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Oman is unusual. It is unique. It is the only Arab State for which there is a good reference book. While it may, arguably, need updating, A. R. Tinson's Orders & Medals of the Sultanate of Oman (London: Spink, 1995; ISBN 0-907605-59-1) is a treat for the eyes and a feast of information. It is made all the richer by being bilingual (English and Arabic). It is a shame that other states have not emulated Sultan Qabus bin Said al-Mua'tham and supported such work.

Online, there is a bit, but not too much:






http://www.coleccionesmilitares.com/cintas/cintasas.htm#o scroll to his two Oman pages

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Midalit Al-Hamalat / The Campaign Medal

Awarded to all officers and trained enlisted men (untrained personnel were excluded) who participated the the Jebel Akhdar War against the followers of Imam Ghalib bin Ali between 1 November 1958 and 1 February 1959.

Established: By Sultan Said bin Taimur in 1959. Manufactured by Spink and Son (London, England).

Obverse: A circular oxidized bronze medal. In the center, the Omani national emblem. Above and below, an Arabic legend. The medal is suspended from a swiveling straight-bar suspender (this is the only Omani medal to have a swiveling suspender). Bronze-gilt examples have been reported, but they seem to be merely trial or presentation specimens.

Reverse: A wreath surrounding the lower two-thirds of the Medal. Above, an Arabic legend and, in the center ??1378-79 H. [= 1958-59 C.E.] and ?JABAL AKHDAR / 1958-59?.

Ribbon: Diagonal stripes of green and red. This color scheme is said to represent the Jebel Akhdar (literally ?Green Mountain?) defanced with blood. The ribbon may be seen carrying a bronze (or silver?) khanjar device representing bravery in battle.

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Midalit Al-Khidmat Al-?Alamat / The General Service Medal

Originally intended to serve as a multi-purpose Omani general service medal (along British lines), for service of at least six weeks with a unit of at least company size, the medal has to date only been awarded with one clasp, for the Dhofar Rebellion. Despite apparent discussion to that effect, other clasps have not been instituted, based on the principle that active service is part of the normal duty of Omani armed forces personnel. There is, for example, some suggestion that a clasp was contemplated for the Second Gulf War.

Awarded for suppression of the Dhofar rebellion led by the Dhofar Liberation Organization (created 1964) and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman and the Arab Gulf (PFLOAG, created 1964), later (in 1974) merged and renamed as the Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman (PFLO); these groups received assistance from the People?s Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY or South Yemen).

The Dohfar clasp was awarded for fourteen days of consecutive service, thirty days of visits, or service abnormally terminated by wounds between 23 May 1965 and 20 June 1976 in those areas of the Dhofar Province and adjacent waters lying between longitude 52?00? and 56?30? E and latitude 16?30? and 18?00? N. Armed suppression assistance came to the Omani government from Iran, Jordan, and the United Kingdon and financial support came from India, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the Trucial States (later, the United Arab Emirates).

About 1971, the obverse of the medal was redesigned with the name and title of Sultan Qaboos.

The die for the medal, with legends altered and the clasp omitted, was used (at short notice) for the Accession Medal of Sultan Qaboos in 1970.

Established: Struck by Spink & Son (London, England).

Obverse: Circular, gilt, Omani coat of arms in the center. Inscription in Arabic above and, below; as these inscriptions differ for the various issues of the medal, for Sultan Said and for Sultan Qabus. The medal is suspended from a straight-bar suspender. The clasp bears the name of the campaign in Arabic, ?Dhofar?; so far, only this single clasp seems to have been issued to this medal.

Reverse: Mountains above laurel branches, Arabic inscription above.

Ribbon: Equal of red, off-white, and green. The original ribbon design was intended to represent the three regiments of the Omani army: the Muscat Regiment (red), the Northern Frontier Regiment (green), and the Desert Regiment (sand), but there is also the interpretation that the colors represented blood, sand, and the green of the Jebel Akhdar region. When the ribbons were finally made, the sand-colored stripe came out very light, appearing ? ironically and embarassingly ? as if the ribbon represented the red-white-green colors of the opposing Dhofar Liberation Front. After Sultan Qaboos? accession to power, these colors were those used in the new Omani flag, so the embarsassment that ahd existed before was diminished. The ribbon of the Sultan Said medal may be seen carrying a bronze (or silver?) khanjar device or a bronze palm leaf representing bravery in battle.

Awards: The medal was also awarded to Iranian and Jordanian troops who served in this campaign; this came in addition to their own national awards. British troops were not allowed to receive both this medal and their own Campaign Service Medal 1962 with ?Dhofar? clasp; many British officers on long-term loan to Oman did, however, opt for the Omani medal.

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Midalit Al-Sumood / The Endurance Medal

It was originally proposed that a medal be issued to represent victory and the end of organized resistance in the long war in Dhofar Province, for which the General Service Medal had been awarded. It is said that the sultan himself ruled out any ?victory? medal, as that misrepresented the sort of national suffering which the war had reprewsneted and that what ought to be commemorated, instead, was Al-Sumood, or ?Endurance?. The medal itself is, however, usually descibed even in English as the ?Al-Samood Medal?; I have adopted the literal English translation to convey the sense of national endurance which the sultan?s original directive sought to capture, and since the phrase ?Al-Samood? is totally meaningless to most non-Arabic-speakers.

The medal was awarded for thirty days of service in the period from 23 May 1965 to 2 December 1975. Note that this period of eligibility does not duplicate that of the General Service Medal.

Established: 1976. The medal was designed by Lieutenant Colonel Andrew Kirk and was manufactured by Spink and Son (London, England).

Obverse: Circular gilt medal, with the Omani national symbol in the center and an Arabic legend above and below. The medal is suspended from a ring suspender.

Reverse: The caligraphically rendered Arabic legend. Note that the medal is named here as a ?Wisam? or ?Order? and not as the officially reworded and refined title of a ?Midalit? or ?Medal?.

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Midalit Al-Salam Al-Omani / The Omani Peace Medal

Awarded in 1979 for one year of service after 1 July 1976 (the terminal date for the Dhofar clasp to the GSM). For those engaged in operations, a crown is added to the ribbon.

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Midalit Al-?Aid Al-Watani Al-Khamas ?Ashir Al-Majid / The Glorious Fifteenth National Day Medal

Awarded to commemorate the fifteenth anniversary of the accession of Sultan Qaboos to power, this medal was awarded to all ranks of the Omani armed forces and to employees of the Ministry of Defence (including civilians) serving on active duty on 18 November 1985.

Established: 1985. Designed by Wing Commander Andrew Kirk and manufactured by Spink and Son (London, England).

Obverse: A 37-mm circular frosted gilt medal with scalloped edges, in the center the Omani emblem, surrounded by the Arabic legand ?Al-Sultan Qaboos bin Sa?id Al-Ma?atum? or ?Sultan Qaboos bin Sa?id Al-Ma?athum?. Suspended by a curved, ornate straight bar. Interestingly, the plane in which the disk of the medal lies is slightly offset as compared to the suspension bar, apparently to simplify the mounting and wearing of the medal as a part of a group of medals.

Reverse: The number ?15? within an Arabic legend ?Glorious Fifteenth National Day Medal? and, below, ?1985? (C.E.).

Ribbon: 30 mm, red with equally spaced 1-mm stripes of green, white, green, white, green, white, green (four green, three white): 2.5 mm red, 1 mm green, 3 mm red, 1 mm white, 3 mm red, 1 mm green, 3 mm red, 1 mm white, 3 mm red, 1 mm green, 3 mm red, 1 mm white, 3mm red, 1 mm green, 2.5 mm red.

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Midalit Al-Khidmat Al-Tawilat wa Al-Salook Al-Hasan / Long Service and Good Conduct Medal

Awarded for twelve years of unbroken service in the Omani military services without conviction on a serious charge. There is no provision for bars to represent subsequent periods of service.

The medal was created by Sultan Said bin Taimur and was originally issued in oxidized bronze, but this metal was soon replaced by the present bronze gilt version. With the accession of Sultan Qaboos bin Said in 1970, a new variety was introduced. At that point in time, the parallel name of the decoration in English was removed from the reverse. In 1972 the obverse legend, showing the sultan?s title was altered (this is the variety shown).

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  • 1 month later...

Hello Ed,

I?ve also got the mentioned book. It is very interesting to read, with many citations for bravery decorations.

Below you`ll find my small collection of Omani medals.

They are left to right:

First row

- Order of the Special Royal Emblem for expatriate officers

- The Sultan`s Commendation Medal

- The Accession Medal

- The Jebel Akhdar Campaign Medal

- The General Service Medal with Dhofar Bar

- The Qaboos Police Medal

- The Sultan`s Distinguished Service Medal

Second row

- The Oman Peace Medal

- The As-Sumood Medal

- The LS&GC Medal

- The 10. Anniversary Medal

- The Glorious 15. National Day Medal

- 3 piece Ribbon Bar



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Hello Paul,

in the first picture the ribbon bar is shown in the wrong direction.

Now it`s correct; left to right:

- Order of the Special Royal Emblem for expatriate officers

- Police LS & GC Medal

- General Service Medal

It could be a possible combination, but who knows.



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  • 6 years later...
  • 11 months later...

Just bought this mini set today, can anyone explain the WW2 General service medal without Stars and the Omani medal that has like crossed daggers or swords on it. I dont normally buy mini sets into the 60s but this looked interesting so any info would be very much appreciated, Thanks everyone.

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Now I am kicking myself for not bidding! Both Omani miniatures are the very scarce first types in the name of Sultan Sa'eed bin Teymour which means they were awarded for service in the period ending in 1970 when he was deposed by his son, Sultan Qaboos. It may be a long shot but if you can match from Tinson's book list of British recipients of the DSM for the period 1967, when it was instituted, to 1970 and then cross reference against Mention in Dispatches list for the Campaign Service Medal campaigns of Borneo &/or South Arabia you might get a match.

Yours in frustration,


Edited by oamotme
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