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    Imperial Order of the Rose

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    The order of the Rose was founded by the Emperor Dom Pedro I. on October 17, 1829, on occasion of his second marriage to Amalie Princess of Leuchtenberg. Dom Pedro I. who was besides his epileptic seizures a tough character and had several mistresses. This may be the reason why his first wife, Leopoldine of Austria, deceased rather young, not even 30 years old, in 1826. They had five children together, among them Maria Gloria, later Queen of Spain, and Dom Pedro, who would be Dom Pedro I. successor, called Dom Pedro II. After the death of Leopoldine of Austria, Dom Pedro I. went to Europe looking for a new wife. Due to his history and the influence of the Austrian chancellor Count Metternich a proper woman couldn't be obtained. Therefore his mistress, at this time still living at the Brazilian Court, was send away and negotiation with the Bavarian court Pedro got engaged to Amalie von Leuchtenberg, a daughter of the former Vice King of Italy, Eugen de Beauharnais. He was made the Duke of Leuchtenberg by his father in law King Maximilian von Bayern.Two days after the engagement, October 17, 1829, the Order of the Rose was founded. Some say the order was founded due to Pedro saying: "...beautiful as a rose", looking at Amalie. The other theory was the fact that Amalie liked the Rose's very much and he surprised her giving her a diamond set grand cross badge upon her arrival in Brazil. The last version should be the correct one.Fact is the precise planning of this order, proven by countless design drawings. The bear dates on them starting 4 weeks before she arrived in Brazil.
    avers cavaleiro cross

    The order was awarded in 6 different grades.

    On April 6, 1831, Dom Pedro went into exile with his daughter Maria Gloria and his wife to Spain and gave his power to his underage son Dom Pedro, now Dom Pedro II. The 5 year old was substituted by a council until he turned 15 July 15, 1840. During 1831 and 1840 no order was awarded. Afterwards the order was awarded quite often, since Pedro had a strong connection to his mother. Therefore the Order of the Rose became the most important in Brazil. In addition to this the order was even more popular then the classical Brazilian orders, as the order of the Southern Cross, due to its pretty designs. The Grand Duke of Russia, how was listed for the Grand Cross of the higher Order of The Southern Cross, during a visit of Dom Pedro II. in Russia asked the Emperor of Brazil for the Order of the Rose after being given his Grand Cross set. Being asked for the reason, he answered that the Rose Order had the more elegant design. Needless to say, that he was given both orders.

    After the revolution in 1889 the emperor of Brazil left his country. He diseased in Paris December 5, 1891.

    The order of the Rose is still a very attractive decoration and quite rare. Looking at the number of awards it is quite clear, that certain classes are pretty difficult to obtain:

     limits due to statuestotal number of bestowals

    Pedro I(1829-1831)

    Pedro II(1841-1889)

    Grão Cruz 7157
    Grande Dignitario161173

     The Grão Cruz efetivo was worn with a collar of 54.5 cm length.

    There are a number of different manufactures for this order. The main manufacture was Kretly in Paris and Wolfers in Brussels. This made it difficult to determine the sizes of the different badges of the order. Mr. G. Tammann came up with the following measurements in [mm]:


     height x width

    point to point 


    height x width

    point to point 


    Grão Cruz    101 (sash)
    efetivo112x6473 + crown90x7676 + crown 
    honorario112x6473  + crown90x7676  + crown 
    Grande Dignitario89x5259  + crown85x7272 + crown

    60 (neck ribbon)

    since 1856 101 (sash)

    Commendador70x4146  + crown



    53  + crown

    54  + crown

    60 (neck ribbon)






    35 (brest ribbon)

    60 (neck ribbon)




    31 + crown

    38  + crown

    no star35 (breast ribbon)

    Other manufactures are:

    • da Costa, Lisbon

    • Lemaitre, Paris

    • Resse, Rio de Janeiro

    • Rothe Vienna

    Unfortunately there is no way of making the differentiation between the decorations awarded under Dom Pedro I. and Dom Pedro II. Even though the crown was different, the change was not shown in the design of the decoration. The only reliable basis is the French control mark law. French made pieces made during the regency of Dom Pedro I. show sometimes a ram (belier) mark if in gold and the hare (lievre) mark if in silver (gilt). During Pedro II's period the corresponding French marks are the eagle (aigle) and the boar (sanglier).


    Edited by lambert
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    In addition to European makers, several Brazilian jewelers besides Resse made insignia for this Order.  Various Brazilian museums offer displays concerning this Order, including the Palace at Petropolis and the Army Historical Museum at Fort Copacabana [Rio].

    Two branches of the former imperial family award this Order and other Imperial Brazilian awards.   Prince Luiz [Orleans-Braganza, so-called Vassouras branch] seems to be more active in this respect than Prince Pedro Carlos [Orleans-Braganza, so-called Petropolis branch].   Da Costa of Lisbon manufactures Rose Order insignia for these Princes.

    The Imperial Order of the Rose served as the insignia design model for current Brazilian Order of Merit.


    Edited by 922F
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    Thanks, Paul and 922F. 

    I agree it is beautiful!

    This is the lowest class model, KNIGHT probably aimed at "Voluntários da Pátria" soldiers who fought in the Paraguayan War 1864-1870
    I sought this Order for many years. it's not easy to find.



    Edited by lambert
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    I've shown this elsewhere on the forum, but couldn't resist another chance to show off my baby.  I just love this piece.  As you can see, I got it at the OMSA show in Jacksonville, Florida in 2008.  It was outrageously expensive and worth every penny.  I used to travel regularly to Brasil for business, but never saw anything like this.  Any comments on whether this is likely to be an efetivo or onorario or are the insignia the same?


    BRAZIL – Imperial Order of the Rose (Ordem Imperial da Rosa) – Grand Cross set with sash badge, silver gilt, medallions gold, both sides enameled, roses painted.  Size 48 x 78 mm without ring, two roses on reverse chipped – VF

    Star – 64 x 84 mm, both exquisite detail.  Sash is faded. 

    You'll see that the dimensions differ from Lambert's data above.  Variant from a different manufacturer, I suppose. Or perhaps it's really a Grao Dignitario. Unfortunately, I didn't look for a maker's mark before framing it.  

    BR - Rose (after)  2  .JPG

    BR - HBT Rose 1  - OMSA 08 .JPG

    BR - HBT Rose 3  - OMSA 08 .JPG

    BR - HBT Rose 2  - OMSA 08 .JPG

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    I first became aware of the Rose when we visited a museum in St. Augustine, Florida.  They were working the floral motif, with examples of the British Order of the Indian  Empire, Finland's Order of the White Rose and our very own Brazilian Rose, all of which use a rose as the central motif.  My wife, who has indulged me in these foibles for over 50 years, was captivated, and decided that we had to have one and about 10 years later, we did.  There may be other roses out there, but I don't know about them.  Any thoughts?



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    It's really hard to find, even in these conditions perfectly preserved and the Ribbon Original! It's wonderful to see this your baby ..It is a splendid set !! Worth every penny, definitely!

    the Imperial Museum (Petropolis, Rio de Janeiro) there are some exposed specimens including the order used by Emperor Pedro II



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    OK, it's confession time (and the purists are going to go bonkers).  When I got the sash, the rosette was very badly faded - to the point where the colors could no longer be distinguished.  Thanks to a dealer who shall remain nameless for his own protection, I was able to buy a length of ribbon from a Danish order which almost exactly matches the Brazilian Rose and fabricate a new rosette.  I carefully removed the old rosette and saved it, replacing it with the new version.  If I (or more likely, my heirs) sell the piece, they'll have the old rosette to accompany it, so all that has been lost is the stitching to attach it.   

    My rationale is that, as a career officer with thirty years service, I would never have appeared with the faded rosette on my uniform.  I would certainly have replaced it to assure that the order appeared "as issued".  Just as we replace old faded, or torn flags, we maintain ODM making the minimum changes to keep them in good order and appearance.    

    I'll now stand back to receive the blasts of those who think otherwise.


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    I think there is no no shame in that, after all what is a restorative work piece .. Were it otherwise never tapestries of St. Petersburg Palace jamas could be recovered. I think you did right to preserve the beauty of the Order, I would do the same! .  :)

    Unfortunately the Ribbon of my order was lost a long time, also seek a similar replacement. 



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     I was able to buy a length of ribbon from a Danish order which almost exactly matches the Brazilian Rose and fabricate a new rosette.​

    Top marks for initiative, Hugh! Google is not helping me, greatly, so, as a matter of interest, can you recall which Danish order it was, please?

    Edited by Trooper_D
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    Alas, no, but I can put you in contact with the dealer if he is still using the same email address.  Just let me know. 

    ​Thank you, Hugh. At this stage, it was purely curiosity but should that change, I will get back to you.

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    yes Paul

    I can identify some awards.

    Medal for the Surrender of Uruguayana (Medalha da Rendição de Uruguaiana), 1865


    General Medal for the Paraguayan Campaign (Medalha Geral da Campanha do Paraguai), 1870, with ribbon bar



    Medalha de campanha Uruguay 1852




    Edited by lambert
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    Hello Paul,

    Yes I agree. In the caption of the image, is called the Order of St. Benedict of Avis. and the image of the "Cross" (Portugal).
    This is the Order (Brazilian).


    So I believe that he has received the Portuguese Order (!?)




    Edited by lambert
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    • 3 months later...

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