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Prussian Army and German navy officers normally worked their way up the Red Eagle / Crown Order ladder during their careers. Typically, the first award was the RAO4. The KO4 was a less common award for junior officers usually for specific actions while the RAO4 came after a period of long and meritorious service. The next step was receipt of the KO3. An officer could wear both the RAO4 and the KO3. Next was the award of the RAO3. The RAO3 was awarded with the Schleife if one already had the RAO4, which was almost always the case with Prussian and naval officers, and the RAO4 was returned. The officer would then wear both the RAO3S and KO3.
The next step would be award of the KO2. In this case, the KO3 would be returned. So when you see a medal bar with only the RAO3S (without the crown or swords) and no Crown Order, you can surmise that it belonged to an Oberst/Kapitän zur See or Generalmajor/Konteradmiral who wore the KO2 around the neck. If you look at the 1914 rank list, you will see the RAO3S/KO2 combination from Konteradmiral Wurmbach through Kapitän z.S. Höpfner.
The next step was award of the RAO2. As with the Schleife for the RAO3, an officer who previously had the RAO3 would receive the RAO2 with oakleaves (RAO2E), and the RAO3S would be returned. Again if you look at the 1914 rank list, you will see the RAO2E/KO2 combination from Konteradmiral Hipper to Konteradmiral Schrader. In these cases, the officer wore both his Red Eagle and Crown around the neck, and no Red Eagle or Crown order on the medal bar, except for awards with the crown or swords.
The next step was award of the Star to the KO2. Again going to the rank list, you will see the RAO2E/KO2mSt combination from Vizeadmiral Gerdes through Konteradmiral Trummler. The next step was award of the Star to the RAO2E. You will see the RAO2EmSt/KO2mSt combination with VIzeadmirale Grapow, Bachmann, v. Krosigk and v. Dambrowski. Nothing had to be returned at these steps because they just added a breast star to the existing awards.
The next step normally was award of the KO1, in which case the KO2mSt was returned. And then normally would come the RAO1, in which case the RAO2EmSt was returned. And then the Grand Cross of the RAO.
As I mentioned above, the exception to the return policy for the lower grades was if they were awarded with special devices. An award of any class of the Red Eagle with the royal crown usually indicated an award for specific merit rather than just long service, and the officer continued to wear it even when he received a higher class. An award of any class of the Red Eagle or Crown Order with swords was worn even when a higher class was awarded, with the provision for "Swords on Ring" as well.
As one example, look at Admiral v. Pohl in the 1914 rank list. He had the RAO3SXKr, which he continued to wear after receiving the 2nd class because of the crown and swords. His RAO2E was with swords on ring, but he also had the royal crown to it. So when he received the RAO1E with swords on ring, he kept the RAO2EKrXaR as well. Pohl's Crown Order 2nd Class was also with swords, so he kept that even when he got the Star to the KO2 and later the KO1 with swords on ring.
There might be some exceptions I am missing. I can't remember what the regulations were if you had the KO4X and KO3X, for example. But these are the general guidelines for senior officers working their way up the Read Eagle/Crown Order ladder.
And, yes, I assume the Olympia-Ehrenzeichen was posthumous. There were over 500 awards of the 2nd class that day, so it probably had taken a while to process them.
Thank you very much Dave. I don't quite understand the part about RAO4 and KO3. Why did he have to return the awards to the State? To me that doesn't make sense. Could you explain this practice in more detail?
The 1st class of the Turkish award should be the Medal in Gold.
Thank for that information about the Orden der Eisernen Krone 2. Klasse mit der Kriegsdekoration. The 2nd Class was worn around the neck, that means he didn't mount it on the photos above. He only mounted the 3rd Class on the medal bar.
So the Olympia-Ehrenzeichen 2. Klasse was awarded posthumously? Because he died on 04.01.1937
Regarding a newspaper article I had listed previously.................
''The newspaper article from June of 1888 which stated that Scotland Yard detectives had arrested two notorious American burglars at the Café Monaco, in London, on behalf of the German Empire. The two criminals were to face extradition back to German on the charges of stealing £30,00 from a Munich jewellery shop.''
It is interesting to note the Detectives involved were Herman Bulterman, Alfred Leach, Fank Froest and White [unknown].
If Herman Bulterman had not died when he was only 40 years old, I believe, he may have attained a much higher rank as his service progressed.
Alfred Leach, warrant number 58059, joined the Metropolitan Police on the 20th of July in 1874. Retired on pension on the 1st of January in 1908 as a Superintendent in the C.I.D. [C.O./Commissioner's Office] at Scotland Yard.
Frank Castle Froest, joined 17th of March in 1879 and retired on pension on the 1st of October in 1912. On retirement his rank was that of Superintendent in the C.I.D. [C.O./Commissioner's Office] at Scotland Yard.
Frank Castle Froest [1858-1930], a British Detective and Crime writer.
A journalist once described Frank Froest as being, ''short, thick-set, full-faced and when in uniform looked more like a Prussian Field-Marshal than anything else. Out of uniform he was always immaculate in a silk hat, patent leather boots and carrying a carefully rolled umbrella.''
He was known to be extremely strong and in retirement also became an author. There is lots of information about him on the internet.
So Herman Hendrik Bulterman was in some very fine company in 1888.