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Danish General Anders Gjedde Nyholm

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Hello all,

I'm looking for reseach information, awarded orders and pictures of Danish General Anders Gjedde Nyholm.

What I have so far is:

Generall?jtnant Anders Gjedde Nyholm (1861-1939)

1914 - 1918: Commanding Officer Engineer Regiment

1918 - 1926: Commandant of Copenhagen

1921 - 1922: General Officer Commanding 2nd Division

1923 - 1926: Inspector-General of Engineers

1926 - 1931: Commanding General of the General Command

1931: Retired

23/09/1914: Oberst

06/11/1918: Generalmajor

20/10/1926: Generall?jtnant

Any help would be appreciated.

Cheers

Mark

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Hi Mark,

If noone else beats me to it, I'll look him up when I get home (in about 7 hours...)

/Mike

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Here is some information about Anders Gjedde Nyholm:

(this info is from the list of biographies "Danmarks H?r" ("The Danish army") published in 1934)

List of awards:

  • Denmark, Order of Dannebrog (Grand Cross)
  • Denmark, Order of Dannebrog, Silver Merit Cross
  • Anhalt, Albrecht der B?r (Knight 1. class)
  • Belgium, Order of the Crown (Grand Cross)
  • Finland, Order of the White Rose (Commander 1. class)
  • Finland, "Skyddsk?rernas Fortjenstkors"
  • France, Legion d'Honneur (Knight)
  • Italy, Order of the Crown (Commander)
  • Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Greifen Orden (Knight?)
  • Netherland, Oranje-Nassau Order (Commander)
  • Oldenburg, House Order (Knight)
  • Russia, Order of St, Anne (3. class)
  • Sweden, Order of the Sword (Knight 1. class)
  • Sweden, Order of Vasa (Commander)
I'll add to your list of ranks:

30. July 1881: Sekondl?jtnant

1. Oct. 1883: Premierel?jtnant

28. Jan. 1897: Kaptajn

1. Nov. 1909: Oberstl?jtnant

I have used the Danish ranks because you did so too, so either you know how to translate them or don't have any clue at all... :D

Anything else you want to know?

There is a very small photo in the above book (just his head and neck). I can scan it and post it here if you want it (but maybe you already have this)?

/Mike

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I can pretty much make out the ranks.... fairly easy to translate.....

However.... can you (if you have time) translate this info as I believe it is his service record.

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Now.... the reason for my madness.......

Dated to him 1918 as Major General.......

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Mike,

Now.... my next big question.....

Does anyone have contacts where I can find a belt, bi-corne cap and the orders I need to complete his display ?

Any suggestions ??

Cheers

Mark

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You're right of course - translating the ranks is pretty straightforward :)

Yes, this is the picture I mentioned. Actually your post #5 is from "Danmarks H?r" where I got his list of awards from.

I'll try to translate it for you. It may take a little time - not because it is difficult to understand for me, but finding the correct translations for all those weird positions...

(Example: Danish:Hofj?germester = German: Hofj?germeister = English:?)

But I'll do my best :)

I'll get back to you with a translation for the 2 articles.

Nice uniform - where on earth did that come from?

/Mike

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Hi Mike,

No rush.... just whenever you can get to it .....

I've been collecting general's uniforms (all countries) for a long time.. and a friend in Europe always seems to come across the odd ones.. and I had been looking for a Danish one... soooo when he called..... I picked it up.

Now.. I just need to complete it (belt, hat and orders).

Cheers

Mark

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OK, here is a translation of post #5:

Nyholm, Anders Gjedde, Lieutenat-General, <list of abbreviations for his awards>, born 2. July 1861 in Holstebro. Son of <Hofj?germester>, captain L. C. Nyholm of Bangsbo and Maren, born Gjedde.

Married 6. April 1888 to Mary Eva Carla, born Fog.

1878 Graduate from Borgerdydskolen - 30. July 1881 Secondlieutenant, 1. October 1883 Lieutenant, 1890-95 involved in the building of Middelgrundsfortet, 28. January 1897 Captain and head of the building department of the naval defense, 1898 Head of the railroad defense, 1903 Chief of staff of the Engineering Corps, 1906 Deputy head of 1. General Command, 1. November 1909 Lieutenant-colonel, 1911 Commander of the Engineering Corps, 1913 Chief of the Engineering Corps, 23. September 1914 Colonel, 6. November 1918 Major-General and Commander of Copenhagen, additionally 1921-22 Chief of 2. Division og 1922 General-Inspector for the Engineering Corps, 20. October 1926 Lieutenant-General and Chief of the General Command. 31. July 1931 Retired.

1893-1908 Teacher at the school for officers, 1909-10 Head of the planning of naval fortifications on Sealand.

Travels on duty: in 1891 to Germany, Holland, Belgium and France, in 1895 to Russia, Romania, Austria and Italy, in 1903 to France and Holland. 1912 monitoring maneuvers in Vesterg?tland (Sweden) and 13. October - 14. November 1917 monitoring war operations on the German western front (Belgium and France).

Until 1909 Treasurer for 'Det Krigsvidenskabelige Selskab' and editor of 'Milit?rt Tidsskrift', 1920-23 Chairman of Danish Officers Association in Copenhagen, from 1931 honorary president of 'De danske Soldaterforeningers Samvirke' for greater Copenhagen, from 1933 Chairman of Association of Officers without active duty.

___

Borgerdydskolen: Gymnasium school

Middelgrundsfortet: A naval fortification for the defense of Copenhagen.

'Det Krigsvidenskabelige Selskab' = 'Society of War Science'

'Milit?rt Tidsskrift' = 'Military Magazine'

'De danske Soldaterforeningers Samvirke' = 'Union of Danish Soldiers Associations'

/Mike

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And from post #6 (not much new I'm afraid):

Nyholm, Anders Gjedde, Danish General, born 2. July 1861, appointed lieutenant in the Engineering Corps 1883 and served afterwards both in his Corps and for a while as captain in the General Staff. Nyholm was appointed Colonel 1914, Major-General and Commander of Copenhagen 1918 and Lieutenat-General and Chief of the General Staff 1926.

During the World War Nyholm was leading a delegation of Danish officers, who made a field trip to the German front.

OK, 'field trip' may not be the exact translation, but pretty close. Remember we (Denmark) were neutral in WWI, so for the Danish General Staff it was 'somebody elses war'...

/Mike

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Here's a small bit to the puzzle:

The Swedish awards.

Knight of the Order of the Sword in 1906.

Commander of 2nd Class Order of Vasa in 1912. Coincidentally the same year he was attending a manouver in Sweden ;)

/Kim

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Mark,

Regarding his orders, they are all possible to get - possible, but not cheap!

Especially the Dannebrog Grand Cross, the Russian St. Anne and the Greifen Order will demand some deep pockets...

As an example the Dannebrog Grand Cross (King Christian X version) will probably set you back $2500-$3000.

/Mike

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Hey guys,

well... here is a small question........

He attained the rank of Major General in 1918 (the date of the tunic).... and the shoulder boards I have are also Major General (perhaps the family kept the Lt. General boards)....

So... the question/speculation is......

Which grades of these orders would he have had in 1918-1920 (i.e. I don't think he got the GC of the Dannebrog until he was promoted to Lt. General)....

What are your thoughts ??

Cheers

Mark

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I detected a couple of minor errors in my first list, so here is the correct one (as per 1934):

  • Denmark, Order of Dannebrog (Grand Cross) (awarded 26. Sept. 1928)
  • Denmark, Order of Dannebrog, Silver Merit Cross
  • Anhalt, Albrecht der B?r (Knight 1. class)
  • Belgium, Order of the Crown (Grand Cross)
  • Finland, Order of the White Rose (Commander 1. class)
  • Finland, "Skyddsk?rernas Fortjenstkors"
  • France, Legion d'Honneur (Commander)
  • Italy, Order of the Crown (Commander 1. class)
  • Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Greifen Orden (Knight 1. class)
  • Netherland, Oranje-Nassau Order (Commander 1. class)
  • Oldenburg, House- and Merit Order ('Offizierskreuz')
  • Russia, Order of St, Anne (3. class)
  • Sweden, Order of the Sword (Knight 1. class)
  • Sweden, Order of Vasa (Commander)
Furthermore, I found his list of awards as per 1916:
  • Denmark, Order of Dannebrog (Knight) (awarded 18. Sept. 1901)
  • Denmark, Order of Dannebrog, Silver Merit Cross (awarded 14. Jan. 1909)
  • Anhalt, Albrecht der B?r (Knight 1. class)
  • Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Greifen Orden (Knight 1. class)
  • Oldenburg, House- and Merit Order ('Offizierskreuz')
  • Russia, Order of St, Anne (3. class)
  • Sweden, Order of the Sword (Knight 1. class)
  • Sweden, Order of Vasa (Commander)
Given the award date for the Dannebrog orders, the Knight Cross is a Christian IX version (priced at approx. $1000) and the Silver Merit Cross is a Frederik VIII version (priced at approx. $1500).

In 1922 he had added these:

  • Denmark, Order of Dannebrog (promoted from Knight to Commander - Christian X version)
  • France, Legion d'Honneur (Commander)

/Mike

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Hey Mike,

This is GREAT stuff......... but I have a couple of questions.....

I know what the Dannebrog order is.. but I'm not at all famillar with the Order of Dannebrog, Silver Merit Cross ?

Also... what is the Finland, "Skyddsk?rernas Fortjenstkors" as I can't find reference to that in any of my books.

Would he have have any campaign type medals that would not be listed in this reference ?

On another side...... do you have any examples of what the mounted Danish medalbars would look like.... His tunic has two rows of loops for two medal bars... perhaps the top one with 4 medals and the bottom one with 3....

Cheers

Mark

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Dannebrog, Silver Merit Cross:

When the Order of Dannebrog was changed to a multi-class order in 1808, the King introduced a special class called the Silver Merit Cross ("Dannebrogsm?ndenes H?derstegn"). It had a special status and was not (only) an entry level award. It could be awarded for special merit and was also awarded to those who had already received a Knight Cross, Commander's Cross or Grand Cross. If this cross was awaded before any Knight Cross or higher, it would be mounted first on the recipients medal bar. Several kings wore this cross on their uniform.

Here is a picture of the Frederik VIII version:

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Sorry, my naming of the Finnish cross was a bit inaccurate because 'Fortjenstkors' is Danish. The correct name is "Skyddsk?rernas f?rtj?nstkors".

I'm not really sure what it was awarded for...

Here is a picture:

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For the rest of your questions:

I doubt he would have had any campaign medals not mentioned here. Certainly not any Danish ones.

I he wore his medal bar according to the rules, the ribbons should look like the one on the Silver Merit Cross in post #19, overlapping each other by half a ribbon.

However, it was very normal just to wear the orders/medals as single pieces at that time. Of course the no. of orders would make it practical to have a medal bar made in this case.

I have only rarely seen ODMs worn on more than one medalbar unless you had a LOT, but it is not (as far as I know) against regulations...

/Mike

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Hey Mike,

That is great info.... and I really appreciate it........ So...... check me and see if I'm correct....

If I were to repicate his awards as of, say, 1925

Awards circa 1925

Rank, Major General

Medal bar (7 medals):

Denmark, Order of Dannebrog, Silver Merit Cross (awarded 14. Jan. 1909)

Anhalt, Albrecht der B?r (Knight 1. class)

Finland, "Skyddsk?rernas Fortjenstkors"

Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Greifen Orden (Knight 1. class)

Oldenburg, House- and Merit Order ('Offizierskreuz')

Russia, Order of St, Anne (3. class)

Sweden, Order of the Sword (Knight 1. class, awarded 1906)

Neck Orders:

Denmark, Order of Dannebrog (Commander - Christian X version)

Finland, Order of the White Rose (Commander 1. class)

France, Legion d'Honneur (Commander)

Italy, Order of the Crown (Commander 1. class)

Netherland, Oranje-Nassau Order (Commander 1. class)

Sweden, Order of Vasa (Commander, awarded 1912)

Breast Star:

Belgium, Order of the Crown (Grand Cross)

I'm not sure as to the date of the Belgium Crown, the Finnish orders or the Italian...

Whatcha think ?

Cheers

Mark

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Well, we don't know what he received between 1922 and 1925, so it would be easier to use the 1922 list.

In 1922 his medal bar would consist of 5 orders:

  • Denmark, Order of Dannebrog, Silver Merit Cross (awarded 14. Jan. 1909)
  • Sweden, Order of the Sword (Knight 1. class)
  • Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Greifen Orden (Knight 1. class)
  • Anhalt, Albrecht der B?r (Knight 1. class)
  • Russia, Order of St, Anne (3. class)
I have listed them in order of precedence. Danish orders are followed by Scandinavian orders and other foreign orders are mounted according to the date they were awarded.

I know he already had the Greifen Order in 1903 (and not the Anhalt or Russian orders) so it comes after the Swedish order. The two last could be reversed if further research reveals their award dates.

Neck orders:

  • Denmark, Order of Dannebrog (promoted from Knight to Commander - Christian X version)
  • Sweden, Order of Vasa (Commander)
  • France, Legion d'Honneur (Commander)
Breast:
  • Oldenburg, House- and Merit Order ('Offizierskreuz')

If you want to include more of his awards, we'll have to find out what he received between 1922 and 1928 (the Dannebrog Grand Cross date).

And remember that all the Commander 1. class orders also will have a breast star.

I can try the library tomorrow if you want a specific year researched.

/Mike

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Hey Mike,

If you make a trip to the library.... let's see what he had in 1925 (just prior to his promotion).... Since the tunic is loaded with loops... and the boards are for Major General..... I thik this would be the best fit....

Also..... if you can find (or have) any period pics of general's with the style uniform... I would love to see how the orders/medals are worn.

My tunic... has loops for two short medal bars (perhaps 3 and 2 medals each)..... 4 sets of loops on the left breat for stars and two sets of loops on the right breast for stars.......

I'm also curious as to how the commanders orders were worn... since this is a double breasted uniform.... they would not go down the middle soooo ????

Thanks again for your help... it is greatly appreciated !

Cheers

Mark

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Here is the result of my library research:

In 1925 (while still being Major-General) he had these decorations:

Medal bar:

  • Denmark, Order of Dannebrog, Silver Merit Cross (Frederik VIII version - awarded 14. Jan. 1909)
  • Sweden, Order of the Sword (Knight 1. class)
  • Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Greifen Orden (Knight 1. class)
  • Anhalt, Albrecht der B?r (Knight 1. class)
  • Russia, Order of St, Anne (3. class)
Neck orders:
  • Denmark, Order of Dannebrog (Commander 1. class - Christian X version)
  • Sweden, Order of Vasa (Commander)
  • France, Legion d'Honneur (Commander)
  • Italy, Order of the Crown (Commander 1. class)
  • Netherland, Oranje-Nassau Order (Commander 1. class)
Breast:
  • Oldenburg, House- and Merit Order ('Offizierskreuz')
+ the accompanying Commander 1. class breast stars for
  • Denmark, Order of Dannebrog
  • Italy, Order of the Crown
  • Netherland, Oranje-Nassau Order
I even found a picture of him which is probably taken just after being awarded the Dannebrog Grand Cross in 1928.

As you can see breast stars are worn the traditional way - even if there is a row of buttons in the way...

/Mike

Edited by Great Dane

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