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      Forum established in memory of Rick (Research) Lundstrom 1956-2013 : Imperial German historical research, documentation and photographs

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  • Posts

    • I missed the editing window in relation to the last miniature of the Jordanian Hashemite Kingdom Order of Independence shown above on my 2nd post of 17 November, 2018. The catalog identified this medal set as a "Commander's Set", however this 2nd Class award would be that of the Grand Officer. The salon  on the ribbon with gold on the L and silver on the R is the correct configuration for the Grand Officer, 2nd Class of this award. 
    • Lmaas1, you are most welcome, it's a pleasure to discuss some of these issues from my professional work here on GMIC. Nocks are sometimes cut off or trimmed if they became damaged. Additionally, even without a nock plug, folks may not carve a groove in the nock, but they may develop one from use and wear on the string. All of the nock ends of the arrows I illustrated in the 3rd photo of my post of 10 January 2018 on the "South American bows and arrows " thread to show the different fletching are flat, reinforced nocks that may develop a groove from the bowstring but do not have any carved into the mainsheet. Some museum examples from the River Pumé (who live along major drainages of the Orinoco and are not mobile foragers like the Savanna Pumé and grow a variety of crops) that I have examined exhibit wooden nock plugs, so there can be significant variation even within one ethnicity.  The lanceolate arrows would be used for larger game, and that is dependent on the geographical area of course. Let's continue to work with the idea that these may be South American arrows. The folks I work with in Venezuela have a very impoverished fauna, that kind of open savanna is associated with low soil fertility and the low underbrush cover that has a negative relationship on animal density & diversity. The Pumé rely on small body sized animals for 87% of all captured game in the wet season when they focus on terrestrial hunting for their protein (In the dry season they shift to fishing), principally using the same fishing arrows to catch those animals. 3 species; armadillos (max 900 g), tegu lizards(~700-900 g), and small 100 g lizards were 87% of all hunting captures in my quantified data. Any animal that was 6 kg or larger was shared with the entire camp of ~63 people (including children). I've seen them use lanceolate points to hunt anteaters and deer, caimans  are captured with a harpoon & dispatch with a machete. For many S. American indigenous groups, they don't even bother spending time pursuing animals that are just 6 kgs, unless it is late in the day and they are unlikely to encounter additional game. For the Pumé, "large game" includes lesser anteaters (~ 6 kg), caimans (up to 60 kg), giant anteaters (~35 kg, I have been on trips when we found sign of these but I've never seen one killed), capybara (~50 kg), pacas & agoutis (max 10kg, I've been on trips where we encounter them but didn't capture any), peccaries (20-35 kg, I've seen sign but never encountered any); tapir (up to 200 kg, I've never seen them in the wild and only eaten tapir at a criollo's house once),  and deer (brocket =mx30 kg; white tail=50-120 kg). An inventory of all the larger game (6 kg or larger) that came into camp over a 24-month period included 2 deer, 1 capybara, 6 lesser anteaters, and 7 caimans. Most South American groups are forest dwellers, and long, barbed monkey arrows are common for those animals. Large game for most S. American indigenous groups in forests includes deer (brocket & white tail); tapir; peccaries (collared & white-lipped); caimans, pacas & agoutis, giant armadillos, some groups may eat giant otters, a few groups will eat anacondas.  Very few traditional folk do any kinds of target practice. That is why I posted the unusual images of boys doing target practice in the first 4 photos of my post of 9 March, 2018 on the "South American bows and arrows" thread. Those were the only 2 such events I have witnessed in over 30 months of fieldwork with the Pumé. Warfare is common only among a few groups in South America. Some groups, such as the well-known bellicose Yanomami will use their large, lanceolate points (made from a kind of bamboo) that are their large game arrows in ambush raids to shoot people. Many groups (such as the formerly more belligerent Guahiboan group of Colombia and Venezuela that surround the Pumé) would make specialized war arrows with a series of scary barbs proximal to the main lanceolate point (especially in hardwood) to make them cause more damaging woulds and be very difficult to remove.   Pumé man cutting a proximal barb into a point using a hammer to strike the point on an axe head blade (sunk in the sand). The point is made from a nail that has been heated in the fire in front of him and hammered square and the ends thinned using the hammer and the fact side of the axe head as an anvil. This barb will resemble that in Lmaas1's arrow shown 2nd from the L in the 3rd photo posted on 9 October, expect that the barb will be more distal on the point (see my examples in the "South American bows & arrows" thread).  Pumé man twisting wild bromelia fiber into winding for arrow manufacture in 1990. There is a fletching feather stuck in the ground in front of him (an anhinga tail feather) that he will use for tangential fletching of this arrow (the arrowcane is seen just to the R of the man, partially covered by a cloth bag that contains his arrow making gear and an hallucinogenic snuff taking kit). The discoloration of his hands and arms is an innocuous condition cause by a spirochete. All the heat he needs for arrow manufacture is represented in the 4 sticks at the extreme L of the photo.  Same Pumé man in 1990 heating the nock end of the arrow (the narrow, distal-most portion of the arrowcane) in order to rub it with a stick of resin (the balks lump just to the viewer's R of his L knee on the sitting mat) so that he can attach the fletching and wind the nock. The 2 small "sticks" to the R of the resin are trimmed segments of arrowcane that are chewed to flatten them and are held together like tongs to rolls the windings with in order crush the bromeliad fiber windings and make them adhere well to the mainshaft, and also to rub the heated resin into the windings and furthersecure the windings.   The same Pumé man in a different arrow making bout in 1993 trimming the foreshaft/mainshaft link with a knife (the foreshaft and point are visible to the R of his hands). A small skein of bromeliad fiber can be seen on top of the same red & blue cloth bag in front of him holding his arrow making gear and hallucinogenic snuff kit. The resin is seen just in front of his R knee, and one of the two small pieces of cane used to roll the windings is visible touching his R knee. Next to his R leg is some of the bromeliad fiber, pulled out of the skein to use in the various arrow making windings.  Pumé man repairing a bent point that also broke the foreshaft out of the mainsheet during the first attempts to capture this caiman, using the back of a knife and using the caiman snout as an anvil (out in the field during an overnight hunting trip in 1992). His bows and arrows are at the left in the image, and the proximal ends of another man's arrows can be seen in just the lowermost left corner of the image. The wooden pole in the front of the man is the caiman harpoon, the cordage (see the harpoon point & line used for this hunt in my 4th image on the post of 10 January, 2018 on the South American bows and arrows thread) can be seen tied along the length of the harpoon haft. There is a bird just in front of my yellow data notebook next to my camera case, and an extra length of cord in front of the bird that was brought along to tie game for the return to the residential camp. 
    • I just noticed a small mistake when George Keay joined the City of London Police on the 7th of April in 1881 he was 21 years and 1 month old so his birth was 1860/61 and his employment dates with the chemist would be slight earlier. That's what I get for doing things later at night. Alan.
    • Hello, Police Constable 821 George Keay, City of London Police. The reason I have added Police Constable 821 George Keay's story to the thread relating to Police Constable 881 Edward Watkins is because they both served in the City of London Police during approximately the same period and both were awarded the Queen Victorian City of London Jubilee Police medal for 1887 with the 1897 Jubilee clasp. Obviously, Edward Watkins had recently retired from the City of London Police before the 1897 Jubilee Parade through London but the City of London Police and the Metropolitan Police had to temporary re-employ many ex-policemen to supervise and organise this huge event and since Edward Watkins was considered to have been a very good Police Constable, actually completed his pensionable engagement, was quite famous at the time and resided in the area, he would have probably been at the top of the list for re-employment. Police Constable 821 George Keay's medal, is one of the medals, I used to compare to Police Constable 881 Edward Watkins medal. Police Constable 821 George Keay's service with the City of London Police is extremely well evidenced and documented. His personal City of London Police file is available through the London Metropolitan Archives and there is also his original discharge certificate which has survived.   George Keay was born in Cheshunt, in Hertfordshire, in 1863. George must have been quite a bright boy because at the age of 14 he was employed by a Mr Peter L. Blackmode [Chemist] as a chemist's assistant from 1877 to 1881. George Keay joined the City of London Police on the 7th of April in 1881 and on a rate of pay of 25 shillings per week. [warrant number 5440] Unfortunately, on the 20th of January in 1885, Police Constable George Keay was found in a Public House whilst on duty and on plain clothes assignment but was admonished with no further action being taken. By the 28th of October in 1886, Police Constable 821 George Keay had achieved the rate of pay for a first class constable of thirty one shilling and six pence per week. On the 14th of June in 1890 George Keay marries Mary Ellen O'Reilly at, 'The Church Most Holy Trinity,' in Bermondsey, in Surrey. They were both from the Catholic religion which is relevant later in the story. Unfortunately, on the 20th of December in 1890, Police Constable 821 George Keay was found guilty of neglecting to report the loss of his helmet and cape and was reduced to 2nd class rate of pay for a period of 6 months. Now to push on.......Police Constable 821 George Keay was obviously a good, solid and reliable Police Constable because when he retired on the 18th of October in 1906 his conduct was classed as, 'very good.' What makes this medal even more special is the other items that belonged to George Keay and which have survived the decades. There is his City of London Police whistle.There are two Catholic religious medals. There is his, 'Key of Heaven Prayer Book' which must have been well used as it has loose pages and is well worn. But the most important item of all and which is extremely rare is Police Constable 821George Keay's ''Discharge Certificate'' from the City of London Police. This vellum document is still enclosed in its original envelope which is approximately eight and a half inches long by one and a half inches wide. It is in extremely nice condition and almost certainly spent most of the time enclosed in the envelope. The document is probably one of the reasons why the different items belonging to Police Constable 821 George Keay have remained together. The point of this story is that when comparing one medal to another ie engraving, patina etc then the comparing/evidencing medals should be of the highest quality possible. regards, Alan.   
    • Hi Uffz. Rohleder and Gents,   First Sir, I read your post about your fight with your health and I wish you all the strength you need. Best wishes from all of us. ———- I remember, back in the 70’s, an Austrian uncle who lived in the US, sent a picture to my Sister who loved ‘ Starsky and Hutch ‘ Not a picture of hermann I admit, it was a signed picture  of David Soul, (Hutch) it was pasted to a ‘chopping block’ of wood, about A4 size and an inch thick. ...with that in mind My thought is that perhaps this is a picture attached to the wood? The crazing on the image itself reminds me of hand coloured CDV.... The description says only “print on board” I think perhaps it is a’ print on board ‘ attached to wood block so would be a gamble i suppose? cheers tony    
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