impose it. This was done and the Afridis had to pay their tip as they had not done for years.?

?[border from the Swat River to Hari Chand, Tahsil Charsadda.] As at Darwazgai the only serious chance of a disturbance arose, the history of the case deserves notice. In 1861-62 there had been a dispute between Totai and Tangi about the very area, which is a narrow strip of leven land intersected by nullahs running up to the low pass leading to Span Khara. It was decided by a jirga convened by Mr. Taylor, (sic) Assistant Commissioner, that the land belonged to Tangi, and this strip was accordingly measured at last settlement. Lately the Holy Mullah of Manki in Tahsil Naushera has been in the habit of going to Span Khara in the summer and has acquired great influence amongst the tribes there. As time went on he caused a small house to be constructed near an old Buddhist well in the bed of a nullah on this side of the pass. When I inspecxted this part of the frontier on 15th November 1893 I found that a small area near this had been broken up by trans-border men who were also cultivatring further to the south as well. After references to Major Deane it was decided that the area must be mapped within British territory. It is believed that the Mullah, though a British subject and owning valuable lands in Kheshgi in Tahsil Naushera and Gumati in Charsadda, objected to this, and raiused the tribes, whose attitude at one time was very threatening. Mr. Waterfield, Commandant, Border Militia, went to the spot on 18th April 1894 with a small excort of Border Militia under Subedar-Major Abdul Rauf Khan. Flags apopeared on the hill sides and several thousand men were collected. Mr. Waterfield explained matters to them, and Abdul Rauf went himself to Span Khara to the Mullah and remained there for some time. The result was that the cloud passed off and the area waqs measured on 29th April 1894 by four Patwaris under Abdul Haq, Field Kanungo, and Mir Alam, Deputy Superintendent. . . .

?[Note by Major H. A. Deane, Deputy Commissioner, Peshawar.] The dispute on the Uthman Khel and Ranizai border in regard to Asgarh, Killa and Dobandi was the most serious that we had. . . . The Mullah had obtained great influence among the Utman Khels and the Ranizais, and his object was to put them forward as claimants to the land, keeping himself in the background. He undoubtedly hoped that by a show of force we could be deterred from measuring the land and, if necessary, he intended to withdraw from Spin Khara himself, leaving the tribes to fight for the land. He got together a gathering of some 5,000 men and 87 standards, and as our information was to the effect that in Prangghar, Totai and the villages near the border the inhabitants had removed their cattle and the doors and woodwork from their homes, it was clear that the only chance was to fix the responsibility of the Mullah on the spot. This was done by the dispatch of Subedar-Major Abdul Rauf with a letter to the Mullah from myself [Deane], and with directions to Abdul Rauf to deliver it in person and to establish himself as the Mullah?s guest until he had permission to come away. The Mullah was taken by suirprise, he having made his preparations to leave Spin Khara the next day. He at first refused admitgtance to the Subedar-Major, who, however, was firm and acted all through with the greatest finesse and good sense. The Mullah owns considerable property in British territory and we ahd prevented his family from leaving British territory, which ensured him being careful for the safety of the Subedar-Major. The result of the Mullah?s responsibility being pressed on him was that the armed men found on the border next morning by Mr. Waterfield withdrew when told to do so, and the Mullah later with much entreaty dispersed the gathering. The measurements were then carried out without further trouble. Throughout these boundary disputres, which I was anxious should be settled finallyt without complications being brought about and also without making concessions to the tribes at the expense of our subjects, the Border Police under Mr. Waterfield, Assistant District Superintendent of Poilice, have done excellent service. Under his supervision they have carefully carried out my instructions not to bring about a collision with the tribes, nor to allow a few discontented individuals to force them into such a collision. Although, as Mr. Dane has mentioned in his report, shots were fired by the trans-border men during the measurement operations, not a shot was fired by the Border Military Police. At Dobandi Mr. Waterfield?s coolness and good sense prevailed with a considerable amount of armed men who were at one time within 40 yareds of him. . . . In conclusion, I would say that I cannot speak too highly of Mr. Waterfield, Commandant of the Border Military Police, and Subedar-Major Abdul Rauf in these troublesome matrters and I trust they may be suitably acknowledged by Government.?

F. D. Cunningham to Chief Secretary, Punjab, 8 July 1895, on demarcation of border between Peshawar District and independent territory, F, Frontier A, January 1896, 128-147:

?It is a pleasant duty to draw attention to the credit that is due . . . to the services of the officers of the Border Police, Mr. S. Waterman and Abrab Abdur Rauf Khan; their management of the Kala Khel Afridis, their arrengments for guarding survey parties throughout, and in especial their coolness and resource with hwihc they met the situation created by the sttitude of the Mullah of Manki and his thousands of fanatical clanslem at Dobandi, merit the highest praise, and will no doubt receive full recognition of Government.?

F, Frontier B, September 1897, 264-287, recommendation for Khan Bahadur:

"Belongs to Khalil Arbab Khel family. His services in the Border Military Police have been most distinguished, especially during the recent demarcation of the boundary of the district when, by his personal tact and courage in proceeding alone to the house of the Manki Mullah at Spankhara, he succeeded in securing the dispersion of a large armed body of some 6,000 tribesmen and prevented what might have been a most serious fracas (vide correspondence ending with Government of India, Foreign Department, No. 4636 F., dated 30th December 1895). He has been strongly recommended for this honour by Major Deane and Mr. Merk."

India Medal, 1895-1902, Victoria - PUNJAB FRONTIER 1897-98, TIRAH 1897-98 - named "Subdr. Major K. B. Abdul Rauf Khan Border Mily. Police".

Reunited from two very different sorces!!

Edited by Ed_Haynes

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Sepoy Nehala 20th Punjab Infantry

1- India General Service Medal 1854 - JOWAKI 1877-8 - "Sepoy Nehala 20th Regt N. I."

2- Second Afghan War- ALI MUSJID - "Sepoy Nehala (1) 20th Regt N. I."

3- Egypt 1882 - "Sepoy Nehala 20th Punjab Infy"

4- Egypt: Khedive's Star, 1882 - unnamed

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2208 Sepoy Hardit Singh, 31st Bengal Infantry

1- Central Africa Medal - "2208 Sepoy Hardit Singh, 31st Bl Infy"

2- India Medal 1895 - PUNJAB FRONTIER 1897-98, MALAKAND 1897 - "2208 Sepoy Hardit Singh, 31st Bl Infy"

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885 Sowar Naurang Singh, Patiala Imperial Service Lancers

1- Queen's South Africa - CAPE COLONY, ORANGE FREE STATE, TRANSVAAL - 885 SOWAR NAURANG SINGH. PATIALA LCRS.

2- King's South Africa - SA 01, SA 02 - 885 SOWAR NAURANG SINGH. PATIALA LCRS.

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Winifred Selina Sturt (yes, S-t-u-r-t) was the daughter of the 1st and presumably last ("See 1940 edition" Burke's 1970) Baron Allington. I couldn't find her birth year, but married 1890 and died 11 July 1914 just as "the lights were going out" on her Age.

Could you explain the Indian titles? I see there are Hindu and Muslim, but what is the exact scale and what would "equivalents" be--

Babu, for instance was a Lowly Sort not deemed of "officer" status, and the persistent references to salaries leads me to think these civil titles somehow equate to what would be a military rank, in the way that a German "Assessor" was a "Hauptmann" and an "Oberregierungsrat" was an "Oberstleutnant" for dinner seating purposes.

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Could you explain the Indian titles? I see there are Hindu and Muslim, but what is the exact scale and what would "equivalents" be--

Babu, for instance was a Lowly Sort not deemed of "officer" status, and the persistent references to salaries leads me to think these civil titles somehow equate to what would be a military rank, in the way that a German "Assessor" was a "Hauptmann" and an "Oberregierungsrat" was an "Oberstleutnant" for dinner seating purposes.

Ah . . . titles. You'll be sorry you asked. To put it very briefly (really):

Things like "Babu" were merely titles of respect (= "Mr.) but with a Bengali regional connotation and, over time, becoming a title of ridicule.

Arguably, the title badges are one of the least understood but most interesting of pre-1947 British awards for India.

Titles had been awarded since before even Sultanate and Mughal times and remained (and remain) one of the important indigenous means of recognizing achievement. As the East India Company emerged as one of the regional power players in the Subcontinent by the early 18th century, they, too, became both the recipient and bestower of titles. By the early 19th century, they moved to eclipse the Mughal Emperor in all aspects of his power, including the right to award titles. This practice continued and grew even into the years after 1858, when India came under vaguely defined crown rule. Yet the patterns of awarding titles remained a distinctly provincial and regional activity and there was no central "system" until efforts began in the late 1880s at standardizing and rationalizing the award of titles.

At the suggestion of Maharaja Ganga Singh of Bikaner, and as one of the "Durbar Boons" for the 1911 Durbar, the king-emperor established a series of accompanying "badges" which could be worn to display the title awarded. Restospective badges were awarded for those individuals still living who had received titles prior to 1911 and the titles awarded at the Durbar and afterward were accompanied not only by the customary sanad (certificate) but by a badge.

Roughly, these titles were awarded in three "degrees", with distinctive titles representing the imperial construction of religion and region in India.

1- A silver-gilt six-pointed rayed star (the gilt is very thin and has often disappeared in polishing or simply evaoprated over time) with a crown above and the image of the king-emperor in the center (facing to the viewer's right). The name of the title is on a light blue enameled circlet surrounding the king's image. The ribbon is light blue ("Star of India" blue) with narrow dark blue ("Order of the Indian Empire" blue) edges. The badges were worn around the neck from a 45-inch length of ribbon. All badges, including the restrospective awards, were named on the reverse.

1a- "Sardar Badadur" to Muslims (almost uniquely in Baluchistan and Sind) and to Sikhs (in the Punjab only) - Almost all "Sardar Bahadur" awards were to Sikhs or to individuals with significant military service. Great confusion accompanied the fact that the title "Sardar Bahadur" was also awarded with the OBI 1st class.

1b- "Diwan Bahadur" to Hindus (in practice, mostly in southern India)

2- As for the "1st class", but with the encircling band unenameled (the intent was for it to be red enamelled, but the mint could find no red enamel that would stick to the medal and green was not deemed appropriate due to to religions connotations regarding Islam). The ribbon is light red with narrow darker red edges.

2a- "Khan Bahadur" - to Muslims

2b- "Rai Bahadur" to Hindus in "north India"

2c- "Rao Bahadur" to Hindus in "south India"

3- As for the 1st and 2nd class, but all silver. The encircling band with the name of the title is enameled in dark blue. The ribbon is dark blue ("Order of the Indian Empire" blue) with narrow light blue ("Star of India" blue) edges.

3a- "Khan Sahib" - to Muslims

3b- "Sardar Sahib" - to Sikhs, usually in Punjab only (elsewhere, they were rewarded as Hindus)

3c- "Rai Sahibr" to Hindus in "north India"

3d- "Rao Sahib" to Hindus in "south India"

Neither the geographical distinction between ?Rais? and ?Raos? nor the dividing line between the great defining category of ?British India? ? religion ? was entirely impermeable. In general, the ?Rai? title was awarded to Hindus in north India (Bengal, East Bengal, Assam, Burma, the United Provinces, Punjab, the North-West Frontier, and Baluchistan), while the ?Rao? titles were awarded to Hindus in Madras and Bombay (including Gujarat). Other areas were more ambiguous, and ?Rai? and ?Rao? titles were bestowed in almost equal numbers in the Central Provinces and Central India, in Hyderabad, in Mysore, and in Rajputana and Ajmer-Merwara; in many cases, nominated title recipients were consulted as to their personal preference between the ?Rai? and ?Rao? appellations.

Religious distinctions, however certain they sometimes appeared in the census process, were an especially complex problem. In general, Hindus were ?Hindus? and Muslims were ?Muslims". In general, Parsis (Zoroastrians) were treated as ?honorary Muslims? and received the standard Khan Sahib-Khan Bahadur-Sardar Bahadur progression of honorifics. There were, however, cases of Parsis being appointed in the ?Hindu series? of titles. Sikhs posed a particular problem, occupying as they did both a prominent position in the ?Martial Races? ideology of ?British India? and an ambiguous religious niche between Hinduism and Islam. This difficulty was, of course, compounded by late-nineteenth-century movements within the Sikh community that aimed as asserting an increasingly distinct religions identity. As these movements progressed throughout the early twentieth century, they would generate greater problems in India than just what title to award deserving Sikhs. Yet, in the realm of titles, most provinces treated Sikhs as Hindus and awarded them the ?Hindu series? of titles. Only the Punjab government ? and this is hardly surprising ? adopted a different policy, and had been awarding the title of ?Sardar Sahib? to Sikhs at the lowest level of achievement and, apparently, promoting Sardar Sabibs direct to ?Sardar Bahadur? as their next step in the title hierarchy, by-passing the normal second-level titles entirely. Jews were rewarded as Muslims and Christians were awarded titles approroitate to what their families had been prior to conversion (if it could not be determined, they, too, were seen as honorary Muslims). Buddhists were rewarded as Hindus. As no titles have been located that were bestowed on Jains, it is impossible to determine how they were fitted into the title regulatory policies. Anglo-Indians ("Eurasians") and women were never included in the title badge system.

Appointments, except in truly exceptional cases, would be to the lowest level (for example, a Hindu (in Bengal) would first be made a ?Rai Sahib?), and later appointments would come to the intermediate (?Rai Bahadur?) and highest (?Dewan Bahadur?) titles. In practice, most Muslims were restricted to two "steps": "Khan Sahib" to "Khan Bahadur". A Sikh, however, would vault from "Sardar Sahib" to "Sardar Bahadur".

From 1913, the date of the award of the title (usually, but not always, either New Year's or Birthday Honours) was added to the naming engraved on the reverse. (Unnamed badges are mint "espcapees".)

After WWI, miniature medals came into fashion and a place had to be found in the order of wearing for the title badges. They were inserted following the Kaisar-i-Hind Medals, a rather lofty place (a fact not widely known, then or now). An ongoing debate raged as to whether the badges could be worn either in uniform or in ribbon bars. It had been the original intent to restrict their wearing, but over time this policy erroded. An additional problem arose (one that can be comprehended by those who collect these badges today) in that the ribbons were difficult to obtain, especially in the lengths required. The ribbons were made in China and, with the rise of civil war, supplies were difficult. As a response to this problem, in part, the badges were allowed to be worn on the left breast, if the recipient so desired, from 5 March 1923.

On 1 June 1933, the awareness seems to have dawned that the image of the King-Emperor on the title badges was facing in the ?wrong? direction, and the king?s image was reversed to face, more properly, to the left (as seen by the observer). While design work was begun for Edward VIII badges after the death of George V, this work was stopped when he abdicated in favour of his brother. The massive confusion of this period led to the issue of interim badges for the 11 May 1937 (Birthday Honours) awards where an interim image of the new ruler, George VI, was simply glued over the old image of his father, which had been ground down. Even honor could become flexible when demands of schedules and costs demanded. The award of title badges continued until the final honours lists to Indians, 13 June 1946.

To summarize:

100 George V (first type, bust right, undated 1911-13):

110 1st class:

111 Sardar Bahadur

112 Diwan Bahadur

120 2nd class:

121 Khan Bahadur

122 Rai Bahadur

123 Rao Bahadur

130 3rd class:

131 Khan Sahib

132 Sardar Sahib

133 Rai Sahib

134 Rao Sahib

200 George V - first type, bust right, dated, could be worn on breast ribbon from 1923 (1913-33):

210 1st class:

211 Sardar Bahadur

212 Diwan Bahadur

220 2nd class:

221 Khan Bahadur

222 Rai Bahadur

223 Rao Bahadur

230 3rd class:

231 Khan Sahib

232 Sardar Sahib

233 Rai Sahib

234 Rao Sahib

300 George V (second type, bust left, 1933-37):

310 1st class:

311 Sardar Bahadur

312 Diwan Bahadur

320 2nd class:

321 Khan Bahadur

322 Rai Bahadur

323 Rao Bahadur

330 3rd class:

331 Khan Sahib

332 Sardar Sahib

333 Rai Sahib

334 Rao Sahib

400 George VI - interim "pasted-on" awards (11 May 1937):

410 1st class:

411 Sardar Bahadur

412 Diwan Bahadur

420 2nd class:

421 Khan Bahadur

422 Rai Bahadur

423 Rao Bahadur

430 3rd class:

431 Khan Sahib

432 Sardar Sahib

433 Rai Sahib

434 Rao Sahib

500 George VI (1938-47):

510 1st class:

511 Sardar Bahadur

512 Diwan Bahadur

520 2nd class:

521 Khan Bahadur

522 Rai Bahadur

523 Rao Bahadur

530 3rd class:

531 Khan Sahib

532 Sardar Sahib

533 Rai Sahib

534 Rao Sahib

There was also a separate series of titles (and badges) for literary titles and for titles awarded in Burms, but these are another topic, for another day.

For more, if you can stand it, see: http://sagongs.ipbhost.com/index.php?showtopic=265

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:speechless1::cheers: I wan't sure before if those were considered hereditary "caste" sort of honors or the equivalent of a "Mister" becoming a (sniff) "Esquire."

Red enamel that wouldn't stick and glued on make do's ... :unsure: ahhhh, they were WAY ahead of the curve then for global design decline-- so noted!!!!

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Here's another odd one - three medals: three different dealers. Whether it's all he's entitled to we'll probably never know.

1935 Jubilee Medal - (engraved) Sgt. J.E.R. Jones 1st G.I.P. Reg. A.F.I.

Volunteer Long Service - Sjt. J.E.R. Jones 2 Bn. G.I.P. Ry R. A.F.I.

Efficiency Medal - S.C.M. J.E.R. Jones 1 G.I.P. Ry. R. A.F.I.

I also have an un-named silver prize medal to the 1st G.I.P. R. which may have been associated with him.

This combination could represent as much as 30 years service, or as little as 21 years, depending on how many Twofer years of war services he had.

I have been unable to locate any medal index card for Jones, and he doesn't appear in the 1919 Indian Army List in the I.A.R.O. so he may not have had Great War service.

Since he seems to have transferred from the 2nd to the 1st Bn. it would date his Volunteer L.S,. before 1935. Time enough to earn it on straight service (1917-35). Equally he could have earned the Efficiency as well on straight service (1935-47), but I think it more likely that he had some Second War medals. Since the railways were heavily staffed by Eurasians, it may be that he did not have Great War service.

[attachmentid=16416]

Edited by Michael Johnson

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Oh . . .

. . . you mean not everyone knows the Great Indian Peninsula Railway Regiment? Part of the Armed Forces of India (essentially territorial forces, mainly Europeans settled in India and a few Anglo-Indians). Weekend warriors. These guys were railway employees in "civvie street".

The regiment was raised in 1875 as the Great Indian Peninsula Railway Volunteer Corps. In 1890 they were absorbed in 1902 as the 2nd Battalion of the Midland Railway Voluneer Corps and renamed in 1917 as the 1/13th and 2/13th battalions of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway Battations. The title given above dates from 1920. During Gandhi's civil disobedience campaign (Jan 1930-Nov 1931) they served as railway security guards and as guards at armories. In WWII, during the "Quit India" movement (1942), they were again embidied for this same sort of duty.

While a territorial army continued after 1947, these AFI units were all disbanded.

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