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    1. New Classified Sales Section

      For the sale and swap of militaria

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  2. Great Britain & Commonwealth Realms

    1. Great Britain: Orders, Gallantry, Campaign Medals

      For Discussions on all aspects of British Civic Orders, Gallantry Awards, Military Campaign Medals, Long Service and Jubilee Medals (not specifically covered in Colonial or Commonwealth Sections) of the United Kingdom of Great Britain

    2. Great Britain: Militaria: Badges, Uniforms & Equipment

      For Discussions relating to all aspects of British Militaria including: Swords, Firearms, Badges, Insignia, Uniforms, Headgear, & Equipment.

    3. Great Britain: Research, Documentation & History

      For topics relating to researched medal groups, research of British/Colonial servicemen & women or items of historical military interest.

    4. Great Britain: Mervyn Mitton's British & Colonial Police Forces

      Forum dedicated to the memory of Mervyn Mitton relating to the history of the British Police & Fire Services. It includes the many Colonial Police Forces of the Empire & Commonwealth.

    5. Great Britain: Empire: Colonial Including South Africa & India: Awards, Militaria & History

      Medals, Awards, Badges, Research, Militaria and History of the Empire to include wars & campaigns in colonies that were part of the British Empire such as South Africa India & Hong Kong

    6. Commonwealth Realms: Canada, New Zealand & Australia Medals & Militaria

      For discussions relating to Medals, Awards, Uniform, Equipment & History of Canada, New Zealand & Australia

  3. Germany:

    1. Deutsche Kaiserreich: Man spricht Denglish

      Deutsch sprechendes Forum. Während aller Zeiträume der deutschen Militärgeschichte.

    2. Germany: All Eras: Signature Database

      Post images of signatures that you own so we can start a comprehensive database of German official signatures from all eras.

    3. Germany: All Eras: The Iron Cross

      All Classes of Iron Cross awarded 1815 to 1945

    4. Germany: Imperial: The Orders, Decorations and Medals of The Imperial German States

      This section if for comprehensive discussion on the Awards and Decorations of the Imperial German States.

    5. Germany: Imperial: Rick (Research) Lundstrom Forum for Documentation and Photographs

      Forum established in memory of Rick (Research) Lundstrom 1956-2013 : Imperial German historical research, documentation and photographs

    6. Germany: Imperial Uniforms, Headwear, Insignia & Personal Equipment

      Uniforms, Helmets, Headwear, Insignia, Weapons, & Personal Equipment.

    7. Germany: Weimar Republic & Deutsche Freikorps

      Militaria & History of the Deutsches Reich 1919 to 1933

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    9. Germany: Third Reich: Uniforms, Headwear, Insignia & Equipment

      Third Reich Uniforms, Helmets, Headwear, Insignia, Weapons, Belt Buckles & Personal Equipment.

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    11. Germany: Third Reich: Research, Documentation & Photographs

      Historical research, documenation and photographs

    12. Germany: Post 1945: Bundesrepublik & DDR

      West Germany BDR, East Germany DDR & Reunification Bundesrepublik

  4. Russia

    1. Russia: Imperial

      For all Militaria, Medals & Decorations relating to the Imperial Russian Court

    2. Russia: Soviet Orders, Medals & Decorations

      For all Orders, Medals & Decorations relating to the United Soviet Socialist Republic Союз Советских Социалистических Республик (CCCP)

    3. Russia: Soviet: Other Militaria

      For all Militaria, Uniforms, Headgear & Equipment relating to the Soviet Union.

    4. Russian Federation

      For all Militaria, Medals & Decorations relating to the Russian Federation

  5. European States

    1. 10,825
    2. 19,208
    3. 16,243
    4. Austro-Hungarian Empire

      For all Militaria, Orders, Medals & Decorations relating to Austria-Hungary 1867 to 1918

    5. France

      For discussions on the Awards & Militaria of the French Empires, Republics and Colonies

    6. Spain

      For all Militaria, Orders, Medals & Decorations relating to Spain including the Spanish Civil War.

    7. Turkey

      For all posts relating to Turkish Militaria & History

  6. Rest of the World: Medals & Militaria

    1. Africa

      Awards and Medals of the African Nations. Medals directly relating to Colonial Powers should be posted in the relevant country i.e. Great Britain or France etc

    2. China

      Medals and Militaria of Imperial, Nationalist and Communist Peoples Republic of China

    3. Republic of Cuba

      For all Militaria and Awards relating to the República de Cuba

    4. Middle East & Arab States

      For all Awards & Militaria relating to the Middle East & Arab States

    5. People's Republic Mongolia

      For all Militaria and Awards relating to the Бугд Найрамдах Монгол Ард Улс (Mongolian People's Republic).

    6. Japan

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    9. United States of America

      For discussions relating to Militaria, Orders, Medals Decorations and Military History of the United States of America.

    10. Rest of the World: Militaria & History

      Discusions on Militaria from around the world, not already covered in main categories.

  7. Military History by Period

    1. Napoleonic Wars

      For discussion on all aspects of the period between 1750-1815 including the Seven Years War, American War of Independence, Napoleonic Wars and War of 1812.

    2. The Great War 1914 to 1918

      For discussions relating to the military history of The Great War.

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      For discussions relating to Post WWII Conflict and War. Including Korea, Vietnam, Malaya, Oman, The Balkans and Northern Ireland. It includes current ongoing Conflicts and War Zones. i.e. Iraq & Afghanastan.

  8. Special Interest Section

    1. Document Archive Support

      Discussion links to articles and files uploaded

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    3. Inter-Allied Victory Medals of the Great War

      Victory Medals of the allied countries of World War I

    4. Masonic Medals & Jewels

      For discussions relating to Masonic Medals & Jewels.

    5. Coins & Commemorative Medallions

      This section is for the subject of MILITARY related coins and medallions.

    6. Preservation & Restoration of Military Artifacts

      Need to know the correct way to preserve or restore items in your collection. Look no further.

    7. Military Art

      Discussions for the artistic amongst us. Covers paintings, drawing, photography and modelling.

    8. Non Military Collectibles & Antiques

      What else do you collect?

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  9. Members Area

    1. Members Valuation and Identification Forum (CLOSED)

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  • Posts

    • Prussian Army and German navy officers normally worked their way up the Red Eagle / Crown Order ladder during their careers. Typically, the first award was the RAO4. The KO4 was a less common award for junior officers usually for specific actions while the RAO4 came after a period of long and meritorious service. The next step was receipt of the KO3.  An officer could wear both the RAO4 and the KO3. Next was the award of the RAO3. The RAO3 was awarded with the Schleife if one already had the RAO4, which was almost always the case with Prussian and naval officers, and the RAO4 was returned. The officer would then wear both the RAO3S and KO3.  The next step would be award of the KO2. In this case, the KO3 would be returned. So when you see a medal bar with only the RAO3S (without the crown or swords) and no Crown Order, you can surmise that it belonged to an Oberst/Kapitän zur See or Generalmajor/Konteradmiral who wore the KO2 around the neck. If you look at the 1914 rank list, you will see the RAO3S/KO2 combination from Konteradmiral Wurmbach through Kapitän z.S. Höpfner.  The next step was award of the RAO2. As with the Schleife for the RAO3, an officer who previously had the RAO3 would receive the RAO2 with oakleaves (RAO2E), and the RAO3S would be returned.  Again if you look at the 1914 rank list, you will see the RAO2E/KO2 combination from Konteradmiral Hipper to Konteradmiral Schrader.  In these cases, the officer wore both his Red Eagle and Crown around the neck, and no Red Eagle or Crown order on the medal bar, except for awards with the crown or swords. The next step was award of the Star to the KO2.  Again going to the rank list, you will see the RAO2E/KO2mSt combination from Vizeadmiral Gerdes through Konteradmiral Trummler. The next step was award of the Star to the RAO2E. You will see the RAO2EmSt/KO2mSt combination with VIzeadmirale Grapow, Bachmann, v. Krosigk and v. Dambrowski. Nothing had to be returned at these steps because they just added a breast star to the existing awards.   The next step normally was award of the KO1, in which case the KO2mSt was returned. And then normally would come the RAO1, in which case the RAO2EmSt was returned. And then the Grand Cross of the RAO. As I mentioned above, the exception to the return policy for the lower grades was if they were awarded with special devices. An award of any class of the Red Eagle with the royal crown usually indicated an award for specific merit rather than just long service, and the officer continued to wear it even when he received a higher class. An award of any class of the Red Eagle or Crown Order with swords was worn even when a higher class was awarded, with the provision for "Swords on Ring" as well.  As one example, look at Admiral v. Pohl in the 1914 rank list. He had the RAO3SXKr, which he continued to wear after receiving the 2nd class because of the crown and swords. His RAO2E was with swords on ring, but he also had the royal crown to it. So when he received the RAO1E with swords on ring, he kept the RAO2EKrXaR as well. Pohl's Crown Order 2nd Class was also with swords, so he kept that even when he got the Star to the KO2 and later the KO1 with swords on ring. There might be some exceptions I am missing. I can't remember what the regulations were if you had the KO4X and KO3X, for example. But these are the general guidelines for senior officers working their way up the Read Eagle/Crown Order ladder. And, yes, I assume the Olympia-Ehrenzeichen was posthumous. There were over 500 awards of the 2nd class that day, so it probably had taken a while to process them.
    • Thank you very much Dave. I don't quite understand the part about RAO4 and KO3. Why did he have to return the awards to the State? To me that doesn't make sense. Could you explain this practice in more detail? The 1st class of the Turkish award should be the Medal in Gold. Thank for that information about the Orden der Eisernen Krone 2. Klasse mit der Kriegsdekoration. The 2nd Class was worn around the neck, that means he didn't mount it on the photos above. He only mounted the 3rd Class on the medal bar. So the Olympia-Ehrenzeichen 2. Klasse was awarded posthumously? Because he died on 04.01.1937
    • Hi, Regarding a newspaper article I had listed previously................. ''The newspaper article from June of 1888 which stated that Scotland Yard detectives had arrested two notorious American burglars at the Café Monaco, in London, on behalf of the German Empire. The two criminals were to face extradition back to German on the charges of stealing £30,00 from a Munich jewellery shop.'' It is interesting to note the Detectives involved were  Herman Bulterman, Alfred Leach, Fank Froest and White [unknown]. If Herman Bulterman had not died when he was only 40 years old, I believe, he may have attained a much higher rank as his service progressed. Alfred Leach, warrant number 58059, joined the Metropolitan Police on the 20th of July in 1874. Retired on pension on the 1st of January in 1908 as a Superintendent in the C.I.D. [C.O./Commissioner's Office] at Scotland Yard. Frank Castle Froest, joined 17th of March in 1879 and retired on pension on the 1st of October in 1912. On retirement his rank was that of Superintendent in the C.I.D. [C.O./Commissioner's Office] at Scotland Yard.  Frank Castle Froest [1858-1930], a British Detective and Crime writer. A journalist once described Frank Froest as being, ''short, thick-set, full-faced and when in uniform looked more like a Prussian Field-Marshal than anything else. Out of uniform he was always immaculate in a silk hat, patent leather boots and carrying a carefully rolled umbrella.'' He was known to be extremely strong and in retirement also became an author. There is lots of information about him on the internet. So Herman Hendrik Bulterman was in some very fine company in 1888.       
    • This is definitely something you don´t see often.  Not often. never.  Is this medal in your possession?
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